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Full text of "History of Caldwell and Livingston counties, Missouri, written and compiled from the most authentic official and private sources, including a history of their townships, towns and villages, together with a condensed history of Missouri; a reliable and detailed history of Caldwell and Livingston counties--their pioneer record, resources, biographical sketches of prominent citizens; general and local statistics of great value; incidents and reminiscences"

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Caldwell and Livingston Counties, 









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Entered according to Act of Congress in the year 1885, by 

In the office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington. 

• • • 

• • • • » 

• St. Louis, Mo: 

BeckioUl ^- Cor;-Jiook- Hinders. 


The work of compiling and pul)lishing the History of Ciildwell and 
Livingston Counties and bringing it before the people in its present 
form has been protracted over a period of nearly one year. Numer- 
ous difficulties have beset both compiler and publishers, however, and 
the work has not been as thoroughly well done, as it would seem it 
should have been. 

The destruction of the Caldwell County records, in 1860; the dis- 
appearance of nearly every one of the early settlers of that county; 
the long distance between Missouri and Utah, to which latter territory 
the Mormon settlers ultimately removed ; the almost total absence of 
publications and official records pertaining to the history of the county 
in the early periods of its existence, made the work of obtaining data 
and material relative to Caldwell extremely difficult. 

In Livingston county there are some of the first settlers remaining 
and the county records are nearly complete. Yet the work of com- 
piling its history has not been facilitated, but on the contrary greatly 
embarrassed. The memories of the venerable pioneers are uncertain 
and variable after the lapse of so many years, and seldom agree and 
often are in conflict with the records. Names, dates, and details as 
obtained from different sources present nothing like harmony in many 
instances, but the greatest confusion. In some cases the painful alter- 
native of rejecting statements altogether has been deemed necessary ; 
in others it was impossible to decide what was correct. 

Yet, generally speaking, the book is what the people of the two 
counties have made it. But for their co-operation it never would or 
could have been written. It is they who have dictated, virtually, 
what is printed in it, by furnishing chiefly the data and details. If 
there are mistakes of fact it is they who are jointly responsible with 
the publishers. Their personal histories, what they and their ances- 
tors and descendants have wrought, their adventures and experiences, 
are here set forth upon the authority of their statements in great part. 

True, all previous publications and all accessible written records 
pertaining to the histories of the two counties have been drawn upon, 
but evervthing has been made to receive the corroboration of liviui? 



witnesses when at till practicable. Much information has been re- 
ceived by letter from former residents of the counties. 

The numerous biographical sketches constitute a prominent feature 
of the book. Here are the personal histories of individuals, rarely to 
be found elsewhere, and which will be read with interest not only now 
but in after years. These sketches have been carefully written, and 
in most instances revised by the subjects themselves. 

Certainly no pains have been spared to make the volume what it 
was promised it should be. Its publication has been long delayed in 
order that it might be as nearly as possible in all respects a valuable, 
accurate and interesting history. On careful examination it is con- 
fidently believed that while it will be deemed to be far from perfect, 
it will be found to contain much more than was promised. No one 
who will peruse it thoroughly can fail to obtain a satisfactory know- 
ledge of the general history of the tw^o counties, which is the prime 
object of its publication. 

The obligations of the publishers to the people for information fur- 
nished and assistance rendered are so many and so great that no at- 
tempt will be made to discharge them ; their general acknow^ledgment 
must suffice. The old settlers, the county and municipal officials, 
editors of newspapers, secretaries and custodians of the records of so- 
cieties and institutions, and many citizens have all contributed assist- 
ance To mention each one by name would be a voluminous task ; 
yet the general compiler must acknowledge his great obligation to 
Rev. F. D. Richards, of Salt Lake City, the church historian of the 
Latter Da}' Saints (or Mormons), for his valuable assistance in fur- 
nishing documentary and testamentary information pertaining to the 
Mormon occupation of Caldwell county. 

Having so far as it was possible accomplished the work to which our 
continuous time has been given during the past ten months, and in 
the hope that a cordial welcome and generous approval may be ac- 
corded this volume, the same is respectfully submitted. 





Louisiana Purchase 1-7 


Descriptive and Geographical 7-13 


Geology of Missouri 13-21 


Title and Early Settlements 21-27 



Territorial Organization 27-31 


Application of Missouri to be admitted into the Union 31-37 


Missouri as a State 37-43 


Civil War in Missouri 43-53 


Early Military Record 53-59 


Agriculture and Material Wealth 59-65 




Education 65-73 


Religious Deuominations 73-79 


Administration of Governor Crittenden 79-85 




General Description — Topograpliy, Streams, and Economic Geology — Agriculture — 
Stock, etc. — First Settlers and Settlements — Jesse Mann, Sr., John Raglan, Ben 
Lovell, Jesse Mann, Jr., and other Early Settlers — Pioneer Life — The Prairies — 
First Crops Raised — Game and Wild Animals — The " Firsts " — Pioneer Mills — 
Early Political History — When Caldwell Formed a Portion of Ray — Organiza- 
tion — The Organizing Act — For Whom the County was Named . . 87-106 



Brief History of Mormonism — The Mormon Bible — Early History of the Mormons 
in New York and Ohio — Emigration to .Jackson county, Mo. — Troubles with the 
"Gentile" Citizens — The Mormons Mobbed and Persecuted — Kxpulsiou from 
Jackson County — Settlements in Ray and Clay — The " Mormon Problem " Solved — 
Caldwell County Created for the Exclusive Benefit of the " Saints " — They Move Up 
and Take Possession — Settlements Elsewhere — Character of the Settlers in Cald- 
well —Troubles in the Church —Far West— Salem 10(3-124 



Origin of the War — The First Blood is Shed in Daviess County— The Troubles in that 
County and Elsewhere — The Mormons Call Out Their Troops — Capt. '• Fear Not " 
and His Company of " United Brothers of Gideon" — The Fight on Crooked River 
Between Capt. Patton and His " Dauilos," anil Capt. Saml. Bogart and His Com-* 
pany of "Tigers" — Gov. Boggs Calls Out the Militia of the State Against the 
Mormons — Gens. Atchison, Lucas, Doniphan and Other Commanders Take the 
Field — Gen. Lucas Moves Upon and Captures Far West and 600 Prisoners — Term's 


of the Surrender — Full Details — Gen. Lucas Returns Home and Gen. John B. 
Clark Assumes Command — Gen. Clark's Speech — Suffering of the Mormons — 
They are Expelled from the County and from the State in Mid-winter . 124-145 



Full and Authentic Details of this Terrible Tragedy — Sworn Statements of Some of 
Those Who Were Present — The Names of All of the Killed and Wounded — Subse- 
quent Experiences of Some of the Survivors, etc., etc 145-lGO 



The Black Hawk War — The " Heatherly War " — Mormon Claims — Dissenting Mor- 
mons — A Land Shark — Reminiscences of an Old Settler — Miscellaneous Inci- 
dents — Two Noted Tragedies of Early Times — Building of the Hannibal and St. 
Joseph Railroad - The " Yankees " — Murder of Samuel Stonum . . 160-171 



The Elections of 1860 — Election of Delegates to the State Convention of 1861 — The 
Caldwell County Beacon — Beginning of the Civil War — Secession Flags — Col. 
Jeff. Thompson's "Order No. 1."— The "Caldwell Minute Men" — The Union 
Home Guards — Their Part in the Battle of Blue Mills Landing — Roll of Capt. 
Johnson's Company of Home Guards — Mulligan's Men — Maj. James' Fifth Bat- 
talion — The " Cornstalk Fight " — A Rebel Raid from Ray — Killing of Judge James 
Steele. 1862 — Organization of Col. Catherwood's 6th Cavalry, M. S. M. — The 
Enrolled Militia — During the Poindexter Raid — The Tragedies on the Crab 
Apple — Killing of Capt. S. M. Longford by the Rebels, and of Four "Rebel Sym- 
pathizers," Three Out of One Family, by the Militia — House Burning, etc. — The 
Meaning of Civil War 171-192 



EVENTS OF 1863-1864, 

Miscellaneous Events in 1863 — Miscellaneous Events in 1864 — The Rebel Raid of 
Thrailkill and Taylor — Full Details and Particulars — The County Treasury 
Robbery — The 44th Missouri Infantry — Some Tragedies of the War — Killing of 
Certain Alleged Rebel Sympathizers, John C. Myers, Rev. Frazee, R. S. McBeath, 
Absalom Harpold, H. D. Whiteneck, and Henry Gist 192-222 



The New County Seat Scheme — Railroad Subscriptions to the Chicago and Southwest- 
ern and to the Northwestern Branch of the Tebo and Neosho Railroad — Opinion of 
Hon. Willard P. Hall as to the Validity of the Latter — The Grangers — Notable 
Tragedies in the County since 1865 — Killing of Robert Bradley, Lou Marley, James 
R. Rogers, Pete Lewis, Sam Rogers, George Bohannan, Nathan B. Middaugh, Peter 
L. Boulton, John Q. Gray and Isaac N. Hemry 222-241 




Elections since 1865 — Census Statistics of the County — Property Assessments Since 
1865 — Abstract of County Expenditures for 1884 — Assessed Valuation of the 
County in 1884 for the Taxes of 1885- The Public Property of the County — Court 
Houses, Jail and Poor Farm 241-255 



Position and' Description — Streams — Stone — Coal — Early History — First Land 
Entries — Organization — General History of the Town of Kingston — Incorpora- 
tion — Present Situation — Churches — Secret Orders — Biographical . 255-314 



Position and General Description — Early History — First Land Owners Before the 
Mormons — The Mormon Settlements — Early Gentile Settlers — Items — Official 
History — The Village of Mirabile — General Historical Sketch — Churches — 
Secret Orders — Cornet Band — Biographical 314-341 



General Description — Origin of the Name of Poor Tom Creek — Coal — The Hamilton 
Coal Company's Works — Early Settlement — First Land Entries — Organization — 
The City of Hamilton — General Historical Sketch — The "Firsts" — Miscel- 
laneous — Incorporations — Churches — Secret Orders — District Fair Associa- 
tion — Biographical 341-426 



General Description — Early History — First Land Entries — Organization — The 
Town of Nettletou 426-444 



Position and General Description— Mineral Springs — Early Settlers — First Land 
Entries — Tragedies of the Civil war — Killing of George Irvin — Wm. Hawks — 
Organization — Historical Sketch of Bonanza and Its Spring — Church Organiza- 
tions 444-476 




Description — Streams — Early History — First Land Entries — Wliite's and Haun's 
Mills — First Scliools and Churches — Rev. Witteu's Experience — Items — Organ- 
ization — Villages, Procterville and Catawba — Procterville M. E. Church — Bio- 
graphical 476-512 



Description — Streams — The Flat Rock Ford — A Pre-historic Indian Battle — Early 
History — First Land Entries — First Settlers After the Mormons — Items — 
Organization — Christian Union Church — Biographical . . . . 512-525 



Position and Description — Early Settlers — First Land Entries — Miscellaneous — 
Glassville — Country Churches — Biographical 525-550 



Description — First Settlements — First Land Entries — The Yankees — Oi'ganiza- 
tion — Sketch of M. E. Church at Barwick Chapel — The Town of Kidder — Con- 
gregational Church — Historical Sketch of Kidder Institute — Biographical 550-587 



Position and Description — Economic Geology — Coal — Early History, First Settle 
ments, First Land Entries, etc. — Settlements by the Davises and Others After 
1840 — Organization — Black Oak — Biographical 587-614 



Description — Principal Physical Features — First Settlements — First Land En- 
tries — Organization — Polo — County Churches of Grant Township — Bio- 
graphical • 614-635 



General Description, Physical Features, etc. — Pioneer History — First Land En- 
tries—After the Mormons — Organization — The Town of Breckinridge — Early 
History — First Lot Sales, etc. — lu War Times — The Adventure and Death of 
George Crews and Tom Peery — After the War — Institutions of Breckinridge — 
Newspapers — Public Schools — Churches — Biographical .... 635-672 





General Description — Topography — Timber aud Prairie — Streams — Description 
and Historical Mention of Grand River — Economic Geology — Coal — Gravel — 
Building Stone — General Description of- the Soil — Statistics of Population — 
Voters — Abstracts of Recent Assessments — Schools — Manufacturing Establish- 
ments — Banks, Etc 673-685 



The First Caucasians — The Early French Occupation — The French Hunters, or 
"Chasseurs du Bois^^ — Daniel Boone — The Fi'ench Traders, Blondeau and 
Chouteau — Robidoux's Post — Early Indian Alarms — The "Big Neck" and 
Black Hawk Wars — Martin Palmer, the First American Settler in the Grand 
River Valley — Other Early Settlements — First Settlement of Livingston — The 
Indians — Organization of the County 685-696 



First County Courts — Early Elections, Etc. — First Circuit Courts — During the 
Mormon War — The First Court-House — Second Court-House — First Bridges, Fer- 
ries, Stores, Physicians, etc. — Early Marriages — Improving the Wilderness — The 
Famous " Ileatherly War " 696-714 



Census of 1840 — The Political Canvass of 1840; the "Log Cabin and Hard Cider" 
Campaign — Hard Times — Polk and Clay in 1844 ^Livingston County Soldiers in 
the Mexican War — Detailed Account of their Services — Roster of Co. L, 2d Mis- 
souri Mounted Rifles — Old Militia Master 714-731 


FROM 1850 TO 1861. 

The California "Gold Fever" — First Ilomicidi!; Killing of Benj. Collins by Joseph 
Slagle— Politics and Politicians— The " Know Nothings" —Building of the Han- 
nibal and St. .Jo.seph Railroad — Sketch of the Institution of Slavery — The Political 
Campaigns of 1860 — After the Election of Lincoln— The Case of Rev. J. E. 
Gardner 731-751 




The Missouri Legislature of 1861 — Election of Delegates to the State Convention 
Called to Consider the Question of Secession — Up to the Firing on Sumter — 
After —Preparing to Fight — Gen. Slack's Cannon — The Missouri State Guards — 
The Federal Troops Appear— The Secession Forces Disappear — Federal Military 
Movements — Trouble in "The Forks" — The Skirmish at Hale's Branch, Etc. — 
First Union Military Companies Raised in the County — The Home Guards, "Mer- 
rill's Horse," the 23d Missouri, Etc. — Lewis Best's Exploit— "Prentiss' Pets " — 
Three Noted Tragedies in 1861 — Killing of Kirk and Curtis — Murder of Wm. 
Avery — The McWilliams and Snead Tragedies ...... 751-775 



The 1st and 3d Regiments M. S. M. — Assassination of Col. Wm. 0. Jennings — The 
Attack on the Medicine Creek Bridge — Poindexter's Raid — The Fate of Some 
Confederate Partisans — Joe Kirk and his Operations — Organization of the En- 
rolled Militia — List of the " Disloyal " — First Emancipation Meeting . 775-791 



Murder of Wm. P. Frazer — Killing of Joe Hart — The "Radicals" and the "Con- 
servatives" — 1864 — Miscellaneous — Markets in 1864 — County Court in War 
Times — Elections during the War 795-810 



Adoption of the Drake Constitution — The Third Section of the Drake Constitu- 
tion — November Election, 1866 — The Presidential Election of 1868 — The 
Political Canvass and Election of 1870 — The Presidential Election of 1872 — 
Election April 29, 1873 — The "Tadpole" Campaign — Special Election in 
1875 — Presidential Election 1876 — 1878 — 1880 — 1882 — 1884 . . . 810-829 



Murder of James Gordon — Miscellaneous Cases of Homicide, Including D. Morrison, 
Festus Joyce, Geo. Cross, "Nigger Sam," Thos. M. Boyles, Thos. K. Conn and 
Thos. Florence — The Case of Wm. Curtis, — Killing of Henry Gamble — Newton 
J. Eads — Green Shepherd — The Attempted Robbery of the People's Bank and 
Death of Smith Rambo — Miscellaneous Tragedies and Casualties — Suicides — 
Killed by the Railroads 829-842 




Historical Sketch of the Hannibal and St. Joseph Railroad — The Charter — The First 
Great Railroad Convention at Chiilicoihe in June, 1847 — What the County did in 
Aid of the Road — Complete Sketch of the Road until the Present —General His- 
tory of the Wabash, St. Louis and Paciflc Railroad— Other Projected Roads which 
were never Built — The " Chillicothe and Des Moines" Railroad — The "Chicago 
and Southwestern" Railroad — The " Ottumwa, Chillicothe and Lexington" Rail- 
road, the " Utica and Lexington" Railroad, the "Chicago, Burlington andQuincy 
Extension"— The Milwaukee and St. Paul Railroad 842-859 



Position and Description — County Schools — First Settlers and First Land Entries — 
Organization — Sl^etch of the Town of Wheeling, Its History, Business Interests, 
Church, Societies, Etc. — Biographies of Certain Citizens of the Township 859-884 



Position and General Description — Economic Geology — Grand River — First Set- 
tlers — Original Land Entries Prior to 1840 — Organization — Items — The Town of 
Utica — Complete Historical Sketch of the Town, with Notes of Its Leading Institu- 
tions, Churches, Lodges, Schools, Newspapers, etc. — Biographies of Some of the 
Old Settlers and Leading Citizens " . . 884-904 



Position and Description — Archaeology — First Settlers — Dates and Description of 
the First Land Entries — Items of Early History — The Town (?) of Astoria — 
Sketch of Grandville or " Coonville " — The Township in War Times — Historical 
Sketch of the Town of Bedford — Biographical Sketches of Many Old Seitlers and 
Citizens 904-926 



General Descriptive and Historical Sketch of the Township — Early History — Organ- 
zation — Churches, etc. — Biographical 920-937 



Position — Early History— Original Land Entries — Organization— Some Incidents of 
the War Period — Country Cluirclies — Farmersville — Miscellaneous Notes — Bio. 
graphical 937-9C1 




Position and Description — Coal — Stone — Soil — Early History — First Land En 
tries — Tragedies of the Civil War — Organization — The Town of Mooresville — 
General Historical Sketch — Murder of Brocli and Bloom — Churches — Secret 
Orders — Mineral Springs — Biographies 961-984 



Boundary — Physical Features — Land Entries — The Name Monroe — Killing of 
Austin — Future Outlook of Monroe Township — Biographical. . . 984-990 



General History — Early Settlers — First Land Entries — Pioneer Religious Services — 
Mills — Sam Thompson — In War Times — Peace — Spring Hill — Country 
Churches — Sampsel Township — Town of Sampsel — Pleasant Ridge Baptist 
Church — Biographical 990-1042 



Position and Description — Coal — Early Settlements — Sketch of Jamestown — In the 
Civil War — Capt. Spickard's Encounter with Joe Kirk — Pleasant Grove Church — 
City of Chillicothe — Laying Out of the Town — First and Second Sales of Lots — 
Appointed the County Seat — Incorporations— John Graves, The Founder of 
Chillicothe — First Newspaper in the County — Directory of 1855 — The " Thes- 
pians " —Hannibal and St. Joseph Railroad — Seminary — During the Civil War — 
Condition of Chillicothe Since the War — The Sisters' Academy— Churches — 
Lodges — Biographical 1042- 



Physical Features — Organization — Early History — Land Entries — Coxville — Mis- 
cellaneous — Churches — Biographical ....... 1174-1187 





Position and Description — Early History — First Land Entries — Items- The Cy 
rlone of 1883 — County Churches — General Historical and Descriptive Search of 
the Town of Dawn — Church — Secret Orders, Etc. — Biographical . 1887-1220 



Geographical and Physical Features — Early History — Land Entries — Organization 

Avolon — Situation — Miscellaneous — Historical Sketch of Avolon College 





The purchase in 1803 of the vast territory west of the Mississippi 
River, by the United States, extending through Oregon to the Pacific 
coast and south to the Dominions of Mexico, constitutes the most im- 
portant event that ever occurred in the history of the nation. 

It gave to our Republic additional room for that expansion and 
stupendous growth, to which it has since attained, in all that makes it 
strong and enduring, and forms the seat of an empire, from which 
will radiate an influence for good unequaled in the annals of time. In 
1763, the immense region of country, known at that time as Louisiana, 
was ceded to Spain by France. By a secret article, in the treaty of 
St. Ildefonso, concluded in 1800, Spain ceded it back to France. 
Napoleon, at that time, coveted the island of St. Domingo, not only 
because of the value of its products, but more especially because its 
location in the Gulf of Mexico would, in a military point of view, 
afford him a fine field whence he could the more effectively guard his 
newly-acquired possessions. Hence he desired this cession by Spain 
should be kept a profound secret until he succeeded in reducing St. 
Domingo to submission. In this undertaking, however, his hopes 
were blasted, and so great was his disappointment that he apparently 
became indifferent to the advantages to be secured to France from his 
purchase of Louisiana. 

In 1803 he sent out Laussat as prefect of the colony, who gave the 



people of Louisiana the first intimation they had that they had once 
more become the subjects of Fiance. This was the occasion of great 
rejoicing among the inhabitants, who were Frenchmen in their origin, 
habits, manners, and customs. 

Mr. Jefferson, then President of the United States, on being in- 
formed of the retrocession, immediately dispatched instructions to 
Robert Livingston, the American Minister at Paris, to make known 
to Napoleon that the occupancy of New Orleans, by his government, 
would not only endanger the friendly relations exi^sting between the 
two nations, but, perhaps, oblige the United States to make common 
cause with Ensfland, his bitterest and most dreaded enemy ; as the 
possession of the city by France would give her command of the 
Mississippi, which Avas the only outlet for the produce of the West- 
ern States, and give her also control ot the Gulf of Mexico, so neces- 
sary to the protection of American commerce. Mr. Jefferson was so 
fully impressed with the idea that the occupancy of New Orleans, by 
France, would briiis: about a conflict of interests between the two 
nations, wdiich would finally culminate in an open rupture, that he 
urged Mr. Livingston, to not only insist upon the free navigation of 
the Mississippi, but to negotiate for the purchase of the city and the 
surrounding country. 

The question of this negotiation was of so grave a character to the 
United States that the President appointed Mr. Monroe, with full 
power to act in conjunction with Mr. Livingston. Ever equal to all 
emergencies, and prompt in the cabinet, as well as in the field. Na- 
poleon came to the conclusion that, as he could not well defend his 
occupancy of New Orleans, he would dispose of it, on the best terms 
possible. Before, however, taking final action in the matter, he sum- 
moned two of his Ministers, and addressed them follows : — 

*' I am fully sensible of the value of Louisiana, and it was my wish 
to repair the error of the French diplomatists who abandoned it in 
1763. I have scarcely recovered it before I run the risk of losing it ; 
but if I am obliged to give it up, it shall hereafter cost more to those 
who force me to part with it, than to those to whom I shall 
yield it. The English have despoiled France of all her northern pos- 
sessions in America, and now they covet those of the South. I am 
determined that they shall not have the Mississippi. Although 
Louisiana is but a trifle compared to their vast iJossossions in other 
parts of the globe, yet, judging from the vexation they have mani- 
fested on seeing it return to the power of France, I an< -^iain that 


tlieir first object will be to gain possession of it. They will proba- 
bly commeuee the war in that quarter. They have twenty vessels in 
the Gulf of Mexico, and our affairs in St. Domingo are daily gettino- 
worse since the death of LeClerc. The conquest of Louisiana might 
be easily made, and I have not a moment to lose in getting out of 
their reach. I am not sure but that bhey have already begun an at- 
tack upon it. Such a measure would be in accordance with their 
habits ; and in their place I should not wait. Lam inclined, in order 
to deprive them of all prospect of ever possessing it, to cede it to the 
United States. Indeed, I can hardly say that I cede it, for I do not 
yet possess it ; and if I wait but a short time my enemies may leave 
me nothing but an empty title to grant to the Republic I wish to con- 
ciliate. I consider the whole colony as lost, and I believe that in the 
hands of this rising power it will be more useful to the political and 
even commercial interests of France than if I should attempt to retain 
it. Let me have both your opinions on the subject." 

One of his Ministers approved of the contemplated cession, but 
the other opposed it. The matter was long and earnestly discussed 
by them, before the conference was ended. The next day, Napoleon 
sent for the Minister who had agreed with him, and said to him : — 

*'The season for deliberation is over. I have determined to re- 
nounce Louisiana. I shall give up not only New Orleans, but the 
whole colony, without reservation. That I do not undervalue Louis- 
iana, I have sufficiently proved, as the object of my first treaty with 
Spain was to recover it. But though I regret parting with it, I am 
convinced it would be folly to persist in trying to keep it. I commis- 
sion you, therefore, to negotiate this affair with the envoys of the 
United States. Do not wait the arrival of Mr. Monroe, but go this 
very day and confer with Mr. Livingston. Remember, however, that 
I need ample funds for carrying on the war, and I do not wish to com- 
mence it by levying new taxes. For the last century France and Spain 
have incurred great expense in the improvement of Louisiana, for 
which her trade has never indemnified them. Large sums have been 
advanced to different companies, which have never been returned to 
the treasury. It is fair that I should require repayment for these. 
Were I to regulate my demands by the importance of this territory 
to the United States, they would be unbounded ; but, being obliged to 
part with it, I shall be moderate in my terms. Still, remember, I 
must have fifty millions of francs, and I will not consent to take less. 


I would ratber make some desperate effort to preserve this fine 

That day the negotiations commenced. Mr. Monroe reached Paris 
on the 12th of April, 1803, and the two representatives of the United 
States, after holding a private interview, announced that they were 
ready to treat for the entire territory. On the 30th of April, the 
treaty was signed, and on the 21st of October, of the same year. Con- 
gress ratified the treaty. The United States were to pay $11,250,000, 
and her citizens were to be compensated for some illegal captures, 
to the amount of $3,750,000, making in the aggregate the sum of 
$15,000,000, while it was agreed that the vessels and merchandise of 
France and Spain should be admitted into all the ports ot Louisiana 
free of duty for twelve years. Bonaparte stipulated in favor of 
Louisiana, that it should be, as soon as possible, incorporated into 
the Union, and that its inhabitants should enjoy the same rights, 
privileges and immunities as other citizens of the United States, and 
the clause giving to them these benefits was drawn up by Bonaparte, 
who presented it to the plenipotentiaries with these words : — 

♦♦ Make it known to the people of Louisiana, that we regret to part 
with them ; that we have stipulated for all the advantages they could 
desire ; and that France, in giving them up, has insured to them the 
greatest of all. They could never have prospered under any Euro- 
pean government as they will when they become independent. But 
while they enjoy the privileges of liberty let fliem remember that they 
are French, and preservo for their mother country that affection which 
a common origin inspires." 

Complete satisfaction was given to both parties in the terms of the 
treaty. Mr. Livingston said : — 

** I consider that from this day the United States takes rank with 
the first powers of Europe, and now she has entirely escaped from the 
power of England," and Bonaparte expressed a similar sentiment when 
he said : •* By this cession of territory I have secured the power of the 
United States, and given to England a maritime rival, who, at some 
future time, will humble her pride." 

These were prophetic words, for within a few years afterward the 
British met with a signal defeat, on the plains of the very territory of 
which the great Corsican had been speaking. 

From 1800, the date of the cession made by Spain, to 1803, when 
it was purchased by the United States, no change had been made bj 


the French authorities in the jurisprudence of the Upper and Lower 
Louisiana, and during this period the Spanish laws remained in full 
force, as the laws of the entire province ; a fact which is of interest to 
those who would understand the legal history and some of the present 
laws of Missouri. 

On December 20th, 1803, Gens. Wilkinson and Claiborne, who 
were jointly commissioned to take possession of the territory for the 
United States, arrived in the city of New Orleans at the head of the 
American forces. Laussat, who had taken possession but twenty days 
previously as the prefect of the colony, gave up his command, and the 
star-spangled banner supplanted the tri-colored flag of France. The 
agent of France, to take possession of Upper Louisiana from the 
Spanish authorities, was Amos Stoddard, captain of artillery in the 
United States service. He was placed in possession of St. Louis on 
the 9th of March, 1804, by Charles Dehault Delassus, the Spanish 
commandant, and on the following day he transferred it to the United 
States. The authority of the United States in Missouri dates from 
this day. 

From that moment the interests of the people of the Mississippi 
Valley became identified. They were troubled no more with uncer- 
tainties in regard to free navigation. The great river, along whose 
banks they had planted their towns and villages, now afibrded them 
a safe and easy outlet to the markets of the world. Under the pro- 
tecting gegis of a government, republican in form, and having free 
access to an almost boundless domain, embracing in its broad area the 
diversified climates of the globe, and possessing a soil unsurpassed for 
fertility, beauty of scenery and wealth of minerals, they had every 
incentive to push on their enterprises and build up the land wherein 
their lot had been cast. 

In the purchase of Louisiana, it was known that a great empire had 
been secured as a heritage to the people of our country, for all time to 
come, but its grandeur, its possibilities, its inexhaustible resources 
and the important relations it would sustain to the nation and the 
world were never dreamed of by even Mr. Jefferson and his adroit and 
accomplished diplomatists. 

The most ardent imagination never conceived of the progress which 
would mark the history of the ♦' Great West." The adventurous 
pioneer, who fifty years ago pitched his tent upon its broad prairies, 
or threaded the dark labyrinths of its lonely forests, little thought .that 
a mighty tide of physical and intellectual strength, would so rapidly 


flow on in his footsteps, to populate, build up and enrich the domain 
which he had conquered. 

Year after year, civilization has advanced further and further, until 
at length the mountains, the hills and the valleys, and even the rocks 
and the caverus, resound with the noise and din of busy millions. 

" I beheld the westward marches 
Of the unknown crowded nations. 
All the land was full of people, 
Restless, struj^gling, toiling, striving, 
Speaking many tongues, yet feeling 
But one heart-beat in their bosoms. 
In the woodlands rang their axes ; 
Smokod their towns in all the valleys; 
Over all the lakes and rivers 
Rushed their great canoes of thunder." 

In 1804, Congress, by an act passed in April of the same year, 
divided Louisiana into two parts, the ** Territory of Orleans," and 
the *' District of Louisiana," known as "Upper Louisiana." This 
district included all that portion of the old province, north of *' Hope 
Encampment," on the Lower Mississippi, and embraced the present 
State of Missouri, and all the western region of country to the Pacific 
Ocean, and all below the forty-ninth degree of north latitude not 
claimed by Spain. 

As a matter of convenience, on March 26th, 1804, Missouri was 
placed within the jurisdiction of the government of the Territory of 
Indiana, and its government put in motion by Gen. William H. Har- 
rison, then governor of Indiana. In this he was assisted by Judges 
Griffin, Vanderburg and Davis, who established in St. Louis what were 
called Courts of Common Pleas. The District of Louisiana was rejru- 
larly organized into the Territory of Louisiana by Congress, March 3, 
1805, and President Jefferson appointed Gen. James Wilkinson, Gov- 
ernor, and Frederick Bates, Secretary. The Legislature of the ter- 
ritory was formed by Governor Wilkinson and Judges R. J. Meigs 
and John B. C. Lucas. In 1807, Governor Wilkinson was succeeded 
by Captain Meriwether Lewis, who had become famous by reason of 
his having made the expedition up the Missouri with" Clark. Governor 
Lewis committed suicide in 1809 and President Madison appointed 
Gen. Benjamin Howard of Lexington, Kentucky, to till his i)lace. 
Gen. Howard resigned October 25, 1810, to enter the war of 1812, 
and died in St. Louis, in 1814. Cai)tain William Clark, of Lewis and 
Clark's expedition, was appointed Governor in 1810, to succeed Gen. 



Howard, and remained in office until the admission of the State into 
the Union, in 1821. 

The portions of Missouri which were settled, for the purposes of 
local government were divided into four districts. Cape Girardeau 
was the first, and embraced the territory between Tjwappity Bottom 
and Apple Creek. Ste. Genevieve, the second, embraced the terri- 
tory from Apple Creek to the Meramec River. St. Louis, the third, 
embraced the territory between the Meramec and Missouri Rivera. 
St. Charles, the fourth, included the settled territory, between the 
Missouri and Mississippi Rivers. The total population of these dis- 
tricts at that time, was 8,670, including slaves. The population of 
the district of Louisiana, when ceded to the United States was 10,120* 



Kame — Extent — Surface — Rivers — Timber — Climate — Prairies — Soils — Popola. 

tlon by Counties. 


The name Missouri is derived from the Indian tongue and signifies 


Missouri is bounded on the north by Iowa (from which it is sep- 
arated for about thirty miles on the northeast, by the Des Moines 
River), and on the east by the Mississippi River, which divides it from 
Illinois, Kentucky and Tennessee, and on the west by the Indian Ter- 
ritory, and the States of Kansas and Nebraska. The State lies (with 
the exception of a small projection between the St. Francis and the 
Mississippi Rivers, which extends to 36°), between 36" 30' and 40° 36' 
north latitude, and between 12° 2' and 18° 51' west longitude from 

The extreme width of the State east and west, is about 348 miles ; 
its width on its northern boundary, measured from its northeast cor- 
ner along the Iowa line, to its intersection with the Des Moines 


Kiver, is about 210 miles ; its width on its southern boundary is about 
288 miles. Its average width is about 235 miles. 

The length of the State north and south, not including the narrow strip 
between the St. Francis and Mississippi Rivers, is about 282 miles. It 
is about 450 miles from its extreme northwest corner to its southeast 
corner, and from the northeast corner to the southwest corner, it is 
about 230 miles. These limits embrace an area of 65,350 square 
miles, or 41,824,000 acres, being nearly as large as England, and the 
States of Vermont and New Hampshire. 



North of the Missouri, the State is level or undulating, while the 
portion south of that river (the larger portion of the State) exhibits a 
greater variety of surface. In the southeastern part is an extensive 
marsh, reaching beyond the State into Arkansas. The remainder of 
this portion between the Mississippi and Osage Rivers is rolling, and 
gradually rising into a hilly and mountainous district, forming the out- 
skirts of the Ozark Mountains. 

Beyond the Osage River, at some distance, commences a vast ex- 
panse of prairie laud which stretches away towards the Rocky Moun- 
tains. The ridges forming the Ozark chain extend in a northeast and 
southwest direction, separating the waters that flow northeast into the 
Missouri from those that flow southeast into the Mississippi River. 


No State in the Union enjoys better facilities for navigation than 
Missouri. By means of the Mississippi River, which stretches along 
her entire eastern boundary, she can hold commercial intercourse with 
the most northern territory and State in the Union ; with the whole 
valley of the Ohio ; with many of the Atlantic States, and with the 
Gulf of Mexico. 

♦'Ay, gather Europe's royal rivers all — 
The snow-swelled Neva, with an Empire's weight 
On her broad breast, she yet may overwhelm; 
Dark Danube, hurrying, as by foe pursued. 
Through shaggy forests and by palace walls, 
To hide Its terror in a sea of gloom; 
The castled Rhine, whose vine-crowned waters flow, 
The fount of fable and the source of song; 
The rushing Rhone, in whose cerulean depths 
The loving sky seems wedded with the wave; 
The yellow Tiber, chok'd with Roman spoils. 



A dying miser shrinking 'neath his gold ; 

The Seine, where fashion glasses the fairest forms; 

The Thames that bears the riches of the world ; 

Gather their waters in one ocean mass, 

Our Mississippi rolling proudly on, 

Would sweep them from its path, or swallow up. 

Like Aaron's rod, these streams of fame and song." 

Bj the Missouri River she can extend her commerce to the Rocky 
Mountains, and receive in return the j^roducts which will come in the 
course of time, by its multitude of tributaries. 

The Missouri River coasts the northwest line of the State for about 
250 miles, following its windings, and then flows through the State, a 
little south of east, to its junction with the Mississippi. The Mis- 
souri River receives a number of tributaries within the limits of the 
State, the principal of which are the Nodaway, Platte, Grand and 
Chariton from the north, and the Blue, Sniabar, Lamine, Osage and 
Gasconade from the south. The principal tributaries of the Missis- 
sippi within the State, are the Salt River, north, and the Meramec 
River south of the Missouri. 

The St. Francis and White Rivers, with their branches, drain 
the southeastern part of the State, and pass into Arkansas. The 
Osaffe is navigable for steamboats for more than 175 miles. There 
are a vast number of smaller streams, such as creeks, branches and 
rivers, which water the State in all directions. 

Timber. — Not more towering in their sublimity were the cedars of 
ancient Lebanon, nor more precious in their utility were the almug- 
trees of Ophir, than the native forests of Missouri. The river bottoms 
are covered with a luxuriant growth of oak, ash, elm, hickory, cotton- 
wood, linn, white and black walnut, and in fact, all the varieties found 
in the Atlantic and Eastern States. In the more barren districts may 
be seen the white and pin oak, and in many places a dense growth of 
pine. The crab apple, papaw and persimmon are abundant, as also 
the hazel and pecan. 

Climate. — The climate of Missouri is, in general, pleasant and 
salubrious. Like that of North America, it is changeable, and sub- 
iect to sudden and sometimes extreme changes of heat and cold ; but 
it is decidedly milder, taking the whole year through, than that of the 
same latitudes east of the mountains. While the summers are not 
more oppressive than they are in the corresponding latitudes on and 
near the Atlantic coast, the winters are shorter, and very much milder, 


except during the month of February, which has many days of pleas- 
ant sunshine. 

Prairies. — Missouri is a prairie State, especially that portion of it 
north and northwest of ti^e Missouri River. These prairies, along the 
water courses, abound with the thickest and most hixurioua belts of 
timber, while the *« rolling" prairies occupy the higher portions of 
the country, the descent generally to the forests or bottom lands being 
over only declivities. Many of these prairies, however, exhibit a grace- 
fully waving surface, swelling and sinking with an easy slope, and a 
full, rounded outline, equally avoiding the unmeaning horizontal sur- 
face and the interruption of abrupt or angular elevations. 

These prairies often embrace extensive tracts of land, and in one or 
two instances they cover an area of fifty thousand acres. During the 
spring and summer they are carpeted with a velvet of green, and 
gaily bedecked with flowers of various forms and hues, making a 
most fascinating panorama of ever-changing color and loveliness. To 
fully appi-eciate their great beauty and magnitude, they must be 

Soil. — The soil of Missouri is good, and of great agricultural capa- 
bilities, but the most fertile portions of the State are the river bot- 
toms, which are a rich alluvium, mixed in many cases with sand, the 
producing qualities of which are not excelled by the prolific valley of 
the famous Nile. 

South of the Missouri River there is a greater variety of soil, but 
much of it is fertile, and even in the mountains and mineral districts 
there are rich valleys, and about the sources of the White, Eleven 
Points, Current and Big Black Rivers, the soil, though unproductive, 
furnishes a valuable growth of yellow pine. 

The marshy lands in the southeastern part of the State will, by a 
■jstem of drainage, be one of the most fertile districts in the State. 


















Atchison . 








Barry . 





. , 




Bates . 








Bollinger . 








Buchanan . 








CaldweU . 




Callaway „ 








Cape Girardeau 












Cass . . < 




Cedar . 








Christian . 




Clark . 




Clay . 








Cole . 








Crawford . 




Dade . ' . 
















Dent . 




Douglas . 








Franklin . 




Gasconade . 
















Harrison . 












Holt . 












Iron . 












Jefferson . 








Knox . 








Lafayette . 




Lawrence . 




Lewis . 








Linn . 




Livingston . 









McDonald . 
Maries . 
Marion . 
Mercer , 
Monitean . 
New Madrid 
Newton . 
Nodaway , 
Oregon . 
Osage . , 

Ozark . 

Pemiscot . . 

Perry . . , 

Pettis . . 


Pike . 


Polk . 


Putnam . , 

Ralls . 

Randolph . 

Ray . . . 

Reynolds . . 

Ripley . . 

St. Charles 

St. Clair . 

St. Francois 

Ste. Genevieve . 

St, Louis ^. 


Schuyler . , 

Scotland . , 

Scott . 



Stoddard . 

Stone . . 

Sullivan . 







Webster . , 



City of St. Louis 















































































































1,547,030 I 2,168,804' 

> 8t LouU City and County separated In 1877. Population for 1876 not given 




Females . 
Foreign . 
Colored' . 






Classiflcation of Rocks — Quatenary Formation — Tertiary — Cretaceous — Carbonifer- 
ous — Devonian — Silurian — Azoic — Economic Geology — Coal — Iron — Lead — 
Copper — Ziuc — Building Stone — Marble — Gypsum — Lime — Clays — Paints — 
Springs — Water Power. 

The stratified rocks of Missouri, as classified and treated of by Prof. 
G. C. Swallow, belong to the following divisions : I. Quatenary ; 
II. Tertiary ; III. Cretaceous ; IV. Carboniferous ; V. Devonian ; 
VI. Silurian ; VII. Azoic. 

*♦ The Quatenary formations, are the most recent, and the most 
valuable to man: valuable, because they can be more readily utilized. 

The Quatenary formation in Missouri, embraces the Alluvium, 30 
feet thick ; Bottom Prairie, 30 feet thick ; Bluff, 200 feet thick ; and 
Drift, 155 feet thick. The latest deposits are those which constitute 
the Alluvium, and includes the soils, pebbles and sand, clays, vegeta- 
ble mould, bog, iron ore, marls, etc. 

The Alluvium deposits, cover an area, within the limits of Mis- 
souri, of more than four millions acres of land, which are not sur- 
passed for fertility by any region of country on the globe. 

The Bluff Prairie formation is confined to the low lands, which are 
washed by the two great rivers which course our eastern and western 
boundaries, and while it is only about half as extensive as the Allu- 
vial, it is equally as rich and productive." 

" The Bluff formation," says Prof. Swallow, «« rests upon the 
ridges and river bluffs, and descends along their slopes to the lowest 
valleys, the formation capping all the Bluffs of the Missouri from 
Fort Union to its mouth, and those of the Mississippi from Dubuque 

^ Including 92 Chinese, 2 half Chinese, and 96 Indians and half-breeds. 


to the mouth of the Ohio. It forms the upper stratum beneath the 
soil of all the high lauds, both timber and prairies, of all the counties 
north of the Osage and Missouri, and also St. Louis, and the Missis- 
sippi counties on the south. 

Its greatest development is in the counties on the Missouri River 
from the Iowa line to Boonville. In some localities it is 200 feet 
thick. At St. Joseph it is 140; at Boonville 100 ; and at St. Louis, 
in St. George's quarry, and the Big Mound, it is about 50 feet ; 
while its greatest observed thickness in Marion county was only 30 

The Drift formation is that which lies beneath the Bluff formation, 
having, as Prof. Swallow informs us, three distinct deposits, to wit; 
♦♦Altered Drift, which are strata of sand and pebbles, seen in the 
banks of the Missouri, in the northwestern portion of the State. 

Tlie Boulder formation is a heterogeneous stratum of sand, gravel 
and boulder, and water-worn fragments of the older rocks. 

Boulder Clay is a bed of bluish or brown sandy clay, through which 
pebbles are scattered in greater or less abundance. In some locali- 
ties in northern Missouri, this formation assumes a pure white, pipe- 
clay color." 

The Tertiary formation is made up of clays, shales, iron ores, sand- 
stone, and sands, scattered along the bluffs, and edges of the bottoms, 
reaching from Commerce, Scott County, to Stoddard, and south to 
the Chalk Bluffs in Arkansas. 

The Cretaceous formation lies beneath the Tertiary, and is com- 
posed of variegated sandstone, bluish-brown sandy slate, whitish- 
brown impure sandstone, fine white clay mingled with spotted flint, 
purple, red and blue clays, all being in the aggregate, 153 feet in 
thickness. There are no fossils in these rocks, and nothing by which 
their age may be told. 

The Carboniferous system includes the Upper Carboniferous or 
coal-measures, and the Lower Carboniferous or Mountain limestone. 
The coal-measures are made up of numerous strata of sandstones, 
limestones, shales, clays, marls, spathic iron ores, and coals. 

The Carboniferous formation, including coal-measures and the beds 
of iron, embrace an area in Missouri of 27,000 square miles. The 
varieties of coal found in the State are the common bituminous and 
cannel coals, and they exist in quantities inexhaustible. The fact 
that these coal-measures are full of fossils, which are always con<tined 


to the coal measures, enables the geologist to point them out, and the 
coal beds contained in them. 

The rocks of tiie Lower Carboniferous lormation are varied in color, 
and are quarried in many different parts of the State, being exten- 
sively utilized for building and other purposes. 

Among the Lower Carboniferous rocks is found the Upper Archi- 
medes Limestone, 200 feet ; Ferruginous Sandstone, 195 feet ; Mid- 
dle Archimedes, 50 feet; St. Louis Limestone, 250 feet; Oolitic 
Limestone, 25 feet; Lower Archimedes Limestone, 350 feet; and 
Encrinital Limestone, 500 feet. These limestones generally contain 

The Ferruginous limestone is soft when quarried, but becomes hard 
and durable after exposure. It contains large quantities of iron, and 
is found skirtinsr the eastern coal measures from the mouth of the 
Des Moines to McDonald county. 

The St. Louis limestone is of various hues and tints, and very hard. 
It is found in Clark, Lewis and St. Louis counties. 

The Lower Archimedes limestone includes partly the lead bearing 
rocks of Southwestern Missouri. 

The Encrinital limestone is the most extensive of the divisions of 
Carboniferous limestone, and is made up of brown, buff, gray and 
white. In these strata are found the remains of corals and mollusks. 
This formation extends from Marion county to Greene county. The 
Devonian system contains : Chemung Group, Hamilton Group, 
Onondaga limestone and Oriskany sandstone. The rocks of the 
Devonian system are found in Marion, Ralls, Pike, Callaway, Saline 
and Ste. Genevieve counties. 

The Chemung Group has three formations, Chouteau limestone, 85 
feet ; Vermicular sandstone and shales, 75 feet ; Lithographic lime- 
stone, 125 feet. 

The Chouteau limestone is in two divisions, when fully developed, 
and when first quarried is soft. It is not only good for building pur- 
poses but makes an excellent cement. 

The Vermicular sandstone and shales are usually buff or yellowish 
brown, and perforated with pores. 

The Lithographic limestone is a pure, fine, compact, evenly-tex- 
tured limestone. Its color varies from light drab to buff and blue. 
It is called "pot metal," because under the hammer it gives a sharp, 
ringing sound. It has but few fossils. 


The Hamilton Group is made up of some 40 feet of blue shales, and 
170 feet of crystalline limestone. 

Onondaga limestone is usually a coarse, gray or»buff crystalline, 
thick-bedded and cherty limestone. No formation in Missouri pre- 
sents such variable and widely different lithological characters as the 

The Oriskany sandstone is a light, gray limestone. 

Of the Upper Silurian series there are the following formations: 
Lower Helderberg, 350 feet ; Niagara Group, 200 feet ; Cape Girar- 
deau limestone, 60 feet. 

The Lower Helderberg is made up of buff, gray, and reddish cherty 
and argillaceous limestone. 

Niagara Group. The Upper part of this group consists of red, 
yellow and ash-colored shales, with compact limestones, variegated 
with bands and nodules of chert. 

The Cape Girardeau limestone, on the Mississippi River near Cape 
Girardeau, is a compact, bluish-gray, brittle limestone, with smooth 
fractures in layers from two to six inches in tliickness, with argilla- 
ceous partings. These strata contain a great many fossils. 

The Lower Silurian has the following ten formations, to wit : Hud- 
son River Group, 220 feet ; Trenton limestone, 360 feet ; Black River 
and Bird's Eye limestone, 175 feet ; first Magnesian limestone, 200 
feet; Saccharoidal sandstone, 125 feet; second Magnesian limestone, 
250 feet; second sandstone, 115 feet; third Magnesian limestone, 
350 feet ; third sandstone, 60 feet ; fourth Magnesian limestone, 350 

Hudson River Group : — There are three formations which Prof. 
Swallow refers to in this group. These formations are found in the 
bluff above and below Louisiana ; on the Grassy a few miles north- 
west of Louisiana, and in Ralls, Pike, Cape Girardeau and Ste. Gene- 
vieve Counties. 

Trenton limestone : The upper part of this formation is made up 
of thick beds of hard, compact, bluish gray and drab limestone, varie- 
gated with irregular cavities, filled with greenish materials. 

The beds are exposed between Hannibal and New London, north of 
Salt River, near Glencoe, St. Louis County, and are seventy-five feet 

Black River and Bird's Eye limeatoue the same color us the Trenton 


The first Magnesian limestone cap the picturesque oluflfs of the Osage 
in Benton and neighboring counties. 

The Saccharoidal sandstone has a wide range in the State. In a 
bluff about two miles from Warsaw, is a very striking change of thick- 
ness of this formation. 

Second Magnesian limestone, in lithological character, is like the 

The second sandstone, usually of yellowish brown^ sometimes 
becomes a pure white, fine-grained, soft sandstone as on Cedar Creek, 
in Washington and Franklin Counties. 

The third Magnesian limestone is exposed in the high and picturesque 
bluffs of the Niangua, in the neighborhood of Bryce's Spring. 

The third sandstone is white and has a formation in moving water. 

The fourth Magnesian limestone is seen on the Niangua and Osage 

The Azoic rocks lie below the Silurian and form a series of siliciout 
and other slates which contain no remains of organic life. 


Coal. — Missouri is particularly rich in minerals. Indeed, no State 
in the Union, surpasses her in this respect. In some unknown age of 
the past — long before the existence of man — Nature, by a wise process, 
made a bountiful provision for the time, when in the order of things, 
it should be necessary for civilized man to take possession of these 
broad, rich prairies. As an equivalent for lack of forests, she quietly 
stored away beneath the soil those wonderful carboniferous treasures 
for the use of man. 

Geological surveys have developed the fact that the coal deposits in 
the State are almost unnumbered, embracing all varieties of the best 
bituminous coal. A large portion of the State, has been ascer- 
tained to be one continuous coal field, stretching from the mouth 
of the Des Moines River through Clark, Lewis, Scotland, Adair, 
Macon, Shelby, Monroe, Audrain, Callaway, Boone, Cooper, Pettis, 
Benton, Henry, St. Clair, Bates, Vernon, Cedar, Dade, Barton and 
Jasper, into the Indian Territory, and the counties on the northwest of 
this line contain more or less coal. Coal rocks exist in Ralls, Mont- 
gomery, Warren, St. Charles, Moniteau, Cole, Morgan, Crawford and 
Lincoln, and during the past few years, all along the lines of all the 
railroads in North Missouri, and along the western end of the Missouri 

Pacific, and on the Missouri River, between Kansas City and Sioux 



City, has systematic mining, opened up hundreds of mines in different 
localities. The area of our coal beds, on the line of the southwestern 
boundary of the State alone, embraces more than 26,000 square miles 
of regular coal measures. This will give of workable coal, if the 
average be one foot, 26,800,000,000 tons. The estimates from the 
developments already made, in the different portions of the State, will 
give 134,000,000,000 tons. 

The economical value of this coal to the State, its influence in 
domestic life, in navigation, commerce and manufactures, is beyond 
the imagination of man to conceive. Suffice it to say, that in the pos- 
session of her developed and undeveloped coal mines, Missouri has a 
motive power, which in its influences for good, in the civilization of 
man, is more potent than the gold of California. 

Iron. — Prominent among the minerals, which increase the power 
and prosperity of a nation, is iron. Of this ore, Missouri has an inex- 
haustible quantity, and like her coal fields, it has been developed in 
many portions of the State, and of the best and purest quality. It is 
found in great abundance in the counties of Cooper, St. Clair, Greene, 
Henry, Franklin, Benton, Dallas, Camden, Stone, Madison, Iron, 
Washington, Perry, St. Francois, Reynolds, Stoddard, Scott, Dent 
and others. The greatest deposit of iron is found in the Iron Moun- 
tain, which is two hundred feet hiah, and covers an area of five hun- 
dred acres, and produces a metal, which is shown by analysis, to con- 
tain from 65 to 69 per cent of metallic iron. 

The ore of Shepherd Mountain contains from 64 to 67 per cent of 
metallic iron. The ore of Pilot Knob contains from 53 to 60 per cent. 
Rich beds of iron are also found at the Big Bogy Mountain, and at 
Russell Mountain. This ore has, in its nude state, a variety of colors, 
from the red, dark red, black, brown, to a light bluish gray. The 
red ores are found in twenty-one or more counties of the State, and 
are of great commercial value. The brown hematite iron ores extend 
over a greater range of country than all the others combined, embrac- 
ing about one hnndred counties, and have been ascertained to exist in 
these in large quantities. 

Lead. — Long before any permanent settlements were made in Mis- 
souri by the whites, lead was mined within the limits of the State at 
two or three points on the Mississippi. At this time more than five 
hundred mines are opened, and many of them are being successfully 
worked. These deposits of lead cover an area, so far as developed, 
of more than seven thousand square miles. Mines have been opened 


in Jefferson, Washington, St. Francois, Madison, Wayne, Carter, Rey- 
nolds, Crawford, Ste. Genevieve, Perry, Cole, Cape Girardeau, Cam- 
den, Morgan, and many other counties. 

Copper and Zinc. — Several varieties of copper ore are found in 
Missouri. The copper mines of Shannon, Madison and Franklin 
Counties have been known for years, and some of these have been 
successfully worked and are now yielding good results. 

Deposits of copper have biBen discovered in Dent, Crawford, Ben- 
ton, Maries, Green, Lawrence, Dade, Taney, Dallas, Phelps, Reynolds 
and Wright Counties. 

Zinc is abundant in nearly all the lead mines in the southwestern 
part of the State, and since the completion of the A. & P. R. R. a 
market has been furnished for this ore, which will be converted into 
valuable merchandise. 

Building Stone and Marble. — There is no scarcity of good building 
stone in Missouri. Limestone, sandstone and granite exist in all 
shades of buff, blue, red and brown, and are of great beauty as build- 
ingr material. 

There are many marble beds in the State, some of which furnish 
very beautiful and excellent marble. It is found in Marion, Cooper, 
St. Louis, and other counties. 

One of the most desirable of the Missouri marbles is in the 3rd 
Magnesian limestone, on the Niangua. It is fine-grained, crystalline, 
silico-magnesian limestone, light-drab, slightly tinged with peach blos- 
som, and clouded by deep flesh-colored shades. In ornamental archi- 
tecture it is rarely surpassed. 

Gypsum and Lime. — Though no extensive beds of gypsum have 
been discovered in Missouri, there are vast beds of the pure white 
crystalline variety on the line of the Kansas Pacific Railroad, on Kan- 
sas River, and on Gypsum Creek. It exists also in several other 
localities accessible by both rail and boat. 

All of the limestone formations in the State, from the coal measures 
to fourth Magnesian, have more or less strata of very nearly pure car- 
bonate of pure lime. 

Clays and Paints. — Clays are found in nearly all parts of the State 
suitable for making bricks. Potters' clay and fire-clay are worked in 
many localities. 

There are several beds of purple shades in the coal measures which' 
possess the properties requisite for paints used in outside work. Yel- 
low and red ochres are found in considerable quantities on the Missouri 


River. Some of these paints have been thoroughly tested and found 
firo-proof and durable. 


No State is, perhaps, better supplied with cold springs of pure water 
than Missouri. Out of the bottoms, there is scarcely a section of 
land but has one or more perennial springs of good water. Even 
where there are no springs, good water can be obtained by digging 
from twenty to forty feet. Salt springs are abundant in the central 
part of the State, and discharge their brine in Cooper, Saline, Howard, 
and adjoining counties. Considerable salt was made in Cooper and 
Howard Counties at an early day. 

Sulphur springs are also numerous throughout the State. The 
Chouteau Springs in Cooper, the Monagaw Springs in St. Clair, the 
Elk Springs in Pike, and the Cheltenham Springs in St. Louis County 
have acquired considerable reputation as salubrious waters, and have 
become popular places of resort. Many other counties have good 
sulphur springs. 

Among the Chalybeate springs the Sweet Springs on the Black- 
water, and the Chalybeate spring in the University campus are, perhaps, 
the most popular of the kind in the State. There are, however, other 
springs impregnated with some of the salts of iron. 

Petroleum springs are found in Carroll, Ray, Randolph, Cass, 
Lafayette, Bates, Vernon, and other counties. The variety called 
lubricating oil is the more common. 

The water power of the State is excellent. Large springs are 
particularly abundant on the waters of the Meramec, Gasconade, 
Bourbeuse, Osage, Niangua, Spring, White, Sugar, and other streams. 
Besides these, there are hundreds of springs sufficiently large to drive 
mills and factories, and the day is not far distant when these crystal 
fountains will be utilized, and a thousand saws will buzz to their 
dashing music. 




Title to Missouri Lands — Right of Discovery — Title of France and Spain — Cession 
to the United States — Territorial Changes — Treaties with Indians — First Settle- 
ment — Ste. Genevieve and New Bourbon — St. Louis — When Incorporated — 
Potosi — St. Charles — Portage des Sioux — New Madrid — St. Francois County — 
Perry — Mississippi — Loutre Island — "Boone's Lick" — Cote Sans Dessein — 
Howard County — Some First Things — Counties — When Organized. 

The title to the soil of Missouri was, of course, primarily vested in 
the original occupants who inhabited the country prior to its discovery 
by the whites. But the Indians, being savages, possessed but few 
rights that civilized nations considered themselves bound to respect ; 
so, therefore, when they found this country in the possession of such 
a people they claimed it in the name of the King of France, by the 
right of discovery. It remained under the jurisdiction of France 
until 1763. 

Prior to the year 1763, the entire continent of North America was 
divided between France, England, Spain and Russia. France held all 
that portion that now constitutes our national domain west of the 
Mississippi River, except Texas, and the territory which we have 
obtained from Mexico and Russia. The vast region, while under the 
jurisdiction of France, was known as the " Province of Louisiana," 
and embraced the present State of Missouri. At the close of the 
♦*01d French War," in 1763, France gave up her share of the con- 
tinent, and Spain came into the possession of the territory west of the 
Mississippi River, while Great Britain retained Canada and the regions 
northward, having obtained that territory by conquest, in the war 
with France. For thirty-seven years the territory now embraced 
within the limits of Missouri, remained as a part of the possession of 
Spain, and then went back to France by the treaty of St. Ildefonso, 
October 1, 1800. On the 30th of April, 1803, France ceded it to the 
United States, in consideration of receiving $11,250,000, and the 
liquidation of certain claims, held by citizens of the United States 
against France, which amounted to the further sum of $3,750,000» 
making a total of $15,000,000. It will thus be seen that France has 
twice, and Spain once, held sovereignty over the territory embracing 


MissourT, "but the financial needs of Napoleon afforded our Govern- 
ment an opportunity to add another empire to its domain. 

On the 31st of October, 1803, an act of Congress was approved, 
authorizing the President to take possession of the newly acquired 
territory, and provided for it a temporary government, and another 
act, approved March 26, 1804, authorized the division of the ♦« Louis- 
iana Purchase," as it was then called, into two separate territories. 
All that portion south of the 33d parallel of north latitude was called 
the " Territory of Orleans," and that north of the said parallel was 
known as the " District of Louisiana," and was placed under the 
jurisdiction of what was then known as " Indian Territory." 

By virtue of an act of Congress, approved March 3, 1805, the 
*♦ District of Louisiana" was organized as the "Territory of Louis- 
iana," with a territorial government of its own, which went into 
operation July 4th of the same year, and it so remained till 1812. In 
this year the " Territory of prleans " became the State of Louisiana, 
and the "Territory of Louisiana" was organized as the " Territory 
of Missouri." 

This change took place under an act of Congress, approved June 4, 
1812. In 1819, a portion of this territory was organized as " Arkan- 
sas Territory," and on August 10, 1821, the State of Missouri was 
admitted, being a part of the former *' Territory of Missouri." 

In 1836, the '* Platte Purchase," then being a part of the Indian 
Territory, and now composing the counties of Atchison, Andrew, 
Buchanan, Holt, Nodaway and Platte, was made by treaty with the 
Indians, and added to the State. It will be seen, then, that the soil 
of Missouri belonged : — 

1. To France, with other territory. 

2. In 1763, with other territory, it was ceded to Spain. 

3. October 1, 1800, it was ceded, with other territory from Spain, 
back to France. 

4. April 30, 1803, it was ceded, with other territory, by France to 
the United States. 

5. October 31, 1803, a temporary government was authorized by 
Congress for the newly acquired territory. 

C. October 1, 1804, it was included in the " District of Louisiana" 
and placed under the territorial government of Indiana. 

7. July 4, 1805, it was included as a part of the " Territory of 
Louisiana," then organized with a separate territorial government. 


8. June 4, 1812, it was embraced in what was then made the ** Ter- 
ritory of Missouri." 

9. August 10, 1821, it was admitted into the Union as a State. 

10. In 1836, the '* Platte Purchase" was made, adding more ter- 
ritory to the State. 

The cession by France, April 30, 1803, vested the title in the United 
States, subject to the claims of the Indians, which it was very justly 
the policy of the Government to recognize. Before the Government 
of the United States could vest clear title to the soil in the grrantee it 
was necessary to extinguish the Indian title by purchase. This was 
done accordingly by treaties made with the Indians at different times. 


The name of the first white man who set foot on the territory now 
embraced in the State of Missouri, is not known, nor is it known at 
what precise period the first settlements were made. It is, however, 
generally agreed that they were made at Ste. Genevieve and New 
Bourbon, tradition fixing the date of the settlements in the autumn of 
1735. These towns were settled by the French from Kaskaskia and 
St. Philip in Illinois. 

St. Louis was founded by Pierre Laclede Liguest, on the 15th of 
February, 1764. He was a native of France, and was one of the 
members of the company of Laclede Liguest, Antonio Maxant & Co., 
to whom a royal charter had been granted, confirming the privilege 
of an exclusive trade with the Indians of Missouri as far north as St. 
Peter's Eiver. 

While in search of a trading post he ascended the Mississippi as far 
as the mouth of the Missouri, and finally returned to the present town 
site of St. Louis. After the village had been laid off he named it St. 
Louis in honor of Louis XV., of France. 

The colony thrived rapidly by accessions from Kaskaskia and other 
towns on the east side of the Mississippi, and its trade was largely in, 
creased by many of the Indian tribes, who removed a portion of their 
peltry trade from the same towns to St. Louis. It was incorporated 
as a town on the ninth day of November, 1809, by the Court of Com- 
mon Pleas of the district of St. Louis ; the town trustees being 
Auguste Chouteau, Edward Hempstead, Jean F. Cabanne, Wm. C. 
Carr and William Christy, and incorporated as a city December 9, 
1822. The selection of the town site on which St. Louis stands was 
highly judicious, the spot not only being healthful and having the ad- 


vantages of water transportation unsurpassed, but surrounded by a 
beautiful region of country, rich in soil and mineral resources. St. 
Louis has grown to be the fifth city in population in the Union, and 
is to-day the great center of internal commerce of the Missouri, the 
Mississippi and their tributaries, and, with its railroad facilities, it ia 
destined to be the greatest inland city of the American continent. 

The next settlement was made at Potosi, in Washington County, in 
1765, by Francis Breton, who, while chasing a bear, discovered the 
mine near the present town of Potosi, where he aftervvard located. 

One of the most prominent pioneers who settled at Potosi was 
Moses Austin, of Virginia, who, in 1795, received by grant from the 
Spanish government a league of land, now known as the "Austin Sur- 
vey." The grant was made on condition that IMr. Austin would es- 
tablish a lead mine at Potosi and work it. He built a palatial 
residence, for that day, on the broAV of the hill in the little village, 
which was for many years known as " Durham Hall." At this point 
the first shot-tower and sheet-lead manufactory were erected. 

Five years after the founding of St. Louis the first settlement made 
in Northern Missouri was made near St. Charles, in St. Charles 
County, in 1769. The name given to it, and which it retained till 
1784, was Les Petites Cotes^ signifying, Little Hills. The town site 
was located by Blanchette, a Frenchman, surnamcd LeChasseur, who 
built the first fort in the town and established there a military post. 

Soon after the establishment of the military post at St. Charles, the 
old French village of Portage des Sioux, was located on the Missis- 
sippi, just below the mouth ot the Illinois River, and at about the 
same time a Kickapoo village was commenced at Clear Weather Lake. 
The present town site of New Madrid, in New Madrid county, was 
settled in 1781, by French Canadians, it then being occupied by Del- 
aware Indians. The place now known as Big River Mills, St. Fran- 
cois county, was settled in 1796, Andrew Baker, John Alley, Francis 
Starnater and John Andrews, each locating claims. The following 
year, a settlement was made in the same county, just below the pres- 
ent town of Farmington, by the Rev. William Murphy, a Baptist min- 
ister from East Tennessee. In 1796, settlements were made in Perry 
county by emigrants from Kentucky and Pennsylvania ; the latter lo- 
cating in the rich bottom lands of Bois Brule, the former generally 
settling in the ♦* Barrens," and along the waters of Saline Creek. 

Bird's Point, in Mississippi county, opposite Cairo, Illinois, was 
settled August 6, 1800, by John Johnson, by virtue of a land-grant 


from the commandant tinder the Spanish Government. Norfolk and 
Charleston, in the same county, were settled respectively in 1800 and 
1801. Warren county was settled in 1801. Loutre Island, below 
the present town of Hermann, in the Missouri River, was settled by a 
few American families in 1807. This little company of pioneers suf- 
fered greatly from the floods, as well as from the incursions of thieving 
and blood-thirsty Indians, and many incidents of a thrilling character 
could be related of trials and struggles, had we the time and space. 

In 1807, Nathan and Daniel M. Boone, sons of the great hunter and 
pioneer, in company with three others, went from St. Louis to 
«* Boone's Lick," in Howard county, where they .manufactured salt 
and formed the nucleus of a small settlement. 

Cote /Sans Dessein, now called Bakersville, on the Missouri River, 
in Callaway county, was settled by the French in 1801. This little 
town was considered at that time, as the " Far West" of the new 
world. During the war of 1812, at this place many hard-fought 
battles occurred between the whites and Indians, wherein woman's 
fortitude and courage greatly assisted in the defence of the settle- 

In 1810, a colony of Kentuckians numbering one hundred and fifty 
families immigrated to Howard county, and settled on the Missouri 
River in Cooper's Bottom near the present town of Franklin, and 
opposite Arrow Rock. 

Such, in brief, is the history of some of the early settlements of 
Missouri, covering a period of more than half a century. 

These settlements were made on the water courses ; usually along 
the banks of the two great streams, whose navigation afforded them 
transportation for their marketable commodities, and communication 
with the civilized portion of the country. 

They not only encountered the gloomy forests, settling as they did 
by the river's brink, but the hostile incursion of savage Indians, by 
whom they were for many years surrounded. 

The expedients of these brave men who first broke ground in the 
territory, have been succeeded by the permanent and tasteful improve- 
ments of their descendants. Upon the spots where they toiled, dared 
and died, are seen the comfortable farm, the beautiful village, and 
thrifty city. Churches and school houses greet the eye on every 
hand; railroads diverge in every direction, and, indeed, all the appli- 
ances of a higher civilization are profusely strewn over the smiling 
surface of the State. 


Culture's hand 
Has scattered verdure o'er the land; 
And smiles and fragrance rule serene, 
Where barren wild usurped the scene. 


The first marriage that took place in Missouri was April 20, 1766, 
in St. Louis. 

The lirst baptism was performed in May, 1766, in St. Louis. 

The first house of worship, (Catholic) was erected in 1775, at St. 

The first ferry established in 1805, on the Mississippi River, at St. 


The first newspaper established in St. Louis (Missouri Gazette), in 

The first postoffice was established in 1804, in St. Louis — Rufus 
Easton, post-master. 

The first Protestant church erected at Ste. Genevieve, in 1806 — 

The first bank established (Bank of St. Louis), in 1814. 

The first market house opened in 1811, in St. Louis. 

The first steamboat on the Upper Mississippi was the General Pike, 
Capt. Jacob Reid ; landed at St. Louis 1817. 

The first board of trustees for public schools appointed in 1817, St. 

The first college built (St. Louis College), in 1817. 

The first steamboat that came up the Missouri River as high ag 
Franklin was the Independence, in May, 1819 ; Capt. Nelson, mas- 

The first court house erected in 1823, in St. Louis. 

The first cholera appeared in St. Louis in 1832. 

The first railroad convention held in St. Louis, April 20, 1836. 

The first telegraph lines reached East St. Louis, December 20, 

The first great fire occurred in St. Louis, 1849, 




Organization 1812 — Council — House of Representatives — William Clark first Terri- 
torial Governor — Edward Hempstead first Delegate — Spanish Grants — First 
General Assembly — Proceedings — Second Assembly — Proceedings — Population 
of Territory — Vote of Territory — Ruf us Easton — Absent Members — Third Assem- 
bly — Proceedings — Application for Admission. 

Congress organized Missouri as a Territory, July 4, 1812, with a 
Governor and General Assembly. The Governor, Legislative Coun- 
cil, and House of Kepresentatives exercised the Legislative power of 
the Territory, the Governor's vetoing power being g,bsolute. 

The Legislative Council was composed of nine members, whose ten- 
ure of office lasted five years. Eighteen citizens were nominated by 
the House of Representatives to the President of the United States, 
from whom he selected, with the approval of the Senate, nine Coun- 
cillors, to compose the Legislative Council. 

The House of Representatives consisted of members chosen every 
two years by the people, the basis of representation being one mem- 
ber for every five hundred white males. The first House of Repre- 
sentatives consisted of thirteen members, and, by Act of Congress, the 
whole number of Representatives could not exceed twenty-five. 

The judicial power of the Territory, was vested in the Superior and 
Inferior Courts, and in the Justices of the Peace ; the Superior Court 
having three judges, whose term of office continued four years, hav- 
ing original and appellate jurisdiction in civil and criminal cases. 

The Territory could send one delegate to Congress. Governor 
Clark issued a proclamation, October 1st, 1812, required by Congress, 
reorganizing the districts of St. Charles, St. Louis, Ste. Genevieve, 
Cape Girardeau, and New Madrid, into five counties, and fixed the 
second Monday in November following, for the election of a delegate 
to Congress, and the members of the Territorial House of Represen- 

William Clark, of the expedition of Lewis and Clark, was the first 
Territorial Governor, appointed by the President, who began his duties 

Edward Hempstead, Rufus Easton, Samuel Hammond, and Matthew 
Lyon were candidates in November for delegates to Congress. 


Edward Hempstead was elected, being the first Territorial Dele- 
o-ate to Cono-ress from Missouri. He served one term, declining a 
second, and was instrumental in having Congress to pass the act of 
June 13, 1812, which he introduced, confirming the title to lands 
which were claimed by the people by virtue of Spanish grants. The 
same act confirmed to the people " for the support of schools," the 
title to villajie lots, out-lots or common field lots, which were held 
and enjoyed by them, at the time of the session in 1803. 

Under the act of June 4, 1812, the first General Assembly held its 
session in the house of Joseph Robidoux, in St. Louis, on the 7th of 
December, 1812. The names of the members of the House were: — 

St. Charles. — John Pitman and Robert Spencer, 

St. Louis. — Diflid Music, Bernard G. Farrar, William C. Carr, 
and Richard Clark. 

Ste. Genevieve. — George Bullet, Richard S. Thomas, and Isaac 

Cape Girardeau. — George F. Bollinger, and Spencer Byrd. 

New Madrid. — John Shrader and Samuel Phillips. 

John B. C. Lucas, one of the Territorial Judges, administered the 
oath of office. William C. Carr was elected speaker, and Andrew 
Scott, Clerk. 

The House of Representatives proceeded to nominate eighteen per- 
sons from whom the President of the United States, with the Senate, 
was to select nine for the Council. From this number the President 
chose the following : 

St. Charles. — James Flaugherty and Benjamin Emmons. 

St. Louis. — Auguste Chouteau, Sr., and Samuel Hammond. 

Ste. Genevieve. — John Scott and James Maxwell. 

Cape Girardeau. — William Neeley and Joseph Cavenor. 

New Madrid. — Joseph Hunter. 

The Legislative Council, thus chosen by the President and Senate, 
was announced by Frederick Bates, Secretary and Acting-Governor of 
the Territory, by proclamation, June 3, 1813, and fixing the first 
Monday in July following, as the time for the meeting of the Legis- 

In the meantime the duties of the executive office were assumed by 
William Clark. The Legislature accordingly met, as required by the 
Acting-Governor's proclamation, in July, but its proceedings were 
never officially published. Consequently but little is known in refer- 
ence to the workings of the first Territorial Legislature in Missouri. 


From the imperfect account, published in the Missouri Gazette, of 
that day ; a jDaper which had been in existence since 1808, it is found 
that laws were passed regulating and establishing weights and meas- 
ures ; creating the office of Sheriff; providing the manner for taking 
the census ; permanently fixing the seats of Justices, and an act to 
compensate its own members. At this session, laws were also passed 
defining crimes and penalties ; laws in reference to forcible entry and 
detainer ; establishing Courts of Common Pleas ; incorporating the 
Bank of St. Louis ; and organizing a part of Ste. Genevieve county 
into the county of Washington. 

The next session of the Legislature convened in St. Louis, Decern- 
ber 6, 1813. George Bullet of Ste. Genevieve county, was speaker 
elect, and Andrew Scott, clerk, and William Sullivan, doorkeeper. 
Since the adjournment of the former Legislature, several vacancies 
had occurred, and new members had been elected to fill their places. 
Among these was Israel McCready, from the county of Washington. 

The president of the legislative council was Samuel Hammond. 
No journal of the council was officially published, but the proceedings 
of the house are found in the Gazette. 

At this session of the Legislature many wise and useful laws were 
passed, having reference to the temporal as well as the moral and 
spiritual welfare of the people. Laws were enacted for the suppres- 
sion of vice and immorality on the Sabbath day ; for the improve- 
ment of public roads and highways ; creating the offices of auditor, 
treasurer and county surveyor ; regulating the fiscal affairs of the 
Territory and fixing the boundary lines of New Madrid, Cape Girar- 
deau, Washington and St. Charles counties. The Legislature ad- 
journed on the 19th of January, 1814, sine die. 

The population of the Territory as shown by the United States 
census in 1810, was 20,845. The census taken by the Legislature in 
1814 gave the Territory a population of 25,000. This enumeration 
shows the county of St. Louis contained the greatest number of in- 
habitants, aud the new county of Arkansas the least — the latter hav- 
ing 827, and the former 3,149. 

The candidates for delegate to Congress were Rufus Easton, Samuel 
Hammond, Alexander McNair and Thomas F. Riddick. Rufus 
Easton and Samuel Hammond had been candidates at the preceding 
election. In all the counties, excepting Arkansas, the votes aggre- 
gated 2,599, of which number Mr. Easton received 965, Mr. Ham- 


mond 746, Mr. McNair 853, and Mr. Riddick (who had withdrawn 
previously to the election) 35. Mr. Easton was elected. 

The census of 1814 showing a large increase in the population of 
the Territory, an appointment was made increasing the number of 
Representatives in the Territorial Legislature to twenty-two. The 
General Assembly began its session in St. Louis, December 5, 1814. 
There were present on the first day twenty Representatives. James 
Caldwell of Ste. Genevieve county Avas elected speaker, and Andrew 
Scott who had been clerk of the preceding assembly, was chosen 
clerk. The President of the Council was William Neeley, of Cape 
Girardeau county. 

It appeared that James Maxwell, the absent member of the Council, 
and Seth Emmons, member elect of the House of Representatives, 
were dead. The county of Lawrence was organized at this session, 
from the western part of New Madrid county, and the corporate 
powers of St. Louis were enlarged. In 1815 the Territorial Legisla- 
ture again began its session. Only a partial report of its proceedings 
are given in the Gazette. The county of Howard was then organized 
from St. Louis and St. Charles counties, and included all that part of 
the State lying north of the Osage and south of the dividing ridge 
between the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers. (For precise bounda- 
ries, see Chapter I. of the History of Boone County.) 

The next session of the Territorial Legislature commenced its ses- 
sion in December, 181(5. During the sitting of this Legislature many 
important acts were passed. It was then that the "Bank of Mis- 
souri " was chartered and went into operation. In the fall of 1817 the 
♦♦Bank of St. Louis" and the "Bank of Missouri" were issuino- 
bills. An act was passed chartering lottery companies, charterin"" 
the academy at Potosi, and incorporating a board of trustees for 
superintending the schools in the town of St. Louis. Laws were also 
passed to encourage the " killing of wolves, panthers and wild-cats." 

The Territorial Legislature met again in Deceml)er, 1818, and, 
among other things, organized the counties of Pike, Cooper, Jefler- 
8on, franklin, Wayne, Lincoln, Madison, Montgomery, and three 
counties in the Southern part of Arkansas. In 1819 the Territory of 
Arkansas was formed into a separate government of its own. 

The people of the Territory of Missouri had been, lor some time, 
anxious that their Territory should assume the duties and responsibilities 
of a sovereign State. Since 1812, the date of the organization of the 
Territory, the pcjpulation had rapidly increased, many counties had 


been established, its commerce had grown into importance, its agri- 
cultural and mineral resources were being developed, and believing 
that its admission into the Union as a State would give fresh impetus 
to all these interests, and hasten its settlement, the Territorial Legis- 
lature of 1818-19 accordingly made application to Congress for the 
passage of an act authorizing the people of Missouri to organize a State 


Application of Missouri to be admitted into tlie Union — Agitation of the Slavery 
Question — " Missouri Compromise " — Constitutional Convention of 1820 — Con- 
stitution presented to Congress — Furtlier Resistance to Admission — Mr. Clay and 
his Committee make Report — Second Compromise — Missouri Admitted. 

With the application of the Territorial Legislature of Missouri for 
her admission into the Union, commenced the real agitation of the 
slavery question in the United States. 

Not only was our National Legislature the theater of angry discus- 
sions, but everywhere throughout the length and breadth of the Re- 
public the "Missouri Question" was the all-absorbing theme. The 
political skies threatened, 

" In forked flashes, a commanding tempest," 

Which was liable to burst upon the nation at any moment. Through 
such a crisis our country seemed destined to pass. The question as to 
the admission of Missouri was to be the beginning of this crisis, which 

CO ' 

distracted the public counsels of the nation for more than forty years 

Missouri asked to be admitted into the great family of States. 
♦' Lower Louisiana," her twin sister Territory, had knocked at the 
door of the Union eight years previously, and was admitted as stipu- 
lated by Napoleon, to all the rights, privileges and immunities of a 
State, and in accordance with the stipulations of the same treaty, 
Missouri now sought to be clothed with the same rights, privileo"es 
and immunities. 

As what is known in the history of the United States as the " Mis- 
souri Compromise," of 1820, takes rank among the most prominent 


measures that had up to that day engaged the attention of our 
National Legislature, we shall enter somewhat into its details, being 
connected as thev are with the annals of the State. 

February 15th, 1819. — After the House had resolved itself into a 
Committee of the Whole on the bill to authorize the admission of Mis- 
souri into the Union, and after the question of her admission had been 
discussed for some time, Mr. Tallmadge, of New York, moved to 
amend the bill, by adding to it the following proviso : — 

^''And Provided, That the further introduction of slavery or involun- 
tary servitude be prohibited, except for the punishment of crime, 
whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, and that all chil- 
dren born within the said State, after the admission thereof into the 
Union, shall be free at the age of twenty-five years." 

As might have been expected, this proviso precipitated the angry 
discussions which lasted nearly three years, finally culminating in the 
Missouri Compromise. All phases of the slavery question were pre- 
sented, not in its moral and social aspects, but as a great constitu- 
tional question, affecting Missouri and the admission of future States. 
The proviso, when submitted to a vote, was adopted — 79 to 67, and 
80 reported to the House. 

Hon. John Scott, who was at that time a delegate from the Terri- 
tory of Missouri, was not permitted to vote, but as such delegate he 
had the privilege of participating in the debates which followed. On 
the 16th day of February the proviso was taken up and discussed. 
After several speeches had been made, among them one by Mr. Scott 
and one by the author of the proviso, Mr. Tallmadge, the amendment, 
or proviso, was divided into two parts, and voted upon. The first 
part of it, which included all to the ^vord '* convicted," was adopted — 
87 to 76. The remaining part was then voted upon, and also 
adopted, by 82 to 78. By a vote of 97 to 56 the bill was ordered to 
be engrossed for a third reading. 

The Senate Committee, to whom the bill was referred, reported the 
same to the Senate on the 19th of February, when that body voted 
first upon a motion to strike out of the proviso all after the word 
** convicted," which was carried by a vote of 32 to 7. It then voted 
to strike out the first entire clause, which prevailed — 22 to 16, 
thereby defeating the proviso. 

The House declined to concur in the action of the Senate, and the 
bill was again returned to that body, which in turn refused to recede 
from its position. The bill was lost and Congress adjourned. This 


was most unfortunate for the country. The people having already 
been wrought up to fever heat over the agitation of the question ia 
the National Councils, now became intensely excited. The press 
added fuel to the flame, and the progress of events seemed rapidly 
tending to the downfall of our nationality. 

A long interval of nine months was to ensue before the meeting of 
Congress. The body indicated by its vote upon the *' Missouri Ques- 
tion," that the two great sections of the country were politically 
divided upon the subject of slavery. The restrictive clause, which it 
was sought to impose upon Missouri as a condition of her admission, 
would in all probability, be one of the conditions of the admission of 
the Territory of Arkansas. The public mind was in a state of great 
doubt and uncertainty up to the meeting of Congress, which took 
place on the 6th of December, 1819. The memorial of the Legisla- 
tive Council and House of Representatives of the Missouri Territory, 
praying for admission into the Union, was presented to the Senate 
by Mr. Smith, of South Carolina. It was referred to the Judiciary 

Some three weeks having passed without any action thereon by the 
Senate, the bill was taken up and discussed by the House until the 
19th of February, when the bill from the Senate for the admission of 
Maine was considered. The bill for the admission of Maine included 
the " Missouri Question," by an amendment which read as follows : 

*'And be it further enacted, That in all that territory ceded by 
France to the United States, under the name of Louisiana, which lies 
north of thirty-six degrees and thirty minutes, north latitude (except- 
ing such part thereof as is) included within the limits of the State, 
contemplated by this act, slavery and involuntary servitude, other- 
wise than in the punishment of crimes, whereof the party shall have 
been convicted, shall be and is hereby forever prohibited ; Provided^ 
always, That any person escaping into the same from whom labor or 
service is lawfully claimed, in any State or Territory of the United 
States, such fugitive may be lawfully reclaimed and conveyed to the 
person claiming his or her labor or services as aforesaid." 

The Senate adopted this amendment, which formed the basis of the 
•♦Missouri Compromise," modified afterward by striking out the 
words, *' excepting only such part thereof.'' 

The bill passed the Senate by a vote of 24 to 20. On the 2d day of 
March the House took up the bill and amendments for consideration, 
and by a vote of 134 to 42 concurred in the Senate amendment, and 


the bill being passed by the two Houses, constituted section 8, of 
♦•An Act to authorize the people of the Missouri Territory to form a 
Constitution and State Government, and for the admission of such 
State into the Union on an equal footing with the original States, and 
to prohibit slavery in certain territory." 

This act was approved March 6, 1820. Missouri then contained fif- 
teen organized counties. By act of Congress the people of said State 
were authorized to hold an election on the first Monday, and two suc- 
ceeding days thereafter in May, 1820, to select representatives to a 
State convention. This convention met in St. Louis on the 12th of 
June, following the election in May, and concluded its labors on the 
19th of July, 1820. David Barton was its President, and Wm. G. 
Pettis, Secretary. There were forty-one members of this convention, 
men of ability and statesmanship, as the admirable constitution which 
they framed amply testifies. Their names and the counties repre- 
sented by them are as follows : — 

Cape Girardeau. —Stephen Byrd, James Evans, Richard S. 
Thomas, Alexander Buckner and Joseph McFerron. 

Cooper. — Robert P. Clark, Robert Wallace, Wm. Lillard. 

Franklin. — John G. Heath. 

Howard. — Nicholas S. Burkhart, Duflf Green, John Ray, Jonathan 
S. Findley, Benj. H. Reeves. 

Jefferson. — Daniel Hammond. 

Lincoln. — Malcom Henry. 

Montgomery. — Jonathan Ramsey, James Talbott. 

Madison. — Nathaniel Cook. 

New Madrid. — Robert S. Dawson, Christopher G. Houts. 

Pike. — Stephen Cleaver. 

St. Charles. — Benjamin Emmons, Nathan Boone, Hiram H. Baber. 

Ste. Genevieve. — John D. Cook, Henry Dodge, John Scott, R. T. 

St. Louis. — David Barton, Edward Bates, Alexander McNair, 
Wm. Rector, John C. Sullivan, Pierre Chouteau, Jr., Bernard Pratte, 
Thomas F. Riddick. 

Washington. — John Rice Jones, Samuel Perry, John Hutchings. 
Wayne. — Elijah Bettis. 

On the 13th of November, 1820, Congress met again, and on the 
B?xtn of the same month Mr. Scott, the delegate from Missouri, pre- 
sented to the House the Constitution as framed by the convention. 


The same was referred to a select committee, who made thereon a 
favorable report. 

The admission -of the State, however, was resisted, because it was 
claimed that its constitution sanctioned slavery, and authorized the 
Legislature to pass laws preventing free negroes and mulattoes from 
settling in the State. The report of the committee to whom was 
referred the Constitution of Missouri was accompanied by a preamble 
and resolutions, offered by Mr. Lowndes, of South Carolina. The 
preamble and resolutions were stricken out. 

The application of the State for admission shared the same fate in 
the Senate. The question was referred to a select committee, who, 
on the 29th of November, reported in favor of admitting the State. 
The debate, which followed, continued for two weeks, and finally Mr. 
Eaton, of Tennessee, offered an amendment to tlfe resolution as fol- 
lows : — 

*' Provided, That nothing herein contained shall be so construed as 
to give the assent of Congress to any provision in the Constitution of 
Missouri, if any such there be, which contravenes that clause in the 
Constitution of the United States, which declares that the citizens of 
each State shall be entitled to all the privileges and immunities of 
citizens in the several States." 

The resolution, as amended, was adopted. The resolution and 
proviso were again taken up and discussed at great length, when the 
committee agreed to report the resolution to the House. 

The question on agreeing to the amendment, as reported from the 
committee of the whole, was lost in the House. A similar resolution 
afterward passed the Senate, but was again rejected in the House. 
Then it was that that great statesman and pure patriot, Henry Clay, 
of Kentucky, feeling that the hour had come when angry discussions 
should cease, 

" With grave 

Aspect he rose, and in his rising seem'd ' 

A pillar of state ; deep on his front engraver 

Deliberation sat and public care ; 

And princely counsel in his face yet shone 

Majestic" ♦♦**♦• 

proposed that the question of Missouri's admission be referred to a 
committee consisting of twenty-three persons (a number equal to the 
number of States then composing the Union), be appointed to act in 
conjunction with a committee of the Senate to consider and report 
whether Missouri should be admitted, etc. 


The motion prevailed ; the committee was appointed and Mr. Clay 
made its chairman. The Senate selected seven of its members to act 
with the committee of twenty-tln-ee, and on the 26th of February the 
following report was made by that committee : — 

" Resolved, by the Senate and House of Representatives of the 
United States of America in Congress assembled : That Missouri shall 
be admitted into the Union, on an equal footing with the original 
States, in all respects whatever, upon the fundamental condition that 
the fourth clause, of the twenty-sixth section of the third article of 
the Constitution submitted on the part of said State to Congress, shall 
never be construed to authorize the passage of any law, and that no 
law shall be passed in conformity thereto, by which any citizen of 
either of the States in this Union shall be excluded from the enjoy- 
ment of any of the privileges and immunities to which such citizen is 
entitled, under the Constitution of the United States ; provided, That 
the Legislature of said State, by a Solemn Public Act, shall declare 
the assent of the said State, to the said fundamental condition, and 
shall transmit to the President of the United States, on or before the 
fourth Monday in November next, an authentic copy of the said act ; 
upon the receipt whereof, the President, by proclamation, shall an- 
nounce the fact; whereupon, and without any further proceeding on 
the part of Congress, the admission of the said State into the Union 
shall be considered complete." 

This resolution, after a brief debate, was adopted in the House, and 
passed the Senate on the 28th of February, 1821. 

At a special session of the Legislature held in St. Charles, in June 
following, a Solemn Public Act was adopted, giving its assent to the 
conditions of admission, as expressed in the resolution of Mr. Clay. 
August 10th, 1821, President Monroe announced by proclamation the 
admission of Missouri into the Union to be complete. 




First Election for Governor and other State Officers — Senators and Representatives to 
General Assembly — Sheriffs and Coroners— U. S. Senators — Representatives In 
Cojgress — Supreme Court Judges — Counties Organized— Capital Moved to St. 
Charles — Official Record of Territorial and State Officers. 

By the Constitution adopted by tlie Convention on the 19th of July, 
1820, the General Assembly was required to meet in St. Louis on the 
third Monday in September of that year, and an election was ordered 
to be held on the 28th of August for the election of a Governor and 
other State officers, Senators and Representatives to the General 
Assembly, Sheriffs and Coroners, United States Senators and Repre- 
sentatives in Congress. 

It will be seen that Missouri had not as yet been admitted as a 
State, but in anticipation of that event, and according to the provi- 
sions of the constitution, the election was held, and the General As- 
sembly convened. 

William Clark (who had been Governor of the Territory) and 
Alexander McNair were the candidates for Governor. McNair re- 
ceived 6,576 votes, Clark 2,556, total vote of the State 9,132. There 
were three candidates for Lieutenant-Governor, to wit : William H. 
Ashley, Nathaniel Cook and Henry Elliot. Ashley received 3,907 
votes. Cook 3,212, Elliot 931. A Representative was to be elected 
for the residue of the Sixteenth Congress and one for the Seventeenth. 
John Scott who was at the time Territorial delegate, was elected to 
both Congresses without opposition. 

The General Assembly elected in August met on the 19th of Sep- 
tember, 1820, and organized by electing James Caldwell, of Ste. 
Genevieve, speaker, and John McArthur clerk ; William H. Ashley, 
Lieutenant-Governor, President of the Senate ; Silas Bent, President, 

pro tern. 

Mathias McGirk, John D. Cook, and John R. Jones were appointed 
Supreme Judges, each to hold office until sixty-five years of age. 

Joshua Barton was appointed Secretary of State ; Peter Didier, 
State Treasurer; Edward Bates, Attorney-General, and Williari) 
Christie, Auditor of Public Accounts. 



David Barton and Thomas H. Benton were elected by the General 
Assenil)ly to the United States Senate. 

At this session of the Legislature the counties of Boone, Callaway, 
Chariton, Cole, Gasconade, Lillard, Perry, Ealls, Ray and Saline 
were organized. 

We should like to give in details the meetings and proceedings of 
the diflerent Legislatures which followed ; the elections for Govern- 
ors and other State officers ; the elections for Congressmen and United 
States Senators, but for want of space we can only present in a con- 
densed form the official record of the Territorial and State officers. 



Frederick Bates, Secretary and William Clark . . 

Acting-Governor .... 




Alexander McNair . . . . . 

Frederick Bates 

Abraham J. Williams, vice 

John Miller, vice Bates . . . 

John Miller 

Daniel Dunklin, (1832-36) re- 
signed; appointed Surveyor 
General of the U. S. Lilburn 
W. Boggs, vice Dunklin . . 

Lilburn W. Boggs 

Thomas Reynolds (died 1844), . 

M. M. Marmaduke vice Rey- 
nolds— John C. Edwards . 

Austin A. King . . • • 

Sterling Price 

Trusten Polk (resigned) . . . 

Hancock Jackson, vice Polk . 

Robert M. Stewart, vice Polk . 

C. F. Jackson (1860), oflBce va- 
cated by ordinance; Hamil- 
ton R. Gamble, vice Jackson; 
Gov. Gamble died 1864. 

Willard P. Hall, vice Gamble . 

Thomas C. Fletcher .... 

Joseph W. McClurg .... 

B. Gratz Brown 

Silas Woodson 

Charles H. Hardin 

John S. Phelps 

Thomas T. Crittwiden (now 






















William H. Ashley 
Benjamin H. Reeves 
Daniel Dunklin . . 

Lilburn W. Boggs . 
Franklin Cannon . 
M. M. Marmaduke . 
James Young . . 
Thomas L Rice. 
Wilson Brown . . 
Hancock Jackson . 
Thomas C. Reynolds 
Willard P. Hall . 
George Smith . . 
Edwin O. Stanard 
Joseph J. Gravelly. 
Charles P. Johnson 
Norman J. Coleman 
Henry C. Brockmeyer 
Robert A. Campbell (present 
incumbent) . . 

Secretaries of State. 

Joshua Barton 

William G. Pettis .... 

Hamilton R. Gamble . . . 

Spencer Pettis 

P. H. Mc Bride 

John C. Edwards (term expired 
1836, reappointed 1837, re 
signed 1837) 

Peter G. Glover 

James L. Minor 









F. H. Martin 

Ephraim B. Ewing . . .. 
John M. Richardson .... 
Benjamin F. Massey (re-elected 

1860, for four years). . . . 

Mordecai Oliver 

Francis Rodman (re-elected 1808 

for two j'ears) 

Eugene F. Weigel, (re-elected 

1872, for two years) .... 
Michael K. McGrath (present 


State 7}reasurers. 

Peter Didier 

Nathaniel Simonds . . . . 

James Earickson 

John Walker 

Abraham McClellan . . . . 

Peter G. Glover 

A. W. Morrison 

George C. Bingham . . . . 

William Bishop 

William Q, Dallmeyer . . . 
Samuel Hays ....... 

Harvey W. Salmon . . . . 

Joseph W. Mercer 

Elijah Gates ' . . 

Phillip E. Chappell (present in- 
cumbent) . 






















Edward Bates. .... 

. . 1820-21 

Rufus Easton 

. 1821-26 

Robt. W. Wells . . . . 

. 1826-36 

"William B. Napton . . . 

. 1836-39 

S. M. Bay 

. 1839-45 

B. P. Stringfellow . . . . 

. 1845-49 

William A. Robards . . . 

. 1849-51 

James B. Gardenhire . . 

. 1851-56 

Ephraim W. Ewing . . . 

. 1856-59 

James P. Knott 

. 1859-61 

Aikman Welch . . . , . 

. 1861-64 

Thomas T. Crittenden . . 

. 1864 

Robert P. Wingate . . . 

. 1864-68 

Horace P. Johnson . . . . 

. 1868-70 

A. J. Baker 

. 1870-72 

Henry Clay Ewing . . . . 

. 1872-74 

John A. Hockaday . . . . 

. 1874-76 

Jackson L. Smith . . . . 

. 1876-80 

D. H. Mclntire (present 



. 1880 

Auditors of Public Accounts. 

William Christie 1820-21 

William V. Rector .... 1821-23 

Elias Barcroft 1823-33 

Henry Shurlds 1833-35 

Peter G. Glover 1835-37 

Hiram H. Baber 1837-45 

William Monroe 1845 

J. R. McDermon 1845-48 

George W. Miller 1848-49 

Wilson Brown 1849-52 

William H. Buffington . . . 1852-60 

William S. Moseley .... 1860-64 

Alonzo Thompson 1864-68 

Daniel M. Draper 1868-72 

George B. Clark 1872-74 

Thomas Holladay . . . , . 187 -80 
John Walker (present incum- 
bent) 1880 

Judges of SupTeme Court, 

Matthias McGirk 1822-41 

John D. Cooke 1822-23 

John R. Jones 1822-24 

Rufus Pettibone 1823-25 

Geo. Tompkins 1824-45 

Robert Wash 1825-37 

John C. Edwards 1837-39 

Wm. Scott, (appointed 1841 till 
meeting of General Assem- 
bly in place of McGirk, re- 
signed; reappointed . . . 1843 
P. H. McBride ...... 1845 

Wm. B. Napton 1849-62 

JohnF. Ryland 1849-51 

John H. Birch 1849-51 

Wm. Scott, John F. Ryland, 
and Hamilton R. Gamble 
(elected by the people, for six 

years) 1851 

Gamble (resigned) 1854 

Abiel Leonard elected to fill va- 
cancy of Gamble. 
Wm. B. Napton (vacated by 

failure to file oath). 
Wm. Scott and John C. Rich- 
ardson (resigned, elected Au- 
gust, for six years) .... 1857 
E. B. Ewing, (to fill Richard- 

son's resignation) .... 1859 , 

Barton Bates (appointed) . . 1862 

W. V. N. Bay (appointed) . . 1862 




John D. S. Dryden (iippointed) 


Barton Bates 


W. V. N. Bay (elected) . . . 


John D. S. Dryden (elected) . 


David Waijner (appointed) . . 


"Wallace L. Lovelace (appoint- 



Nathaniel Holmes (appointed) 


Thomas J. C. Fagg (appointed) 


James Baker (appointed) . . 


David Wagner (elected) . . . 


Philemon Bliss 


Warren Currier 


Washington Adams (appointed 

to fill Currier's place, whore- 



Ephraim B. Ewing (elected) . 


Thomas A. Sherwood (elected) 


W. B. Napton (appointed in 

place of Ewing, deceased) . 


Edward A. Lewis (appointed, 

in place of Adams, resigned) 


Warwick Hough (elected) . . 


William B. Napton (elected) . 


John W. Henr}' 


Robert D. Ray succeeded Wm. 

B. Napton in 


Elijah H. Norton (appointed in 

18761. elected 


T. A. Sherwood (re-elected) 


United States Senators. 

T. H. Benton 


D. Barton 


Alex. Buckner 


L. F. Linn 


D. R. Atchison 


H. S. Geyer 


James S. Green 


T. Polk 


Waldo P. Johnson 

Robert Wilson 


B. Gratz Brown (for unexpired 

term of Johnson) .... 




Charles D. Drake 


Carl Schurz 


D. F. Jewett (in place of Drake, 



F. P. Blair 


L. V. Bogy 


James Shields (elected for unex- 

pired term of Bogy) . . . 


D. H. Armstrong appointed for 

unexpired term of Bogy. 
F. -M. Cockrell (re-elected 1881) 1876-81 
George G. Vest 1879 

Representatioea to Congr 

John Scott . . 
Ed. Bates . . . 

Spencer Pettis . 

William H. Ashlev 

John Bull . . . 

Albert G. Harrison 

John Miller . . 

John Jameson f re-elected 1816 

for two years) 
John C. Edwards 
James il. Hughes 
James H. Relfe . 
James B. Bowlin 
Gustavus M. Bowe 
Sterling Price . 
William ^IcDaniel 
Leonard H. Sims 
John S. Phelps . 
James S. Green (re-elected 

1856, resigned) 
Willard P. Hall . 
William V. N. Bay 
John F. Darby . 
Gilchrist Porter. 
John G. Miller . 
Alfred W. Lamb 
Thomas H. Benton 
Mordecai Oliver 
James J. Lindley 
Samuel Caruthers 
Thomas P. Akers (to 

pired term of J 

deceased) . . 
Francis P. Blair, Jr. (re-ele 

1860, resigned) 
Thomas Li Anderson 
James Craig . 
Samuel H. Woodson 
John B. Clark, Sr. 
J. Richard Barrett 
John W. Noel . 
James S. Rollins 
Elijah H. Norton 
John W. Reid . 
William A. Hall 
Thomas L. Price (in place of 

Reid, expelled) 1862 

fill uneX' 




























1862 -<J4 




Henry T. Blow 

iiempronius T. Boyd, (elected in 

1862, and again in 1868, for 

two years.) 
Joseph W. McClurg .... 

Austin A. King 

Benjamin F. Loan 

John G. Scott (in place of Noel, 


John Hogan .... . . 

Thomas F. Noel 

John R. Kelsoe ...... 

Robert T. Van Horn , . . 

John F. Benjamin 

George W. Anderson . . . „ 
William A. Pile ..... 

0. A. Newcomb 

Joseph J. Gravelly 

James R. McCormack . . . 
John H. Stover (in place of 

McClurg, resigned) . . 

Erastus Wells 

G. A. Finklenburg. . . 

Samuel S. Burdett 

Joel F. Asper 

David P. Dyer , 

Harrison E. Havens .... 

Isaac G. Parker 

James G. Blair 

Andrew King 

Edwin O. Stanard 

William H. Stone 

Robert A. Hatcher (elected) . 

Richard B. Bland 

Thomas T. Crittenden . . . 

Ira B. Hyde 

John B. Clark, Jr. 

John M. Glover ...... 


































Aylett H. Buckner 

Edward C. Kerr 

Charles H. Morgan .... 

John F. Philips 

B. J. Franklin 

David Rea 

Rezin A. De Bult 

Anthony Ittner 

Nathaniel Cole 

Robert A. Hatcher ..... 
R. P. Bland 

A. H. Buckner 

J. B. Clark, Jr. 

T. T. Crittenden 

B. J. Franklin 

John M. Glover 

Robert A. Hatcher 

Chas. H. Morgan 

L. S. Metcalf 

H.M. Pollard 

David Rea 

S. L. Sawyer 

N. Ford 

G. F. Rothwell 

John B. Clark, Jr 

W. H. Hatch 

A. H. Buckner 

M. L. Clardy 

R. G. Frost ........ 

L. H. Davis 

R. P. Bland 

J. R. Waddell 

T. Allen 

R. Hazeltine 

T. M. Rice 

R. T. Van Horn ..... c 

Nicholas Ford 

J. G. Burrows . . . . c . 








































Adair January 29, 

Andrew January 29, 

Atchison January 14, 

Audrain December 17, 

Barry January 5, 

Barton December 12, 

Bates January 29, 

Benton January 3, 

Bollinger March 1, 

Boone November 16, 

Buchanan February 10, 




Caldwell December 26, 1836 

Callaway November 25, 1820 

Camden January 29, 1841 

Cape Girardeau October 1, 1812 

Carroll Januarys, 1833 

Carter March 10, 1859 

Cass September 14, 1835 

Cedar February 14, 1845 

Chariton November 16, 1820 

Christian March 8, 1860 

Clark December 15. 1818 




Butler February 27, 1849 

Clay January 2, 1822 

Clinton January 16, 1833 

Cole November 16, 1820 

Cooper December 17, 1818 

Crawford January 23, 1829 

Dade January 29, 1841 

Dallas December 10, 1844 

Daviess December 29, 1836 

DeKalb February 25, 1845 

Dent February 10, 1851 

Douglas October 19, 1857 

Dunklin February 14, 1845 

Franklin December 11, 1818 

Gasconade November 25, 1820 

Gentry February 12, 1841 

Greene January 2. 1833 

Grundy January 2, 1843 

Harrison February 14, 1845 

Henry December 13, 1834 

Hickory February 14, 1845 

Holt February 15, 1841 

Howard January 23, 1816 

Howell March 2, 1857 

Iron February 17, 1857 

Jackson December 15, 1826 

Jasper January 29, 1841 

Jefferson December 8, 1818 

Johnson December 13, 1834 

E.nox February 14, 1845 

Laclede February 24, 1849 

Lafayette November 16, 1820 

Lawrence .February 25, 1S45 

Lewis January 2, 1833 

Lincoln December 14, 1818 

Linn January 7, 1837 

Livingston January 6, 1837 

McDonald March 8, 1849 

Macon January 6, 18:37 

Madison December 14, 1818 

Maries March 2, 1855 

Marion December 23, 1826 

Mercer February 14, 1845 

Miller February 6, 1837 

Mississippi February 14, 1845 

Moniteau February 14, 1346 

Monroe January 6, 1831 

Montgomery ....December 14, 1818 

Morgan January 5, 1833 

New Madrid October 1, 1812 

Newton December 31, 1838 

Nodaway February 14, 1845 

Oregon..,. February 14, 1845 

Osage January 29, 1841 

Ozark January 29, 1841 

Pemiscot February 19, 1861 

Perry November 16, 1820 

Pettis January 26, 1833 

Phelps November 18, 1867 

Pike December 14, 1818 

Platte December 31, 1833 

Polk March 13, 1835 

Pulaski December 16, 1818 

Putnam February 28, 1845 

Ralls November 16, 1820 

Kandolph January 22, 1829 

Ray November 16, 1820 

Reynolds February 25, 1845 

Ripley Januarys, 1833 

St. Charles October 1, 1812 

St. Clair January 29, 1841 

St. Francois December 19, 1821 

Ste. Genevieve October 1, 1812 

SU Louis October 1, 1812 

Saline November 25, 1820 

Schuyler February 14, 1846 

Scotland January 29, 1841 

Scott December 28, 1821 

Shannon January 29, 1841 

Shelby January 2, 1835 

Stoddard January 2, 1835 

Stone February 10, 1851 

Sullivan February 16, 1845 

Taney January IG, 1837 

Texas February 14, 1835 

Vernon February 17, 1851 

Warren January 5, 1833 

Washington August 21, 1813 

Wayne December 11, 1818 

Webster March 3, 1835 

Worth Februarys, 1861 

Wright January 29, 1841 




Fort Sumter flred upon — Call for 75,000 men — Gov. Jackson refuses to furnish a 
man — U. S. Arsenal at Liberty, Mo., seized — Proclamation of Gov. Jackson — 
General Order No. 7 — Legislature convenes — Camp Jackson organized — Sterling 
Price appointed Major-General — Frost's letter to Lyon — Lyon's letter to Frost — 
Surrender of Camp Jackson — Proclamation of Gren. Harney — Conference between 
Price and Harney — Harney superseded by Lyon — Second Conference — Gov. Jack- 
son burns the bridges behind him — Proclamation of Gov. Jackson — Gen. Blair 
takes possession of Jefferson City — Proclamation of Lyon — Lyon at Springfield — 
State offices declared vacant — Gen. Fremont assumes command — Proclamation of 
Lieut.-Gov. Reynolds — Proclamation of Jeff. Thompson and Gov. Jackson — Death 
of Gen. Lyon — Succeeded by Sturgis — Proclamation of McCulloch and Gamble — 
Martial law declared — Second proclamation of Jeff. Thompson — President modi- 
fies Fremont's order — Fremont relieved by Hunter — Proclamation of Price — Hun- 
ter's Order of Assessment — Hunter declares Martial Law — Order relating to 
Newspapers — Halleck succeeds Hunter — Halleck's Order 81 — Similar order by 
Halleck — Boone County Standard confiscated — Execution of prisoners at Macon 
and Palmyra — Gen. Swing's Order No. 11 — Gen. Rosecrans takes command — Mas- 
sacre at Centralia — Death of Bill Anderson — Gen. Dodge succeeds Gen. Bose- 
crans— List of Battles. 

" Lastly stood war — 

With visage grim, stern looks, and blackly hued, 


Ah I why will kings forget that they are men? 
And men that they are brethren? Why delight 
In human sacrifice? Why burst the ties 
Of nature, that should knit their souls together 
In one soft bond of amity and love?" 

Fort Sumter was fired upon April 12, 1861. On April 15th, Presi- 
dent Lincoln issued a proclamation calling for 75,000 men, from the 
the militia of the several States, to suppress combinations in the South- 
ern States therein named. Simultaneously therewith, the Secretary of 
War sent a telegram to all the governors of the States, excepting 
those mentioned in the proclamation, requesting them to detail a cer- 
tain number of militia to serve for three months, Missouri's quota 
being four regiments. 

In response to this telegram. Gov. Jackson sent the following answer : 

Executive Department of Missouri, 
Jefferson City, April 17, 1861. 
Tq the Hon. Simon C AyiKROS , JSecretaiy of TFar, Washington, D.C.: 
Sir: Your dispatch of the 15th inst., making a call on Missouri for 


four regiments of men for immediate service, has been received. There 
can be, I apprehend, no doubt but these men are intended to form a 
part of the President's iirmy to make war upon the people of the 
seceded States. Your requisition, in my judgment, is illegal, unconsti- 
tutional, and can not be complied with. Not one mau will the State of 
Missouri furnish to carry on such an unholy war. 

C. F. Jackson, 

Governor of Missouri, 

April 21, 1861. U. S. Arsenal at Liberty was seized by order oi 
Governor Jackson. 

April 22, 1861. Governor Jackson issued a proclamation convening 
the Legislature of Missouri, on May following, in extra session, to take 
into consideration the momentous issues which were presented, and 
the attitude to be assumed by the State in the impending struggle. 

On the 22nd of April, 1861, the Adjutant-General of Missouri issued 
the following military order: 

Headquarters Adjutant-General's Office, Mo., 
Jefferson City, April 22, 1861. 
{General Orders No. 7.) 

I. To attain a greater degree of efficiency and perfection in organ- 
ization and discipline, the Commanding Officers of the several Military 
districts in this State, having four or more legally organized compa- 
nies therein, whose armories are within fifteen miles of each other, will 
assemble their respective commands at some place to be by them sever- 
ally designated, on the 3rd day of May, and to go into an encampment 
for a period of six days, as provided by law. Captains of companies 
not organized into battalions will report the strength of their compa- 
nies immediately to these headquarters, and await further orders. 

II. The Quartermaster-General will procure and issue to Quarter- 
masters of Districts, for these commands not now provided for, all 
necessary tents and camp equipage, to enable the commanding officers 
thereof to carry the foregoing orders into eficct. 

III. The Light Battery now attached to the Southwest Battalion, 
and one company of mounted riflemen, including all officers and sol- 
diers belonging to the First District, will proceed forthwith to St. Louis, 
and "cport to Gen. D. M. Frost for duty. The remaining companies 
of said battalion will be disbanded for the purpose of assisting in the 
organization of companies upon that frontier. The details in the exe- 


cution of the foregoing are intrusted to Lieutenant-Colonel John S. 
Bowen, commanding the Battalion. 

IV. The strength, organization, and equipment of the several com- 
panies in the District will be reported at once to these Headquarters, 
and District Inspectors will furnish all information which may be ser- 
viceable in ascertaining the condition of the State forces. 
By order of the Governor. 

Warwick Hough, 
Adjutant- General of Missouri, 

May 2, 1861. The Legislature convened in extra session. Many 
acts were passed, among which was one to authorize the Governor to 
purchase or lease David Ballentine's foundry at Boonville, for the man- 
ufticture of arms and munitions of war ; to authorize the Governor to 
appoint one Major-General; to authorize the Governor, when, in his 
opinion, the security and welfare of the State required it, to take pos- 
session of the railroad and telegraph lines of the State ; to provide for 
the organization, government, and support of the military forces ; to 
borrow one million of dollars to arm and equip the militia of the State 
to repel invasion, and protect the lives and property of the people. 
An act was also passed creating a '* Military Fund," to consist of all 
the money then in the treasury or that might thereafter be received 
from the one-tenth of one per cent, on the hundred dollars, levied by 
act of November, 1857, to complete certain railroads ; also the pro- 
ceeds of a tax of fifteen cents on the hundred dollars of the assessed 
value of the taxable property of the several counties in the State, and 
the proceeds of the two-mill tax, which had been theretofore appro- 
priated for educational purposes. 

May 3, 1861. *' Camp Jackson" was organized. 

May 10, 1861. Sterling Price appointed Major-General of State 

May 10, 1861. General Frost, commanding *' Camp Jackson," ad- 
dressed General N. Lyon, as follows: — 

Headquarters Camp Jackson, Missouri Militia, May 10, 1861. 
Capt. N. Lyojjt, Commanding JJ. 8. Troops in and about St. Louis 

Sir : I am constantly in receipt of information that you contem- 
plate an attack upon my camp, whilst I understand that you are im- 
pressed with the idea that an attack upon the Arsenal and United 
States troops is intended on the part of the Militia of Missouri. I am 


greatly at a loss to know what could justify you in attacking citizens 
of the United States, who are in lawful performance of their duties, 
devolvinor upon them under the Constitution in organizing and instruct- 
ing the militia of the State in obedieuce to her laws, and, therefore, 
have been disposed to doubt the correctness of the information I have 

I would be glad to know from you personally whether there is any 
truth in the statements that are constantly pouring into my ears. So 
far as regards any hostility being intended toward the United States, 
or its property or representatives by any portion of my command, or, 
as far as I can learn (and I think I am fully informed), of any other 
part of the State forces, I can positively say that the idea has never 
been entertained. On the contrary, prior to your taking command of 
the Arsenal, I proffered to Major Bell, then in command of the very 
few troops constituting its guard, the services of myself and all my 
command, and, if necessary, the whole power of the State, to protect 
the United States in the full possession of all her property. Upon 
General Harney taking command of this department, I made the same 
proffer of services to him, and authorized his Adjutant-General, Capt. 
Williams, to communicate the fact that such had been done to the 
War Department. I have had no occasion since to change any of the 
views I entertained at the time, neither of my own volition nor through 
orders of my constitutional commander. 

1 trust that after this explicit statement that we may be able, by 
fully understanding each other, to keep far from our borders the mis- 
fortunes which so unhappily affect our common country. 

This communication will be handed you by Colonel Bowen, my 
Chief of Staff, who will be able to explain anything not fully set forth 
in the foregoing. 

I am, sir, very respectfully your obedient servant. 

Brigadier-Gkneral D. M. Frost, 
Commanding Camp Jackson^ M. V. M, 

May 10, 1861. Gen. Lyon sent the following to Gen. Frost: 

Headquarters United States Troops, 
St. Louis, Mo., May 10, 1861. 
Gen. D. M. Frost, Commanding Camp Jackson: 

Sir: Your command is regarded as evidently hostile toward the 
Government of the United States. 

It is, for the most part, made up of those Secessionists who have 


openly avowed their hostility to the General Government, and have 
been plotting at the seizure of its property and the overthrow of its 
authority. You are openly in communication with the so-called 
Southern Confederacy, which is now at war with the United States, 
and you are receiving at your camp, from the said Confederacy and 
under its flag, large supplies of the material of war, most of which is 
known to be the property of the United States, These extraordinary 
preparations plainly indicate none other than the well-known purpose 
of the Governor of this State, under whose orders you are acting, and 
whose communication to the Legislature has just been responded to 
by that body in the most unparalleled legislation, having in direct 
view hostilities to the General Government and co-operation with its 

In view of these considerations, and of your failure to disperse in 
obedience to the proclamation of the ^^resident, and of the imminent 
necessities of State policy and warfare, and the obligations imposed 
upon me by instructions from Washington, it is my duty to demand, 
and I do hereby demand of you an immediate surrender of your com- 
mand, with no other conditions than that all persons surrendering 
under this command shall be humanely and kindly treated. Believing 
myself prepared to enforce this demand, one-half hour's time before 
doing so will be allowed for your compliance therewith. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

N. Lyon, 
Captain Second Infantry ^ Commanding Troops. 

May 10, 1861. Camp Jackson surrendered and j^risoners all 
released excepting Capt. Emmet McDonald, who refused to subscribe 
to the parole. 

May 12, 1861. Brigadier-General Wm. S. Harney issued a procla- 
mation to the people of Missouri, saying " he would carefully abstain 
from the exercise of any unnecessary powers," and only use "the 
military force stationed in this district in the last resort to preserve 

May 14, 1861. General Harney issued a second proclamation. •• 

May 21, 1861. General Harney held a conference with General 
Sterling Price, of the Missouri State Guards. 

May 31, 1861. General Harney superseded by General Lyon. 

June 11, 1861. A second conference was held between the National 
and State authorities in St. Louis, which resulted in nothing. 


June 11, 1861. Gov. Jackson left St. Louis for Jefferson City, 
burning the railroad bridges behind him, and cutting telegraph wires. 

June 12, 1861. Governor Jackson issued a proclamation calling 
into active service 50,000 militia, "to repel invasion, protect life, 
property," etc. 

June 15, 1861. Col. F. P. Blair took possession of the State Capi- 
tal, Gov. Jackson, Gen. Price and other officers having left on the 13th 
of June for Boonville. 

June 17, 1861. Buttle of Boonville look place between the forces 
of Gen. Lyon and Col. John S. Marmaduke. 

June 18, 1861. General Lyon issued a proclamation to the people 
of Missouri. 

July 5, 1861. Battle at Carthage between the forces of Gen. Sigel 
and Gov, Jackson. 

July 6, 1861. Gen. Lyon reached Springfield. 

July 22, 1861. State convention met and declared the offices of 
Governor, Lieutenant-Governor and Secretary of State vacated. 

July 26, 1861. Gen. John C. Fremont assumed command of the 
Western Department, with headquarters in St. Louis. 
• July 31, 1861. Lieutenant-Goveruor Thomas C. Reynolds issued 
a proclamation at New Madrid. 

August 1, 1861. General Jeff. Thompson issued a proclamation at 

August 2, 1861. Battle of Dug Springs, between Captain Steele's 
forces and General Rains. 

August 5, 1861. Governor Jackson issued a proclamation at New 

August 5, 1861. Battle of Athens. 

August 10, 1861. Battle of Wilson's Creek, between the forces 
under General Lyon and General McCuUoch. In this engagement 
General Lyon was killed. General Sturgis succeeded General Lyon. 

August 12, 1861. McCulloch issued a proclamation, and soon left 

August 20, 1861. General Price issued a proclamation. 

August 24, 1861. Governor Gamble issued a proclamation calling 
foi' 32,000 men for six months to protect the property and lives of the 
citizens of the State. 

August 30, 1861. General Fremont declared martial law, and 
declared that the slaves of all persons who should thereafter take an 
active part with the enemies of the Government ahould be free. 


September 2, 1801. General Jeff. Thompson issQed a proclamatioa 
in response to Fremont's proclamation, 

September 7, 1861. Battle at Dry wood Creek. 

September 11, 1861. President Lincoln modified the clause in Gen. 
Fremont's declaration of martial law, in reference to the confiscation 
of property and liberation of slaves. 

September 12, 1861. General Price begins the attack at Lexing- 
ton on Colonel Mulligan's forces. 

September 20, 1861. Colonel Mulligan with 2,640 men surren- 

October 25, 1861. . Second battle at" Springfield. 

October 28, 1861. Passage by Governor Jackson's Legislature, 
at Neosho, of an ordinance of secession. 

November 2, 1861. General Fremont succeeded by General David 

November 7, 1861. General Grant attacked Belmont. 

November 9, 1861. General Hunter succeeded by General Halleck, 
wlio took command on the 19th of same month, with headquarters in 
St. Louis. 

November 27, 1861. General Price issued prockmation calling for 
50,000 men, at Neosho, Missouri. 

December 12, 1861. General Hunter issued his order of assess- 
ment upon certain wealthy citizens in St. Louis, for feeding and cloth- 
ing Union refugees. 

December 23-25. Declared martial law in St. Louis and the 
country adjacent, and covering all the railroad lines. 

March 6, 1862. Battle at Pea Ridge between the forces under Gen- 
erals Curtis and Van Dorn. 

January 8, 1862. Provost Marshal Farrar, of St. Louis, issued the 
following order in reference to newspapers : 

Office of the Provost Marshal, 
General Department of Missouri, 
St. Louis, January 8, 1862. 
(General Order No. 10.) 

It is hereby ordered that from and after this date the publishers of 
newspapers in the State of Missouri (St. Louis City papers excepted), 
furnish to this office, immediately upon publication, one copy of each 
issue, for inspection. A failure to comply with this order will render 
the newspaper liable to suppression. 


Local Provost Marshals will furnish the proprietors with copies of 
this order, and attend to its immediate enforcement. 

Bernard G. Farrar, 
Provost Marshal General. 

January 26, 1862. General Halleck issued order (No. 18) which 
forbade, among other things, the display of Secession flags in the 
hands of women or oil carriages, in the vicinity of the military prison 
in McDowell's College, the carriages to be confiscated and the ofiend- 
ing women to be arrested. 

February 4, 1862. General Halleck issued another order similar to 
Order No. 18, to railroad companies and to the professors and direct- 
ors of the State University at Columbia, forbidding the funds of the 
institution to be used " to teach treason or to instruct traitors." 

February 20, 1862. Special Order No. 120 convened a military 
commission, which sat in Columbia, March following, and tried Ed- 
mund J. Ellis, of Columbia, editor and proprietor of " The Boone 
County Standard,** for the publication of information for the benefit 
of the enemy, and encouraging resistance to the United States Gov- 
ernment. Ellis was found g-uiltv, was banished during the war from 
Missouri, and his printing materials confiscated and sold. 

April, 1862. General Halleck left for Corinth, Mississippi, leaving 
General Schofield in command. 

June, 1862. Battle at Cherry Grove between the forces under 
Colonel Joseph C. Porter and Colonel H. S. Lipscomb. 

June, 1862. Battle at Pierce's Mill between *-' ^ forces under Major 
John Y. Clopper and Colonel Porter. 

July 22, 1862. Battle at Florida. 

July 28, 1862. Battle at Moore's Mill. 

August 6, 1862. Battle near Kirksville. 

August 11, 1862. Battle at Independence. 

August 16, 1862. Battle at Lone Jack. 

September 13, 1862. Battle at Newtonia. 

September 25, 1862. Ten Confederate prisoners were executed at 
Macon, by order of General INIcrrill. 

October 18, 1862. Ten Confederate prisoners executed at Palmyra, 
by order of General McNeill. 

January 8, 1868. Battle at Springfield between the forces of Gen- 
eral Marmadiiko and General E. B. Brown. 

April 26, 1863. Battle at Cape Girardeau. 


August — , 18G3. General Jeff. Thompson captured at Pocahontas, 
Arkansas, with his staff. 

August 25, 1863. General Thomas Ewing issued his celebrated 
Order No. 11, at Kansas City, Missouri, which is as follows : — 

Headquarters District of the Border, 
Kansas City, Mo., August 25, 1863. 


(General Order No. 11.) 

First. — All persons living in Cass, Jackson and Bates Counties, 
Missouri, and in that part of Vernon included in this district, except 
those living within one mile of the limits of Independence, Hickman's 
Mills, Pleasant Hill and Harrisonville, and except those in that part 
of Kaw Township, Jackson County, north of Brush Creek and west 
of the Big Blue, embracing Kansas City and Westport, are hereby 
ordered to remove from their present places of residence within fifteen 
days from the date hereof. 

Those who, within that time, establish their loyalty to the satisfac- 
tion of the commanding officer of the military station nearest their 
present place of residence, will receive from him certificates statin* 
the fact of their loyalty, and the names of the witnesses by whom it 
can be shown. All who receive such certificate will be permitted to 
remove to any military station in this district, or to any part of the 
State of Kansas, except the counties on the eastern borders of the 
State. All others shall remove out of this district. Officers com- 
manding comjjanies and detachments serving in the counties named, 
will see that this paragraph is promptly obeyed. 

Second. — All grain and hay in the field, or under shelter, in the 
district from which the inhabitants are required to remove within reach 
of military stations, after the 9th day of September next, will be 
taken to such stations and turned over to the proper officer there, and 
report of the amount so turned over made to district headquarters, 
specifying the names of all loyal owners and the amount of such 
produce taken from them. All grain and hay found in such district 
after the 9th day of September next, not convenient to such stations, 
will be destroyed. 

Third. — The provisions of General Order No. 10, from these 
headquarters, will at once be vigorously executed by officers com- 
manding in the parts of the district, and at the stations not subject to 
the operations of paragraph First of this Order — and especially in 
the towns of Independence. Westport and Kansas City. 



Fourth. — Paragraph 3, General Order No. 10, is revoked as to all 
who have borne arms against the Goverumeut in the district since 
August 20, 1863. 

By order of Brigadier-General Ewing : 

H. Hannahs, Adjutant. 

October 13. Battle of Marshall. 

January, 1864. General Rosecrans takes command of the Depart- 

September, 1864. Battle at Pilot Knob, Harrison and Little Mo- 
reau River. 

October 5, 1864. Battle at Prince's Ford and James Gordon's 

October 8, 1864. Battle at Glasgow. 

October 20, 1864. Battle at Little Blue Creek. 

September 27, 1864. Massacre at Centralia, by Captain Bill An- 

October 27, 1864. Captain Bill Anderson killed. 

December — , 1864. General Rosecrans relieved and General 
Dodge appointed to succeed him. 

Nothing occurred specially, of a military character, in the State after 
December, 1864. We have, in the main, given the facts as they 
occurred without comment or entering into details. Many of the 
minor incidents and skirmishes of the war have been omitted because 
of our limited space. 

It is utterly impossible, at this date, to give the names and dates of 
all the battles fought in Missouri during the Civil War. It will be 
found, however, that the list given below, which has been arranged for 
convenience, contains the prominent battles and skirmishes which took 
place within the State : — 

Potosi, May H, 18G1. 
Boonville, June 17, 1861. 
Carthage, July 5, ISGI. 
Monroe Station, July 10, 18G1. 
Overton's Run, July 17, 1861. 
Dug Siiring, August 2, 1861. 
Wilson's Creek, August 10, 1801. 
Athens, August 5, 1861. 
Moreton, August 20, 1801, 
Bennett's Mills, September—, 1861. 
Drywood Creek, September 7, 1861. 
Norfolk, September 10, 1861. 
Lexington, September 12-20, 1861. 

Blue "Mills Landing, September 17, 1861, 
Glasgow Mistake, September 20, 1801. 
Osceola, September 25, 1861. 
Shanghai, October 13, 1861. 
Lebanon, October 13, 1861. 
Linn Creek, October 16, 1861. 
Big River Bridge, October 15, 1861, 
Fredericktown, October 21, 1861. 
Springfleld, October 25, 1801 
Belmont, November 7, 1861. 
Piketon, Nox'ember 8, 1801. 
Little Blue, November 10, 1861. 
Clark's Station, November 11, 1861. 



Mt. Zion Church, December 28, 1861. 
Silver Creek, January 15, 1862. 
New Madrid, February 28, 1862. 
Pea Ridge, March 6, 1862, 
Neosho, April 22, 1862. 
Rose Hill, July 10, 1862. 
Chariton River, July 30, 1863. 
Cherry Grove, June — , 1862. 
Pierce's Mill, June — , 1862. 
Florida, July 23, 1862. 
Moore's Mill, July 28, 1862. 
Kirksvllle, August 6, 1863. 
Compton's Ferry, August 8, 1862. 
Yellow Creek, August 13, 1862. 
Independence, August 11, 1862. 

Lone Jack, August 16, 1862. 
Newtonia, Septeraber 13, 1863. 
Springfield, January 8, 1863. 
Cape Girardeau, April 29, 1863. 
Marshall, October 13, 1863. 
Pilot Knob, September — , 1864. 
Harrison, September — , 1864. 
Moreau River, October 7, 1864. 
Prince's Ford, October 5, 1864. 
Glasgow, October 8, 1864. 
Little Blue Creek, October 20, 1864. 
Albany, October 27, 1864. 
Near Rocheport, September 23, 1864. 
Centralia, September 27, 1864. 



Black Hawk War — Mormon Difficulties — Florida War — Mexican War. 

On the fourteenth day of May, 1832, a bloody engagement took 
place between the regular forces of the United States, and a part of 
the Sacs, Foxes, and Winnebago Indians, commanded by Black 
Hawk and Keokuk, near Dixon's Ferry in Illinois. 

The Governor (John Miller) of Missouri, fearing these savages 
would invade the soil of his State, ordered Major-General Richard 
Gentry to raise one thousand volunteers for the defence of the fron- 
tier. Five companies were at once raised in Boone county, and in 
Callaway, Montgomery, St. Cliarles, Lincoln, Pike, Marion, Ralls, 
Clay and Monroe other companies were raised. 

Two of these companies, commanded respectively by Captain John 
Jamison of .Callaway, and Captain David M. Hickman of Boone 
county, were mustered into service in July for thirty days, and put 
under command of Major Thomas W. Conyers. 

This detachment, accompanied by General Gentry, arrived at Fort 
Pike on the 15th of July, 1832. Finding thnt the Indians had not 
crossed the Mississippi into Missouri, General Gentry returned to 
Columbia, leaving the fort in charge of Major Conyers. Thirty days 
having expired, the command under Major Conyers was relieved by two 


other companies under Captiiins Sinclair Kirtley, of Boone, and Patrick 
Ewing, of Callaway. This detachment was marched to Fort Pike by 
Col. Austin A. King, who conducted the two companies under Major 
Conyers home. Major Conyers was left in charge of the fort, where 
be remained till September following, at which time the Indian troub- 
les, so far as Missouri was concerned, having all subsided, the frontier 
forces were mustered out of service. 

Black Hawk continued the war in Iowa and Illinois, and was finallj' 
dtfeated and captured in 1833. 


In 1832, Joseph Smith, the leader of the Mormons, and the chosein 
prophet and apostle, as he claimed, of the Most High, came with 
many followers to Jackson county, Missouri, where they located and 
entered several thousand acres of land. 

The object of his coming so far West — upon the very outskiits of 
civilization at that time — was to more securely establish his church, 
and the more effectively to instruct his followers in its peculiar tenets 
and practices. 

Upon the present town site of Independence the Mormons located 
their "Zion," and gave it the name of "The New Jerusalem." 
They published here the Evening Star^ and made themselves gener- 
ally obnoxious to the Gentiles, who were then in a minority, by their 
denunciatory articles through their paper, their clannishness and their 
polygamous practices. 

Dreading the demoralizing influence of a paper which seemed to be 
inspired only with hatred and malice toward them, the Gentiles 
threw the press and type into the Missouri River, tarred and feathered 
one of their bishops, and otherwise gave the Mormons and their lead- 
ers to understand that they must conduct themselves in an entirely 
different manner it" they wished to be let alone. 

After the destruction of their paper and press, they became fu- 
riously incensed, and sought many opportunities for retaliation. Mat- 
ters 'continued in an uncertain condition until the 31st of October, 
1833, when a deadly conflict occurred near Westport, in which two 
Gentiles and one Mormon were killed. 

On the 2d of October following the Mormons were overpowered, 
and compelled to lay down their arms and agree to leave the county 
with their families by January 1st on the condition that the owner 
would be paid for his printing press. 


Leaving Jackson county, they crossed the Missouri and located in 
Clay, Carroll, Caldwell and other counties, and selected in Caldwell 
county a town site, which they called " Fju* West," and where they 
entered more land for their future homes. 

Through the influence of their missionaries, who were exerting 
themselves in the East and in different portions of Europe, converts 
had constantly flocked to their standard, and «' Far West," and other 
Mormon settlements, rapidly prospered. 

In 1837 they commenced the erection ot a magnificent temple, but 
never finished it. As their settlements increased in numbers, they 
became bolder in their practices and deeds of lawlessness. 

Durino- the summer of 1838 two of their leaders settled in the town 
of De Witt, on the 'Missouri River, having purchased the land from 
an Illinois merchant. De Witt was in Carroll county, and a good 
point from which to forward goods and immigrants to their town — 
Far West. 

Upon its being ascertained that these parties were Mormon leaders, 
the Gentiles called a public meeting, which was addressed by some of 
the prominent citizens of the county. Nothing, however, was done at 
this meeting, but at a subsequent meeting, which was held a few days 
afterward, a committee of citizens was appointed to notify Col. Hin- 
kle (one of the Mormon leaders at De Witt), what they intended to 

Col. Hinkle upon being notified by this committee became indig- 
nant, and threatened extermination to all who should attempt to molest 
him or the Saints. 

In anticipation of trouble, and believing that the Gentiles would 
attempt to force them from De Witt, Mormon recruits flocked to the 
town from every direction, and pitched their tents in and around the 
town in great numbers. 

The Gentiles, nothing daunted, planned an attack upon this en- 
campment, to take place on the 21st day of September, 1838, and, 
accordingly, one hundred and fifty men 'bivouacked near the town on 
that day. A conflict ensued, but nothing serious occurred. 

The Mormons evacuated their works and fled to some log houses, 
where they could the more successfully resist the Gentiles, who had 
in the meantime returned to their camp to await reinforcements. 
Troops from Saline, Ray and other counties came to their assist- 
ance, and increased their number to five hundred men. 

Congreve Jackson was chosen Brigadier- General ; Ebenezer Price, 


Colonel ; Singleton Vjiughun, Lieutenant-Colonel, and Sarshel Woo J3, 
Major. After some days of discipline, this brigade prepared for an 
assault, but before the attack was commenced Judge James Earicksou 
and William F. Dunnica, influential citizens of Howard county, asked 
permission of General Jackson to let them try and adjust the difficul- 
ties without any bloodshed. 

It was finally agreed that Judge Earickson should propose to the 
Mormons, that if they would pay for all the cattle they had killed be- 
longing to the citizens, and load their wasfons during the night and be 
ready to move by ten o'clock next morning, and make no further 
attempt to settle in Carroll county, the citizens would purchase at 
first cost their lots in De Witt and one or two adjoining tracts of 

Col. Hinkle, the leader of the Mormons, at first refused all attempts 
to settle the difficulties in this way, but finally agreed to the proposi- 

In accordance therewith, the Mormons without further delay, 
loaded up their wagons for the town of Far West, in Caldwell county. 
Whether the terms of the agreement were ever carried out, on the 
part of the citizens, is not known. 

The Mormons had doubtless suffered much and in many ways — the 
result of their own acts — but their trials and sufferings were not at 
an end. 

In 1838 the discord between the citizens and Mormons became so 
great that Governor Boggs issued a proclamation ordering Major- 
General David R. Atchison to call the militia of his division to enforce 
the laws. He called out a part of the first brigade of the Missouri 
State Militia, under command of Gen. A. W. Doniphan, who pro- 
ceeded to the seat of war. Gen. John B. Clark, of Howard county, 
was placed in command of the militia. 

The Mormon forces numbered about 1,000 men, and were led by 
G. W. Hinkle. The first ensrao^ement occurred at Crooked river, 
where one Mormon was killed. The principal fight took place at 
Hauijhn's Mills, where eighteen Mormons were killed and the balance 
captured, some of them being killed after they had surrendered. 
Only one militiaman was wounded. 

In the month of October, 1838, Joe Smith surrendered the town of 
Far West to Gen. Doniphan, agreeing to his conditions, viz. : That 
they should deliver up their arms, surrender their prominent leaders 
for trial, and the remainder of the Mormons should, with their 


families, leave the State. Indictments were found against a number 
of these leaders, including Joe Smith, who, while being taken to 
Boone county for trial, made his escape, and was afterward, iu 1844, 
killed at Carthage, Illinois, with his brother Hiram. 


In September, 1837, the Secretary of War issued a requisition on 
Governor Boggs, of Missouri, for six hundred volunteers for service 
in Florida against the Seminole Indians, with whom the Creek nation 
had made common cause under Osceola. 

The first regiment was phiefly raised in Boone county by Colonel 
Richard Gentry, of which he was elected Colonel ; John W. Price, of 
Howard county, Lieutenant-Colonel ; Harrison H. Hughes, also of 
Howard, Major. Four companies of the second regiment were raised 
and attached to the first. Two of these companies were composed of 
Delaware and Osase Indians. 

October 6, 1837, Col. Gentry's regiment left Columbia for the seat 
of war, stopping on the way at Jefferson barracks, ivhere they were 
mustered into service. 

Arriving at Jackson barracks. New Orleans, they were from thence 
transported in brigs across the Gulf to Tampa Bay, Florida. Gen- 
eral Zachary Taylor, who then commanded in Florida, ordered Col. 
Gentry to march to Okee-cho-bee Lake, one hundred and thirty-five 
miles inland by the route traveled. Having reached the Kissemmee 
river, seventy miles distant, a bloody battle ensued, in which Col. 
Gentry was killed. The Missourians, though losing their gallant 
leader, continued the. fight until the Indians were totally routed, leav- 
ing many of their dead and wounded on the field. There being no 
further service required of the Missourians, they returned to their 
homes in 1838. 


Soon after Mexico declared war, against the United States, on the 
8th and 9th of May, 1846, the battles of Palo Alto and Resaca de la 
Palma were fought. Great excitement prevailed throughout the 
country. In none of her sister States, however, did the fires of 
patriotism burn more intensely than in Missouri. Not waiting for the 
call for volunteers, the " St. Louis Legion " hastened to the field of 
conflict. The " Legion" was commanded by Colonel A. R. Easton. 
During the month of May, 184(3, Governor Edwards, of Missouri, 


called for volunteers to join the "Army of the West," an expedition 
to Sante Fe — under command of General Stephen W. Kearney 

Fort Leavenworth was the appointed rendezvous for the volunteers. 
By the 18th of June, the full complement of companies to compose 
the first regiment had arrived from Jackson, Lafayette, Clay, Sa- 
line, Franklin, Cole, Howard and Callaway counties. Of this regi- 
ment, A. W. Doniphan was made Colonel ; C. F. Ruff, Lieutenant- 
Colonel, and Wm. Gilpin, Major. The battalion of light artillery 
from St. Louis was commanded by Captains R. A. Weightman and 
A. W. Fischer, with Major M. L. Clark as field officer ; battalions of 
infantry from Platte and Cole counties commanded by Captains 
.Murphy and W. Z. Augney respectively, and the " Laclede Rangers," 
from St. Louis, by Captain Thomas B. Hudson, aggregating all told, 
from Missouri, 1,658 men. In the summer of 1846 Hon. Sterling 
Price resigned his seat in Congress and raised one mounted regiment, 
one mounted extrti battalion, and one extra battalion of Mormon in- 
fantry to reinforce the "Army of the West." Mr. Price was made 
Colonel, and D. D. Mitchell Lieutenant-Colonel. 

In August, 1847, Governor Edwards made another requisition for 
one thousand men, to consist of infantry. The regiment was raised 
at once. John Dougherty, of Clay county, was chosen Colonel, but 
before the regiment marched the President countermanded the order. 

A company of mounted volunteers was raised in Ralls county, com- 
manded by Captain Wm. T. Lafland. Conspicuous among the en- 
gagements in which the Missouri volunteers participated in Mexico 
were the battles of Bracito, Sacramento, Canada, El Embudo, Taos 
and Santa Cruz de Rosales. The forces from Missouri were mustered 
out in 1848, and will ever be remembered in the history of the Mexi- 
can war, for 

"A thousand glorious actions that might claim 
Triumpbanl laurels and immoital fame. 



Missouri as an Agricultural State — The Different Crops— Live Stock — Horses — 
Mules — Milch Cows — Oxen and other Cattle— Sheep — Hogs— Comparisons — 
Missouri adapted to Live Stock — Cotton — Broom-Corn and other Products — 
Fruits — Berries- Grapes — Railroads— First Neigh of the "Iron Horse " in Mis- 
souri — Names of Railroads — Manufactures — Great Bridge at St. Louis. 

Agriculture is tlie greatest among all the arts of man, as it is the 
first in supplying his necessities. It favors and strengthens popula- 
tion ; it creates and maintains manufactures ; gives employment to 
navigation and furnishes materials to commerce. It animates every 
species of industry, and opens to nations the safest channels of 
wealth. It is the strongest bond of well regulated society, the surest 
basis of internal peace, and the natural associate of correct morals. 
Among all the occupations and professions of life, there is none more 
honorable, none more independent, and none more conducive to health 
and happiness. 

** In ancient times the sacred plow employ'd 
The kings, and awful fathers of mankind ; 
And some, with whom compared your insect tribes 
Are but the beings of a summer's day. 

Have held the scale of empire, rul©d the storm 

Of mighty war with unwearied hand, 

Disdaining little delicacies, seized 

The plow and greatly independent lived." 

As an agricultural region, Missouri is not surpassed by any State in 
the Union. It is indeed the farmer's kingdom, where he always reaps 
an abundant harvest. The soil, in many portions of the State, has 
an open, flexible structure, quickly absorbs the most excessive rains, 
and retains moisture with great tenacity. This being the case, it is 
not so easily affected by drouth. The prairies are covered with sweet, 
luxuriant grass, equally good for grazing and hay ; grass not sur- 
passed by the Kentucky blue grass — the best of clover and timothy 
in growing and fattening cattle. This grass is now as full of life-giv- 
ing nutriment as it was when cropped by the buffalo, the elk, the an- 
telope, and the deer, and costs the herdsman nothing. 


No State or territory has a more complete and rapid system of nat- 
ural drainage, or a more abundant supply of pure, fresh water than 
Missouri. Both man :ind beast may slake their thirst from a thousand 
perennial fountains, which gush in limpid streams from the hill-sides, 
and wend their way through verdant valleys and along smiling prai- 
ries, varying in size, as they onward flow, from the diminutive brooklet 
to the giant river. 

Here, nature has generously bestowed her attractions of climate, 
soil and scenery to please and gratify man while earning his bread in 
the sweat of his brow. Being thus munificently endowed, Missouri 
oflers superior inducements to the farmer, and bids him enter her 
broad domain and avail himself of her varied resources. 

We present here a table showing the product of each principal crop 
in Missouri for 1878 : — 

Indian Corn 93,002,000 bushels. 

Wheat 20,196,000 *• 

Rye 732,000 " 

Oats 19,584,000 •• 

Buckwheat 46,400 " 

Potatoes 5,415,000 " 

Tobacco 23,023,000 pounds. 

Hay 1,620,000 tons. 

There were 3,552,000 acres in corn; wheat, 1,83(5,000; rye, 
48,800; oats, 640,000; buckwheat, 2,900; potatoes, 72,200; to- 
bacco, 29,900; hay, 850,000. Value of each crop: corn, $24,196,- 
224; wheat, $13,531,320; rye, $300,120; oats, $3,325,120; buck- 
wheat, $24,128; potatoes, $2,057,700; tobacco, $1,151,150; hay, 

Average cash value of crops per acre, $7.69 ; average yield of corn 
per acre, 26 bushels ; wheat, 11 bushels. 

Next in importance to the corn crop in value is live stock. The fol- 
lowing table shows the number of hordes, mules, and milch cows in 
the different States for 1879 : — 





New Hampshire 



Rhode Island 


New York 

New Jersey 





North Carolina 

South Carolina , 



Alabama . 



Texas , 



West Virginia , 









Missouri » 





Nevada, Colorado, and Territories. 


















































































It will be seen from the above table, that Missouri is t\iQ fifth State 
in the number of horses j fifth in number of milch cows, and the 
leading State in number of mules, having 11,700 more than Texas, 
which produces the next largest number. Of oxen and other cattle, 
Missouri produced in 1879, 1,632,000, which was more than any other 
State produced excepting Texas, which had 4,800,00. In 1879 Mis- 
souri raised 2,817,600 hogs, which was more than any other State 
produced, excepting Iowa. The number of sheep was 1,296,400. 
The number of hogs packed in 1879, by the different States, is as 
follows : — 





































From the above it will be seen that Missouri annually packs more 
hogs than any other State excepting Illinois, and that she ranks third 
in the average weight. 

We see no reason why Missouri should not be the foremost stock- 
raising State of the Union. In addition to the enormous yield of 
corn and oats upon which the stock is largely dependent, the climate 
is well adapted to their growth and health. Water is not only inex- 
haustible, but everywhere convenient. The ranges of stock are 
boundless, affording for nine months of the year, excellent pasturage 
of nutritious wild grasses, which grow in great luxuriance upon the 
thousand prairies. 

Cotton is grown successfully in many counties of the southeastern 
portions of the State, especially in Stoddard, Scott, Pemiscot, Butler, 
New Madrid, Lawrence and Mississippi. 

Sweet potatoes are produced in abundance and are*not only sure 
but profitable. 

Broom corn, sorghum, castor beans, white beans, peas, hops, thrive 
well, and all kinds of garden vegetables, are produced in great abun- 
dance and are found in the markets during all seasons of the year. 
Fruits of every variety, including the apple, pear, peach, cherries, 
apricots and nectarines, are cultivated with great success, as are also, 
the strawberry, gooseberry, currant, raspberry and blackberry. 

The grape has not been produced with that success that was at first 
anticipated, yet the yield of wine for the year 1879, was nearly half a 
million gallons. Grapes do well in Kansas, and we see no reason 
why they should not be as surely and profitably grown in a similar 
climate and soil in Missouri, and particularly in many of the counties 
north and cast of the Missouri River. 


Twenty-nine years ago, the neigh of the •* iron horse " was heard 
for the first time, within the broad domain of Missouri. His coming 
presaged the dawn of a brighter and grander era in the history of the 


State. Her fertile prairies, and more prolific valleys would soon he 
of easy access to the oncoming tide of immigration, and the ores and 
minerals of her hills and mountains would he developed, and utilized 
in her manufticturing and industrial enterprises. 

Additional facilities would be opened to the marts of trade and 
commerce ; transportation from the interior of the State would be se- 
cured : a fresh impetus would be given to the growth of her towns 
and cities, and new hopes and inspirations would be imparted to all 
her people. 

Since 1852, the initial period of railroad building in Missouri, be- 
tween four and five thousand miles of track have been laid ; addi- 
tional roads are now being constructed, and many others in contem- 
plation. The State is already well supplied with railroads which 
thread her surface in all directions, bringing her remotest districts 
into close connection with St. Louis, that great center of western 
railroads and inland commerce. These roads have a capital stock ag- 
gregating more than one hundred millions of dollars, and a funded 
debt of about the same amount. 

The lines of roads which are operated in the State are the follow- 

Missouri Pacific — chartered May 10th, 1850; The St. Louis, Iron 
Mountain & Southern Railroad, which is a consolidation of the Arkan- 
sas Branch ; The Cairo, Arkansas & Texas Railroad ; The Cairo & 
Fulton Railroad; The Wabash, St. Louis & Pacific Railway; St. 
Louis & San Francisco Railway ; The Chicago, Alton & St. Louis 
Railroad ; The Hannibal & St. Joseph Railroad ; The Missouri, Kan- 
sas "- Texas Railroad ; The Kansas City, St. Joseph & Council Bluffs 
Railroad ; The Keokuk & Kansas City Railway Company ; The St. 
Louis, Salem & Little Rock Railroad Company ; The Missouri & 
Western ; The St. Louis, Keokuk & Northwestern Railroad ; The St. 
Louis, Hannibal & Keokuk Railroad ; The Missouri, Iowa & Nebraska 
Railway ; The Quincy, Missouri & Pacific Railroad ; The Chicago, 
Rock Island & Pacific Railway ; The Burlington & Southwestern 


The natural resources of Missouri especially fit her for a great man- 
ufacturing State. She is rich in soil ; rich in all the elements which 
supply the furnace, the machine shop and the planing mill ; rich in 
the multitude and variety of her gigantic forests ; rich in her marble, 
stone and granite quarries ; rich in her mines of iron, coal, lead and 


zinc ; rich in strong arms and willing hands to apply the force ; rich 
in water power and river navigation ; and rich in her numerous and 
well-built railroads, whose numberless engines thunder alonj; their 
multiplied track-ways. 

Missouri contains over fourteen thousand manufacturins: establish- 
ments, 1,965 of which arc using steam and give employment to 
80,000 hands. The capital employed is about $100,000,000, the 
material annually used and worked up, amounts to over $150,000,- 
000, and the value of the products put upon the markets $250,000,000, 
while the wages paid are more than $40,000,000. 

The leading manufacturing counties of the State, are St. Louis, 
Jackson, Buchanan, St. Charles, Marion, Franklin, Greene, Lafay- 
ette, Platte, Cape Girardeau, and Boone. Three-fourths, however, of 
the manufacturing is done in St. Louis, which is now al)out the second 
manufacturing city in the Union. Flouring mills produce annually 
about $38,194,000; carpentering $18,763,000 ; meat-packing $16,- 
769,000 ; tobacco $12,496,000 ; iron and castings $12,000,000 ; liquors 
$11,245,000; clothing $10,022,000; lumber $8,652,000; bagging 
and bags $6,914,000, and many other smaller industries iu propor- 


Of the many public improvements which do honor to the State and 
reflect great credit upon the genius of their projectors, we have space 
only, to mention the great bridge at St. Louis. 

This truly wonderful construction is built of tubular steel, total 
length of which, with its approaches, is 6,277 feet, at a cost of nearly 
$8,000,000. The bridge spans the Mississippi from the Illinois to 
the Missouri shore, and has separate railroad tracks, roadwavs, and 
foot paths. In durability, architectural beauty and practical utilitv, 
there is, perhaps, no similar piece of workmanship that approximates 

The structure of Darius upon the Bosphorus ; of Xerxes upon the 
Hellespont ; of Cajsar upon the Rhine ; and Trajan upon the Danube, 
famo\is in ancient history, were built for military purposes, that over 
them might pass invading armies with their munitions of war, to de- 
stroy commerce, to lay in waste the provinces, and to slauuhter the 

But the erection of this was for a higher and nobler purpose. Over 
it are coming the trade and merchandise of the opulent East, and 
thence are passing the untold riches of the West. Over it are crowd- 



ing legions of men, armed not with the weapons of war, but with the 
implements of peace and industry ; men who are skilled in all the arts 
of agriculture, of manufacture and of mining; men who will hastea 
the day when St. Louis shall rank in population and importance, sec- 
ond to no city on the continent, and when Missouri shall proudly fill 
the measure of greatness, to which she is naturally so justly entitled. 



Public School System — Public School System of Missouri — Lincoln Institute — Offi- 
cers of Public School System — Certificates of Teachers — University of Missouri — 
Schools — Colleges — Institutions of Learning — Location — Libraries — Newspa- 
pers and Periodicals — No. of School Children — Amount expended — Value oi 
Grounds and Buildings — " The Press." 

The first constitution of Missouri provided that *' one school or more 
shall be established in each township, as soon as practicable and neces- 
sary, where the poor shall be taught gratis." 

It will be seen that even at that early day (1820) the framers of the 
constitution made provision for at least a primary education for the 
poorest and the humblest, taking it for granted that those who were 
able would avail themselves of educational advantages which were not 

The establishment of the public-school system, in its essential fea- 
tures, was not perfected until 1839, during the administration of Gov- 
ernor Boggs, and since that period the system has slowly grown into 
favor, not only in Missouri, but throughout the United States. The 
idea of a free or public school for all classes was not at first a popular 
one, especially among those who had the means to patronize private 
institutions of learning. In upholding and maintaining public schools 
the opponents of the system felt that they were not only compromis- 
ing their own standing among their more wealthy neighbors, but that 
they were, to some extent, bringing opprobrium upon their children. 
Entertaining such prejudices, they naturally thought that the training 
received at public schools could not be otherwise than defective ; hence 
many years of probation passed before the popular mind was prepared 


to appreciate the benefits and blessings which spring from these insti- 

Every year only adds to their popularity, and commends them the 
more earnestly to the fostering care of our State and National Legis- 
latures, and to the esteem and favor of all classes of our people. 

We can hardly conceive of two grander or more potent promoters of 
civilization than the free school and free press. They would indeed 
seem to constitute all that was necessary to the attainment of the hap- 
piness and intellectual growth of the Republic, and all that was ueces- 
eary to broaden, to liberalize and instruct. 

•« Tis education forms the common mind; 


For noble youth there is nothing so meet 
As learning is, to know the good from ill ; 
To know the tongues, and perfectly indite. 
And of the laws to have a perfect skill. 
Things to reform as right and justice will; 
For honor is ordained for no cause 
But to see right maintained by the laws." 

All the States of the Union have in practical operation the public- 
school system, governed in the main by simihir laws, and not differing 
materially in the manner and methods by which they are taught ; but 
none have a wiser, a more liberal and comprehensive machinery of 
instruction than Missouri. Her school laws, since 1839, have under- 
gone many changes, and always for the better, keeping pace with the 
most enlightened and advanced theories of the most experienced edu- 
cators in the land. But not until 1875, when the new constitution was 
adopted, did her present admirable system of public instruction go 
into effect. 

Provisions were made not only for white, but for children of African 
descent, and are a part of the organic law, not subject to the caprices 
of unfriendly legislatures, or the whims of political parties. The Lin- 
coln Institute, located at Jefferson City, for the education of col- 
ored teachers, receives an annual appropriation from the General 

For the support of the public schools, in addition to the annual 
income derived from the public school fund, which is set apart by law, 
not less than twenty-five per cent, of the State revenue, exclusive of 
the interest and sinking fund, is annually applied to this purpose. 

The officers having in charge the public school interests are the State 
«• Board of Education," the State Superintendent, County Commission- 











ere, County Clerk and Treasurer, Board of Directors, City and Town 
School Board, and Teacher. The State Board of Education is composed 
of the State Superintendent, the Governor, Secretary of State, and the 
Attorney-General, the executive officer of this Board being the State Su- 
perintendent, who is chosen by the people every four years. His duties 
are numerous. He renders decisions concerning the local application of 
school law ; keeps a record of the school funds and annually distributes 
the same to the counties ; supervises the work of county school officers ; 
delivers lectures ; visits schools ; distributes educational information ; 
grants certificates of higher qualifications, and makes an annual report 
to the General Assembly of the condition of the schools. 

The County Commissioners are also elected by the people for two 
years. Their work is to examine teachers, to distribute blanks, and 
make reports. County clerks receive estimates from the local direct- 
ors and extend them upon the tax-books. In addition to this, they 
keep the general records of the county and township school funds, and 
return an annual report of the financial condition of the schools of 
their county to the State Superintendent. School taxes are gathered 
with other taxes by the county collector. The custodian of the school 
funds belonging to the schools of the counties is the county treasurer, 
except in counties adopting the township organization, in which case 
the township trustee discharges these duties. 

Districts organized under the special law for cities and towns are 
governed by a board of six directors, two of whom are selected annu- 
ally, on the second Saturday in September, and hold their office for 
three years. 

One director is elected to serve for three years in each school dis- 
trict, at the annual meeting. These directors may levy a tax not 
exceeding forty cents on the one hundred dollars' valuation, pro- 
vided such annual rates for school purposes may be increased in dis- 
tricts formed of cities and towns, to an amount not exceeding one 
dollar on the hundred dollars' valuation, and in other districts to an 
amount not to exceed sixty-five cents on the one hundred dollars' val- 
uation, on the condition that a majority of the voters who are tax-pay- 
ers, voting at an election held to decide the question, vote for said 
increase. For the purpose of erecting public buildings in school dis- 
tricts, the rates of taxation thus limited may be increased when the 
rate of such increase and the purpose for which it is intended shall 
have been submitted to a vote of the people, and two-thirds of the 


qualified voters of such school district voting at such election shall 
vote therefor. 

Local directors may direct the management of the school in respect 
to the choice of teachers and other details, but in the discharge of 
all important business, such as the erection of a school house or the 
extension of a term of school beyond the constitutional period, they 
simply execute the will of the people. The clerk of this board may 
be a director. He keeps a record of the names of all the children and 
youth in the district between the ages of five and twenty-one ; records 
all business proceedings of the district, and reports to the annual 
meeting, to the County Clerk and County Commissioners. 

Teachers must hold a certificate from the State Superintendent or 
County Commissioner of the county where they teach. State certifi- 
cates are granted upon personal written examination in the common 
branches, together with the natural sciences and higher mathematics. 
The holder of such certificate may teach in any public school of the 
State without further examination. Certificates granted by County- 
Commissioners are of two classes, with two grades in each class. Those 
issued for a longer term than one year, belong to the first class and are 
susceptible of two grades, differing both as to length of time and attain- 
ments. Those issued for one year may represent two grades, marked by 
qualification alone. The township school fund arises from a grant of 
land by the General Government, consisting of section sixteen in each 
congressional township. The annual income of the township fund is ap- 
propriated to the various townships, according to their respective 
proprietary claims. The support from the permanent funds is supple- 
mented by direct taxation laid upon the taxable property of each dis- 
trict. The greatest limit of taxation for the current expenses is one 
per cent ; the tax permitted for school house building cannot exceed 
the same amount. 

Among the institutions of learning and ranking, perhaps, the first 
in importance, is the State University located at Columbia, Boone 
County. When the State was admitted into the Union, Congress 
granted to it one entire township of land (46,080 acres) for the sup- 
port of "A Seminary of Learning." The lands secured for this pur- 
pose are among the best and most valuable in the State. These 
lands were put into the market in 1832 and brought $75,000, which 
amount was invested in the stock of the old bank of the State of Mis- 
souri, where it remained and increased by accumulation to the sum of 
1100,000. In 1839, by an act of the General Assembly, five commis- 


sioners were appointed to select a site for the State University, the 
site to contain at least fifty acres of hind in a compact form, within 
two miles of the county seat of Cole, Cooper, Howard, Boone, Calla- 
wav or Saline. Bids were let among the counties named, and the 
county of Boone having subscribed the sum of $117,921, some 
$18,000 more than any other county, the State University was located 
in that county, and on the 4th of July, 1840, the corner-stone was 
laid with imjiosing ceremonies. 

The present annual income of the University is nearly $65,000. 
The donations to the institutions connected therewith amount to 
nearly $400,000. This University with its different departments, 
is open to both male and female, and both sexes enjoy alike its 
rights and privileges. Among the professional schools, which form a 
part of the University, are the Normal, or College of Instruction in 
Teaching; Agricultural and Mechanical College ; the School of Mines 
and Metallurgy ; the College of Law ; the Medical College ; and the 
Department of Analytical and Applied Chemistry. Other departments 
are contemplated and will be added as necessity requires. 

The following will show the names and locations of the schools and 
institutions of the State, as reported by the Commissioner of Educatiou 
in 1875: — 


Christian University Canton- 

St. Vincent's College Cape Girardeau 

University of Missouri Columbia. 

Central College Fayette. 

Westminster College Fulton. 

Lewis College Glasgow. 

Pritchett School Institute Glassow. 

Lincoln College Greenwood, 

Hannibal College HannibaL 

Woodland College Independence. 

Thayer College Kidder. 

La Grange College La Grange. 

William Jewell College Liberty. 

Baptist College Louisiana. 

8t Joseph College St Joseph. 

College of Christian Brothers St Louis. 

St Louis University St Louis. 

Washington University St. Louis. 

Drnry College Springfield- 
Central Wesleyan College Warrentoa. 


Bt Joseph Female Seminary St Joseph. 

Christian College Columbia. 


Stepliens College Columbia. 

Howard College Fayette. 

Independence Female College Independence. 

Central Female College Lexington. 

Clay Seminary Liberty. 

Ingleside Female College Palmyra. 

Lindenwood College for Young Ladies St. Charles. 

Mary Institute (Washington University) St. Louis. 

St Louis Seminary St. Louis. 

Ursuline Academy St. Louis. 


Arcadia College Arcadia. 

St. Vincent's Academy Cape Girardeau. 

Chillicothe Academy Chillicothew 

Grand Kiver College Edinburgh. 

Marionville Collegiate Institute Marionville. 

Palmyra Seminary Palmyra. 

St. Paul's College Palmyra. 

Van Rensselaer Academy Rensselaer. 

Shelby High School Shelbyville. 

Stewartsville Male and Female Seminary Stewartaville. 


Missouri Agricultural and Mechanical College (University of Missouri) Columbia. 

Schools of Mines and Metallurgy (University of Missouri) RoUa. 

Polytechnic Institute (Washington University) St. Louia. 


St. Vincent's College (Theological Department) Cape Girardeau. 

Westminster College (Theological School) Fulton. 

Vardeman School of Theology (William Jewell College) Liberty. 

Concordia College St Louia. 


Law School of the University of Missouri Columbia. 

Law School of the Washington University St. Louii. 


Medical College, University of Missouri... Columbia 

College of Physicians and Surgeons St. Joseph. 

Kansas City College of Physicians and Surgeons Kansas City. 

Hospital Medical College St. Joseph. 

Missouri Medical College St. Louia, 

Northwestern Medical College St. Joseph. 

St. Louis Medical College St. Louia. 

Homeopathic Medical College of Missouri St. Louia. 

Missouri School of Midwifery and Diseases of Women and Children St. Louia. 

Missouri Central College St, Louis. 

St. Louis College of Pharmacy St. Louis. 





Bt. Vincent'8 College 

Southeast Missouri State Normal School 

University of Missouri 

Athenian Society , 

Union Literary Society 

Law College .'. 

Westminster College 

liCwis College 

Mercantile Library 

Library Association 

Pruitland Normal Institute 

ijtate Library 

Fetterman's Circulating Library 

Law Library 

"Whittemore's Circulating Library 

North Missouri State Normal School 

William Jewell College 

Bt Paul's College 

Missouri School of Mines and Metallurgy 

Bt Charles Catholic Library 

Carl Frielling's Library 

Law Library 

Public School Library 

Walworth & Colt's Circulating Library 

Academy of Science 

Academy of Visitation 

College of the Christian Brothers 

Deutsche Institute 

German Evangelical Lutheran, Concordia College. 

Law Library Association 

Missouri Medical College 

Mrs. Cuthbert's Seminary (Young Ladies) 

Odd Fellow's Library „ 

Public School Library 

Bt Louis Medical College 

Bt Louis Mercantile Library 

Bt, Louis Seminary 

Bt. Louis Turn Verein 

St Louis University 

Bt. Louis University Society Libraries 

Ursuline Academy 

"Washington University 

6t Louis Law School 

Young Men's Sodality ••. 

Library Association 

Public School Library 

Drury College 


Cape Girardeau. 
Cape Girardeau. 

Columbia , 

Columbia , 




Glasgow , 




Jefferson City..., 

Kansas City 

Kansas Citj"^ 

Kansas City 





St Charles 

St Joseph 

St Joseph 

St Joseph 

St. Joseph 

St Louis 

St Louis 

St Louis 

St. Loui-: 

St Loui.s 

St. Loui? 

St Louis 

St. Louis 

St Louis 

St Loui.-; 

St Louis 

St Louis 

St Louis 

St Louis 

St Louis 

St Louis 

St Louis 

St Louis 

St Louis 

St Louis 












IN 1880. 
Newspapers and Periodicals 481 


Btate Asylum for Deaf and Dumb 

Bt Bridget's Institution for Deaf and Dumb 

Institution for the Education of the Blind 

Btate Asylum for Insane 

Btate Asylum for the Insane 

.St. Louis. 
.St Louij. 
.St Louis. 



Normal Institute _ Bolivar. 

Southeast Missouri State Normal School Cape Girardeau. 

Normal School (University of Missouri) ....Columbia. 

Fruitland Normal Institute Jackson. 

Lincoln Institute (for colored) ^Jefferson City. 

City Normal School St. Louis. 

Missouri State Normal School Warrensburg. 

IN 1880. 
Number of school children 

m 1878. 

Estimated value of school property $8,321,399 

Total receipts for public schools 4,207,617 

Total expenditures 2,406,139 


Male teachers 6.239; average monthly pay $36.38 

Female teachers 5,060; average monthly pay 28.09 

The fact that Missouri supports and maintains four hundred and 

seventy-one newspapers and periodicals, shows that her inhabitants 

are not only a reading and reflecting people, but that they appreciate 

'* The Press," and its wonderful influence as an educator. The poet 

has well said : — 

But mightiest of the mighty means, 
On which the arm of progress leans, 
Man's noblest mission to advance, 
His woes assuage, his weal enhance. 
His rights enforce, his wrongs redress — 
Mightiest of mighty Is the Press. 



Baptist Church — Its History — Congregational — When Founded — Its History — 
Christian Church — Its History — Cumberland Presbyterian Church — Its History — 
Methodist Episcopal Church — Its History — Presbyterian Church — Its History — 
Protestant Episcopal Church — Its History — United Presbyterian Church — Its 
History — Unitarian Church — Its History — Roman Catholic Church — Its History. 

The first representatives of religious thought and training, who 
penetrated the Missouri and Mississippi Valleys, were Pere Marquette, 
La Salle, and others of Catholic persuasion, who performed missionary 


labor among the Indians. A century afterward came the Protestanti, 

At that early period 

" A church In every grove that spread 
Its living roof above their heads," 

constituted for a time their only house of worship, and yet to them 

" No Temple built with hands could vie 
In glory with its majesty." 

In the course of time, the seeds of Protestantism were scattered 
alonor the shores of the two great rivers which form the eastern and 
western boundaries of the State, and still a little later they were sown 
upon her hill-sides and broad prairies, where they have since bloomed 
and blossomed as the rose. 


The earliest anti-Catholic religious denomination, of which there is 
any record, was organized in Cape Girardeau county in 1806, through 
the efibrts of Rev. David Green, a Baptist, and a native of Virginia. 
In 1816, the first association of Missouri Baptists was formed, which 
was composed of seven churches, all of which were located in the 
southeastern part of the State. In 1817 a second association of 
churches was formed, called the Missouri Association, the name being 
afterwards changed to St. Louis Association. In 1834 a general con- 
vention of all the churches of this denomination, was held in Howard 
county, for the purpose of eflfecting a central organization, at which 
time was commenced what is now known as the " General Association 
of Missouri Baptists.** 

To this body is committed the State mission work, denominational 
education, foreign missions and the circulation of religious literature. 
The Baptist Church has under its control a number of schools and 
colleges, the most important of which is William Jewell College, 
located at Liberty, Clay county. As shown by the annual report for 
1875, there were in Missouri, at that date, sixty-one associations, one 
thousand four hundred churches, eight hundred and twenty-four min- 
isters and eighty-nine thousand six hundred and fifty church members. 


The Congregationalists inaugurated their missionary labors in the 
State in 1814. Rev. Samuel J. Mills, of Torringford, Connecticut, 
and Rev. Daniel Smith, of Bennington, Vermont, were sent west by 
the Massachusetts Congregational Home Missionary Society during 


that year, and in November, 1814, they preached the first regular 
Protestant sermons in St. Louis. Rev. Samuel Giddings, sent out 
under the auspices of the Connecticut Congregational Missionary 
Society, organized the first Protestant church in the city, consisting 
of ten members, constituted Presbyterian. The churches organized 
by Mr. Giddings were all Presbyterian in their order. 

No exclusively Congregational Church was founded until 1852, 
when the " First Trinitarian Congregational Church of St. Louis " 
was organized. The next church of this denomination was organized 
at Hannibal in 1859. Then followed a Welsh church in New Cambria 
in 1864, and after the close of the war, fifteen churches of the same 
order were formed in difierent parts of the State. In 1866, Pilgrim 
Church, St. Louis, was organized. The General Conference of 
Churches of Missouri was formed in 1865, whi«h was changed in 1868, 
to General Association. In 1866, Hannibal, Kidder, and St. Louis 
District Associations were formed, and following these were the Kan- 
sas City and Springfield District Associations. This denomination in 
1875, had 70 churches, 41 ministers, 3,363 church members, and had 
also several schools and colleges and one monthly newspaper. 


The earliest churches of this denomination were organized in Cal- 
laway, Boone and Howard Counties, some time previously to 1829. 
The first church was formed in St. Louis in 1836 by Elder R. B. 
Fife. The first State Sunday School Convention of the Christian 
Church, was held in Mexico in 1876. Besides a number of private 
institutions, this denomination has three State Institutions, all of 
which have an able corps of professors and have a good attendance of 
pupils. It has one religious paper published in St. Louis, '* TJie Chris- 
tian,** which is a weekly publication and well patronized. The mem- 
bership of this church now numbers nearly one hundred thousand in 
the State and is increasing rapidly. It has more than five hundred 
organized churches, the greater portion of which are north of the 
Missouri River. 


In the spring of 1820, the first Presbytery of this denomination 
west of the Mississippi, was organized in Pike County. This Pres- 
bytery included all the territory of Missouri, western Illinois and 
Arkansas and numbered only four ministers, two of whom resided at 


that time in Missouri. There are now in the State, twelve Presby- 
teries, three Synods, nearly three hundred ministers and over twenty 
thousand members. The Board of Missions is located at St. Louis. 
They have a number of High Schools and two monthly papers pub- 
lished at St. Louis. 


In 1806, Rev. John Travis, a young Methodist minister, was sent 
out to the *' Western Conference," which then embraced the Missis- 
sippi Valley, from Green County, Tennessee. During that year Mr. 
Travis organized a number of small churches. At the close of his 
conference year, he reported the result of his labors to the Western 
Conference, which was held at Chillicothe, Ohio, in 1870, and showed 
an aggregate of one hundred and six members and two circuits, one 
called Missouri and the other Meramec. In 1808, two circuits had 
been formed, and at each succeeding year the number of circuits and 
members constantly increased, until 1812, when what was called the 
Western Conference was divided into the Ohio and Tennessee Confer- 
ences, Missouri falling into the Tennessee Conference. In 1816, 
there was another division when the Missouri Annual Conference was 
formed. In 1810, there were four traveling preachers and in 1820, fif- 
teen travelling preachers, with over 2,000 members. In 1836, the terri- 
tory of the Missouri Conference was again divided when the Missouri 
Conference included only the State. In 1840 there were 72 traveling 
preachers, 177 local ministers and 13,992 church members. Between 
1840 and 1850, the church was divided bv the orsranization of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church South. In 1850, the membership of the 
M. E. Church was over 25,000, and during the succeeding ten years 
the church prospered rapidly. In 1875, the M. E. Church reported 
274 church edifices and 34,156 members; the M. E. Church South, 
reported 443 church edifices and 49,588 members. This denomina- 
tion has under its control several schools and colleges and two weekly 


The Presbyterian Church dates the beginning of its missionary 
ellorts in the State as far back as 1814, but the first Presbyterian 
Church was not organized until 1816 at JBellevue settlement, eight 
miles from St. Louis. The next churches were formed in 1816 and 
1817 at Bonhomme, Pike County. The First Presbyterian Church 
was organized in St. Louis in 1817, by Rev. Salmon Gidding. The 


first Presbytery was organized in 1817 by the Synod of Tennessee 
with four ministers and four churches. The first Presbyterian house 
of worship (which was the first Protestant) was commenced in 1819 
and completed in 1826. In 1820 a mission was formed among the 
Osage Indians. In 1831, the Presbytery was divided into three: 
Missouri, St. Louis, and St. Charles. These were erected with a 
Synod comprising eighteen ministers and twenty-three churches. 

The church was divided in 1838, throughout the United States. In 
1860 the rolls of the Old and New School Synod together showed 109 
ministers and 146 churches. In 1866 the Old School Synod was di- 
vided on political questions springing out of the war — a part form- 
ing the Old School, or Independent Synod of Missouri, who are con- 
nected with the General Assembly South. In 1870, the Old and New 
School Presbyterians united, since which time this Synod has steadily 
increased until it now numbers more than 12,000 members with more 
than 220 churches and 150 ministers. 

This Synod is composed of six Presbyteries and has under its con- 
trol one or two institutions of learning and one or two newspapers. 
That part of the original Synod which withdrew from the General 
Assembly remained an independent body until 1874 when it united 
with the Southern Presbyterian Church. The Synod in 1875 num- 
bered 80 ministers, 140 churches and 9,000 members. It has under 
its control several male and female institutions of a high order. The 
St. Louis Presbyterian^ a weekly paper, is the recognized organ of 
the Synod. 


The missionary enterprises of this church began in the State in 
1819, when a parish was organized in the City of St. Louis. In 1828, 
an agent of the Domestic and Foreign Missionary Society, visited the 
city, who reported the condition of things so favorably that Rev. 
Thomas Horrell was sent out as a missionary and in 1825, he began 
his labors in St. Louis. A church edifice was completed in 1830. In 
1836, there were five clergymen of this denomination in Missouri, 
who had organized congregations in Boonville, Fayette, St. Charles, 
Hannibal, and other places. In 1840, the clergy and laity met in 
convention, a diocese was formed, a constitution, and canons adopted, 
and in 1844 a Bishop was chosen, he being the Rev. Cicero S. 
Hawks. Through the efforts of Bishop Kemper, Kemper College was 
founded near St. Louis, but was afterward given up on account of 


pecuniary troubles. In 1847, the Clark Mission began and in 1849 
the Orphans' Home, a charitable institution, was founded. In 1865, 
St. Luke's Hospital was established. In 1875, there were in the city 
of St. Louis, twelve parishes and missions and twelve clergymen. 
This deuomnatiou has several schools and colleges, and one newspaper. 


This denomination is made up of the meml>ers of the Associate and 
Associate Reformed churches of the Northern States, which two 
bodies united in 1858, taking the name of the United Presbyterian 
Church of North America. Its members were generally bitterly 
opposed to the institution of slavery. The first congregation was 
organized at Warrensburg, Johnson County, in 1867. It rapidly 
increased in numbers, and had, in 1875, ten ministers and five hundred 


This churcn was formed in 1834, by the Rev. W. G. Eliot, in St. 
Louis. The churches are few in number throughout the State, the 
membership being probably less than 300, all told. It has a mission 
house and free school, for poor children, supported by donations. 


The earliest written record of the Catholic Church in Missouri shows 
that Father Watrin performed ministerial services in Ste. Genevieve, 
in 1760, and in St. Louis in 1766. In 1770, Father Meiirin erected a 
small log church in St. Louis. In 1818, there were in the State four 
chapels, and for Upper Louisiana seven priests. A college and semi- 
nary were opened in Perry County about this period, for the 
education of the young, being the first college west of the Mississippi 
River. In 1824, a college was opened in St. Louis, which is now 
known as the St. Louis University. In 1826, Father Rosatti was 
appointed Bishop of St. Louis, and through his instrumentality the 
Sisters of Charity, Sisters of St. Joseph and of the Visitation were 
founded, besides other benevolent and charitable institutions. In 
1834 he completed the present Cathedral Church. Cimrches were 
built in difi'erent portions of the State. In 1847 St. Louis was created 
an arch-diocese, with Bishop Kenrick, Archbishop. 

In Kansas City there were five parish churches, a hospital, a con- 
vent and several parish schools. In 1868 the northwestern portion of 
the State was erected into a separate diocese, with its seat at St. Joseph, 


and Right-Reverenfl John J. Hogan appointed Bishop. There were, 
in 1875, in the city of St. Louis, 34 churches, 27 schools, 5 hospitals, 
3 colleges, 7 orphan asylums and 3 female protectorates. There were 
also 105 priests, 7 male and 13 female orders, and 20 conferences of 
St. Vincent de Paul, numbering 1,100 members. In the diocese, out- 
side of St. Louis, there is a college, a male protectorate, 9 convents, 
about 120 priests, 150 churches and 30 stations. In the diocese of 
St. Joseph there were, in 1875, 21 priests, 29 churches, 24 stations, 
1 college, 1 monastery, 5 convents and 14 parish schools : 

Number of Sunday Schools in 1878 . . 2,067 

Number of Teachers in 1878 ... . . , 18,010 

Number of Pupils in 1878 . 139.578 


Instruction preparatory to ministerial work is given in connection 
with collegiate study, or in special theological courses, at: 

Central College (M. E. South) 

Central Wesleyan College (M. E. Church) . 

Christian University (Christian) 

Concordia College Seminary CEvangelical Lutheran) . 
Lewis College (M. E. Church) .... 
St. Vincent College (Roman Catholic) 
Vardeman School of Theology (Baptist) 

The last is connected with William Jewell College. 

. Fayette. 

. Warrenton. 


. St. Louis. 


Cape Girardeau. 

• Liberty. 



Nomination and election of Thomas T. Crittenden — Personal Mention — Marmaduke's 
candidacy — Stirring events — Hannibal and St. Joseph Railroad — Death of Jesse 
James — The Fords — Pardon of the Gamblers. 

It is the purpose in this chapter to outline the more important 
events of Governor Crittenden's unfinished administration, stating 
briefly the facts in the case, leaving comment and criticism entirely to 
the reader, the historian having no judgment to express or prejudice 
to vent. 

Thomas T. Crittenden, of Johnson county, received the Demo- 
cratic nomination for Governor of Missouri at the convention at Jeffer- 


son City, July 22(1, 1880. Democratic nomination for a State office in 
Missouri is always equivalent to election, and the entire State ticket 
was duly elected in November. Crittenden's competitors before the 
convention were Gen. John S. Marniaduke, of St. Louis, and John 
A. Hockaday, of Callawjiy county. Before the assembling of the 
convention many persons who favored Marmaduke, both personally 
and politically, thought the nomination of an ex-Confederate might 
prejudice the prospects of the National Democracy, and therefore, as 
a matter of policy, supported Crittenden. 

His name, and the fame of his family in Kentucky — Thomas T. 
being a scion of the Crittendens of that State, caused the Democracy 
of Missouri to expect great things from their new Governor. This, 
together with the important events which followed his inauguration, 
caused some people to overrate him, while it prejudiced others against 
him. The measures advocated by the Governor in his inaugural 
address were such as, perhaps, the entire Democracy could endorse, 
especially that of refunding, at a low interest, all that part of the State 
debt that can be so refunded ; the adoption of measures to relieve the 
Supreme Court docket ; a compromise of the indebtedness of some of 
the counties, and his views concerning repudiation, which he coq- 


By a series of legislative acts, beginning with the act approved 
February 22, 1851, and ending with that of March 26, 1881, the 
State of Missouri aided with great liberality in the construction of a 
system of railroads in this State. 

Among the enterprises thus largely assisted was the Hannibal and 
St. Joseph Railroad, for the construction of which the bonds of the 
State, to the amount of $3,000,000, bearing interest at 6 per cent per 
annum, payable semi-annually, were issued. One half of this amount 
was issued under the act of 1851, and the remainder under the act of 
1855. The bonds issued under the former act were to run twenty 
years, and those under the latter act were to run thirty years. Some 
of the bonds have since been funded and renewed. Coupons for the 
interest of the entire $3,000,000 were executed and made payable in 
New York. Tliese acts contain numerous provisions intended to 
secure the State against loss and to require the railroad company to 
pay the interest and principal at maturity. It was made the duty of 
the railroad company to save and keep the State from all loss on 
account of said bonds and coupons. The Treasurer of the State was 


to be exonerated from any advance of money to meet either principal 
or interest. The State contracted with the railroad company for com- 
plete indemnity. She was required to assign her statutory mortgage 
lien only upon payment into the treasury of a sum of money equal to 
all indebtedness due or owing by said company to the State by reason 
of having issued her bonds and loaned them to the company. 

In June, 1881, the railroad, through its attorney, Geo. W. Easley, 
Esq., paid to Phil. E. Chappell, State Treasurer, the sum of $3,000,- 
000, and asked for a receipt in full of all dues of the road to the 
State. The Treasurer refused to give such a receipt, but instead gave 
a receipt for the sum " on account." The debt was not yet due, but 
the authorities of the road sought to discharge their obligation pre- 
maturely, in order to save interest and other expenses. The railroad 
company then demanded its bonds of the State, which demand the 
State refused. The company then demanded that the $3,000,000 be 
paid back, and this demand was also refused. 

The railroad company then brought suit in the United States Court 
for an equitable adjustment of the matters in controversy. The $3, 
000,000 had been deposited by the State in one of the banks, and was 
drawing interest only at the rate of one-fourth of one per cent. It 
was demanded that this sura should be so invested that a larger rate 
of interest might be obtained, which sum of interest should be allowed 
to the company as a credit in case any sum should be found due from 
it to the State. Justice Miller, of the United States Supreme Court, 
who heard the case upon preliminary injunction in the spring of 1882, 
decided that the unpaid and unmatured coupons constituted a liability 
of the State and a debt owing, though not due, and until these were 
provided for the State was not bound to assign her lien upon the road. 

Another question which was mooted, but not decided, was this : 
That, if any, what account is the State to render for the use of the 
$3,000,000 paid into the treasury by the complainants on the 20th of 
June? Can she hold that large sum of money, refusing to make any 
account of it, and still insist upon full payment by the railroad 
company of all outstanding coupons ? 

Upon this subject Mr. Justice Miller, in the course of his opinion, 
said : '* I am of the opinion that the State, having accepted or got this 
money into her possession, is under a moral obligation (and I do not 
pretend to commit anybody as to how far its legal obligation goes) to 
so use that money as, so far as possible, to protect the parties who 
have paid it against the loss of the interest which it might accumulate. 


and which would go to extinguish the interest on the State's obliga- 

March 26, 1881, the Legislature, in response to a special message of 
Gov. Crittenden, dated February 25, 1881, in which he informed 
the Legislature of the purpose of the Hannibal and St. Joseph com- 
pany to discharge the full amount of what it claims is its present 
indebtedness as to the State, and advised that provision be made 
for the " profitable disposal" of the sum when paid, passed an act, 
the second section of which provided. 

*« Sec. 2. Whenever there is suflBcient money in the sinking fund to 
redeem or purchase one or more of the bonds of the State of Missouri, 
such sum is hereby appropriated for such purpose, and the Fund 
Commissioners shall immediately call in for payment a like amount 
of the option bonds of the State, known as the " 5-20 bonds," 
provided, that if there are no option bonds which can be called in for 
payment, they may invest such money in the purchase of any of the 
bonds of the State, or bonds of the United States, the Hannibal and 
St. Joseph railroad bonds excepted." 

On the 1st of January, 1882, the regular semi-annual payment of 
interest on the railroad bonds became due, but the road refused to 
pay, claiming that it had already discharged the principal, and of 
course was not liable for the interest. Thereupon, according to the 
provisions of the aiding act of 1855, Gov. Crittenden advertised the 
road for sale in default of the payment of interest. The company 
then brought suit before U. S. Circuit Judge McCrary at Keokuk, 
Iowa, to enjoin the State from selling the road, and for such other 
and further relief as the court might see fit and proper to grant. 
August 8, 1882, Judge McCrary delivered his opinion and judgment, 
as follows : 

*'First. That the payment by complainants into the treasury of the 
State of the sum of $3,000,000 on the 26th of June, 1881, did not 
satisfy the claim of the State in full, nor entitle complainants to eq 
assignment of the State's statutory mortgage. 

^'■Second. That the State was bound to invest the principal sum 
of $3,000,000 so paid by the complainants without unnecessary delay 
in the securities named in the act of March 26, 1881, or some of 
them, and so as to save to the State as large a sum as possible, 
which sum so saved would have constituted as between the State and 
complainants a credit pro tanto upou the unmatured coupons now in 


**Third. That the rights and equity of the parties are to be deter- 
mined upon the foregoing principles, and the State must stand 
chargred with what would have been realized if the act of March, 
1881, had been complied with. It only remains to consider what the 
rights of the parties are upon the principles here stated. 

*• In order to save the State from loss on account of the default of 
the railroad company, a further sum must be paid. In order to deter- 
mine what that further sum is an accounting must be had. The ques- 
tion to be settled by the accounting is, how much would the State 
have lost if the provisions of the act of March, 1881, had been 
complied with ? * * • • I think a perfectly fair basis of settle- 
ment would be to hold the State liable for whatever could have been 
saved by the prompt execution of said act by taking up such 5-20 
option bonds of the State as were subject to call when the money was 
paid to the State, and investing the remainder of the fund in the 
bonds of the United States at the market rates. 

** Upon this basis a calculation can be made and the exact sum still to 
be paid by the complainant in order to fully indemnify and protect the 
State can be ascertained. For the purpose of stating an account 
upon this basis and of determining the sum to be paid by the com- 
plainants to the State, the cause will be referred to John K. Cravens, 
one of the masters of this court. In determininsr the time when the 
investment should have been made under the act of March, 1881, the 
master will allow a reasonable period for the time of the receipt of the 
said sum of $3,000,000 by the Treasurer of the State — that is to say, 
such time as would have been required for that purpose had the offi- 
cers charged with the duty of making said investment used reason- 
able diligence in its discharge. 

*♦ The Hannibal and St. Joseph railroad is advertised for sale for the 
amount of the instalment of interest due January 1, 1882, which 
instalment amounts to less than the sum which the company must pay 
in order to discharge its liabilities to the State upon the theory of this 
opinion. The order will, therefore, be that an injunction be granted 
to enjoin the sale of the road upon the payment of the said instal- 
ment of interest due January' 1, 1882, and if such payment is made 
the master will take it into account in making the computation above 


The occurrence during the present Governor's administration which 
did most to place his name in everybody's mouth, and even to herald 


it abroad, causing the European press to teem with leaders announcing 
the fact to the continental world, was the *♦ removal" of the famous 
Missouri brigand, Jesse W. James. The career of the James boys, 
and the banditti of whom they were the acknowledged leaders, is too 
well-known and too fully set forth in works of a more sensational 
character, to deserve further detail in these pages ; and the *' removal " 
of Jesse will be dealt with only in its relation to the Governor. 

It had been long conceded that neither of the Jameses would ever be 
taken alive. That experiment had been frequently and vainly tried, 
to the sorrow of good citizens of this and other States. It seems to 
have been one of the purposes of Gov. Crittenden to break up this 
band at any cost, by cutting off its leaders. Soon after the Winston 
train robbery, on July 15, 1881, the railroads combined in empower- 
ing the Governor, by placing the money at his disposal, to offer heavy 
rewards for the capture of the two James brothers. This was ac- 
cordingly done by proclamation, and, naturally, many persons were 
on the lookout to secure the larije rewards. Gov. Crittenden worked 
quietly, but determinedly, after offering the rewards, and by some 
means learned of the availability of the two Ford boys, young men 
from Ray county, who had been tutored as juvenile robbers by the 
skillful Jesse. An understanding was had, when the Fords declared 
they could find Jesse — that they were to "turn him in." Robert 
Ford and brother seem to have been thoroughly in the confidence of 
James, who then (startling as it was to the entire State) resided in 
the city of St. Joseph, with his wife and two children 1 The Fords 
went there, and when the robber's back was turned, Robert shot him 
dead in the back of the head/ The Fords told their story to the 
authorities of the city, who at once arrested them on a charge of mur- 
der, and they, when arraigned, plead guiJty to the charge. Promptly, 
however, came a full, free and unconditional pardon from Gov. Crit- 
tenden, and the Fords were released. In regard to the Governor's 
course in ridding the State of this notorious outlaw, people were 
divided in sentiment, some placing him in the category with the Ford 
boys and bitterly condemning his action, while others — the majority 
of law-abiding people, indeed, — though deprecating the harsh meas- 
ures which James' course had rendered necessary, still upheld th 
Governor for the part he played. As it was, the " Terror of Mis- 
souri " was effectually and finally " removed," and people were glad 
that he was dead. Robert Ford, the pupil of the .dead Jesse, had 


been selected, and of all was the most fit tool to use in the extermina- 
tion of his preceptor in crime. 

The killing of James would never have made Crittenden many ene- 
mies among the better class of citizens of this State ; but, when it 
came to his 


The case was different. Under the new law making gaminghouse- 
keeping a felony, several St. Louis gamblers, with Robert C. Pate at 
their head, were convicted and sentenced to prison. The Governor, 
much to the surprise of the more rigid moral element of the State, 
soon granted the gamblers a pardon. This was followed by other 
pardons to similar offenders, which began to render the Governor quite 
unpopular which one element of citizens, and to call forth from some 
of them the most bitter denunciations. The worst feature of the case, 
perhaps, is the lack of explanation, or the setting forth of sufficient 
reasons, as is customary in issuing pardons, This, at least, is the bur- 
den of complaint with the faction that opposes him. However, it 
must be borne in mind that his term of office, at this writing, is but 
half expired, and that a full record can not, therefore, be given. Like 
all mere men, Gov. Crittenden has his good and his bad, is liked by 
some and disliked by others. The purpose of history is to set forth 
the facts and leave others to sit in judgment ; this the historian has 
tried faithfully to do, leaving all comments to those who may see fit to 
make them. 






General Description — Topography, Streams, and Economic Geology — Agriculture- 
Stock, etc. — First Settlers and Settlements — Jesse Mann, Sr., John Raglan, Ben 
Lovell, Jesse Mann, Jr., and other Early Settlers — Pioneer Life — The Prairies — 
First Crops Raised — Game and Wild Animals — The ** Firsts " — Pioneer Mills — 
Early Political History — When Caldwell Formed a Portion of Ray — Organiza- 
tion — The Organizing Act — For Whom the County was Named. 


The county of Caldwell lies at a mean distance of 140 miles west 
from Hannibal and the Mississippi river, 40 miles east of St. Joseph 
and the Missouri, and about 60 miles from the northern boundary of 
the State, and comprises a part of the southeastern portion of what is 
considered Northwest Missouri. Its area is 18 miles north and south, 
by 24 miles east and west, and comprises 432 square miles, or 276,- 
480 acres. 

The face of the county presents to the eye a most beautiful land- 
scape, composed of about one-third timber and two-thirds prairie. 
The timber lies chiefly along the many streams which are well dis- 
tributed through the county, while back from the low hills, which 
gradually slope upwards from the water-courses, are spread the grace- 
ful, billowy prairies, rich and rolling, with plenty of drainage and 
abundant fertility. There is no "sad," cold prairie, with "hard- 
pan" almost at the surfiice, as is the case farther eastward in this 

1 (87) 


The streams — of which Shoal creek, a tributary of Grand river, 
is the principal, flowing as it does, including its head branches, quite 
through the center of the county from west to east — add greatly to 
the natural value of the county. Steer, Bushby and Goose creeks, in 
the western part of the county, may be considered the forming waters 
of Shoal creek, and its other principal branches are Log, Long, Crab 
Apple and Mud creeks on the south, and Mill, Tom, Cottonwood, 
Otter, Turkey and Panther creeks on the north. Numerous branches 
and other small streams and springs afford an ample supply of water 
for stock, and b}' digging, the very best of living limestone water, 
clear, cold and pure, can be obtained in all parts of the county at 
depths varying from 15 to 40 feet, or at an average depth of 20 

The timber supply is ample for all purposes. Old settlers say there 
is more timber in the- county now than when it was first settled. No 
farm in the county is more than four miles from plenty of good tim- 
ber. Oak, elm, walnut, hickory, ash, sycamore, hard and soft maple, 
linn or linden, coffee bean, hackberry, cotton wood, box elder and 
other varieties of trees abound in the bottoms, and on the elevated 
lands bordering the streams, furnishing a full supply of lumber and 
timber for building, and fuel for domestic purposes. 

Concerning the economic geology of the county it may be said that 
no other county in this portion of the State is more fortunately sit- 
uated. The soil is highly fertile. There is great abundance of 
building stone, unsurpassed in quality — of the kind technically known 
at incrinital limestone — which is easy accessible, and can be quarried 
without difiiculty. There are also two or more quarries of sandstone. 
Good brick clay can be obtained in all parts of the county. 

The coal deposit deserves special mention. It underlies a large 
part of the surface of the county, at a distance of about 300 feet 
from the surface, and is mined extensively near Hamilton. It has 
also been found near Kingston, Breckinridge, Polo and Far West, 
showing that its existence is general throughout the county. This 
coal is of the very best quality, burns to a fine white ash, without 
clinkers or cinders of any sort, and the Hamilton mine now in 
operation can not supply the demand though worked to its fullest 

The soil of Caldwell county is remarkable alike for its high fertility, 
and the versatility of its productive qualities. One of its notable 
characteristics is its evenness over the entire county, there being no 
thin or " spotted " tracts of arable land. On the prairies the soil is 


a deep, black vegetable mold, from 15 to 40 inches in depth, with 
an open, porous subsoil which quickly absorbs moisture, and in most 
places is underlaid by limestone deposit, producing a warm quick soil 
which wears under successive crops for years without manuring or 
without any perceptible diminution of its productive qualities. Thirty 
and forty successive crops of corn have been raised on farms in this 
county, and by subsoiling or deep cultivation the last crop had been 
made to yield more than the first or second. 

The grasses, both native and domestic, are remarkable for their 
rank and heavy growth. This county, as well as other parts of North- 
west Missouri, is the natural home of the blue grass and supplants the 
native prairie grass as it passes away. The timothy meadows are un- 
surpassed and yield from one and a half to two and a half tons per 
acre, being of a thrifty growth on the highest prairies as well as in 
the bottoms. Red and white clover both make a rich and stronsf 
growth and are largely grown. Corn, the staple grain production, 
oats, rye, millet and Hungarian are certain crops. Corn yields from 
35 to 85 bushels per acre, oats 25 to 60, rye 15 to 30, millet and Hun- 
garian 12 to 40, the last two, as grass, producing three to five tons per 
acre. An excellent quality of winter wheat is raised, when properly 
cultivated, and is almost a certain crop, yielding from 12 to 30 bushels 
per acre. Fruit growing in Caldwell county, as in other parts of 
Northwest Missouri, is a success. Fine orchards of the apple, peach 
and cherry can be seen in full bearing in all parts of the county. The 
pear and plum do well, while but few portions of the United States, 
if any, are better adapted to grape culture. The smaller fruits, such 
as strawberry, blackberry, raspberry, gooseberry and currant of the 
finest quality seldom fail, and only require cultivation to insure their 

As a stock growing county none is better adapted to this pleasant 
and profitable business than Caldwell county. Its closeness to mar- 
kets, mild winters, amply supply of good water, nutritious grasses 
for hay and grazing purposes, and its certain grain crops, make this 
county the stock grower's paradise. Improvement in this line of 
business has been the constant eflTort of a large class of farmers, and 
the many superior breeds of hogs, fine horses, sheep and cattle, attest 
the fact that their efforts have been crowned with success. Some of 
the largest flocks and herds of blooded sheep and cattle in the State 
can be seen in Caldwell county. 

Caldwell county has been noted as a prominent sheep raising and 
wool growing county. Some years before the civil war Hon. George 


Smith, afterwards Lieutenant-Governor of the State, etc., brought 
from Ohio a considerable flock of sheep which in time increased and 
multiplied until their owner became largely identified with the sheep 
and wool interest. Indeed, Gov. Smith was nicknamed and came to 
be known as " Sheep " Smith. The following are extracts from an 
article by G. B. Bothwell, Esq., another prominent wool grower of 
this county, which was published in a hand-book issued by the North- 
western Missouri Immigration Society in 1880 : — 

I have been engaged in wool growing in Caldwell county, Mo., for 
the last thirteen years. Starting with a flock of 600 full blooded 
Merino ewes, my success has far exceeded my most sanguine expecta- 
tions. My flock has been in excellent condition all these years, shear- 
ing heavy fleeces of the best quality of wool, and raising a large 
increase each year. Keeping the flock young, and feeding generously 
is all that is required to secure success in this country. 

I had some knowledge of the business in Ohio, and also had some 
four years' experience in Illinois. I have traveled through sixteen 
diflerent States, and have made this subject a special study ; but I 
know of no place where sheep keep healthier or thrive better than in 
Northwest Missouri. Two hundred miles south of this section there 
is always much more rain in the winter, and the grain and hay crops 
are not so sure; two hundred miles farther north there is much more 
snow generally, and the winters are longer and the storms much more 
severe. My experience has taught me that the less snow and rain in 
winter, the better it will be for the flock. 

1 have always been able to sell my wethers and even my old ewes 
at a fair price each .year, which is not so easily done in Colorado or 
Texas. I now have over 6,000 head to shear this spring, and I ex- 
pect the flock to raise about 2,500 lambs ; my entire flock is in first 
rate condition, there being no disease of any kind in it. 

All breeds of sheep do well here, as do all other kinds of stock 
where there is always an abundant supply of blue grass, timothy and 
clover ; also fine crops of corn and oats, as there have been on every 
well regulated farm in this county every year for the last 13 years, 
except one, and that year a plenty of all these but corn. 

When I first came here I had a part of my flock from Ohio and a 
part from Vermont, and notwithstanding the fact that the flock has 
been kept in large herds, the sheep have steadily gained in size and 
the wool is fully as good a quality as then, while much heavier fleeces 
are sheared and the sheep are very much hardier than they were 13 
years ago. This, however, is owing probably to their having become 

Caldwell county has about 27 miles of the Hannibal and St. Joseph 
Railroad, which runs through the northern tier of townships from 
east to west, has four considerable stations, Breckinridse, Nettleton, 


Hamilton and Kidder, and the taxable value of its property in the 
county is a little more than $250,000. The advantages to the county 
of this great thoroughfare are inestimable. It furnishes an outlet 
for the productions of the county accessible at all times and, save to 
the extreme southern parts of the county, within easy distance. The 
rates charged for freights and fares are reasonable certainly, especially 
when it is remembered that this is the only railroad operated within 
the county. 

Unlike many other sections of Missouri and of the Great West, 
Caldwell county is entirely out of debt. It never was very largely 
involved, and though it has good county buildings, good bridges and 
roads and numerous school-houses, it now obeys and for some years 
has obeyed the Pauline injunction to " owe no man anything." The 
taxable wealth of the county is about $4,700,000, an increase of 
nearly $1,000,000 since 1880. Taxes are very low. 


For many years after the first settlement and organization of Ray 
county, the territory now comprised within the county of Caldwell 
was unsettled. A few Indians, roving and migratory, from time to 
time made their camp along Shoal creek and the other streams of the 
county, and <' bee hunters " and explorers passed through on their 
way to the honey trees of what is now Daviess and Livingston. Up to 
about 1830, the prairies of Caldwell and Clinton abounded in droves 
of fine fat elk, and the hunters of the settlements along the Missouri, 
in Ray and Clay, often came up to chase them. Elk hunting was rare 
sport. The animals were usually chased into the timber, where some 
men were in ambush, and where the long branching antlers of the 
bucks so impeded their flight through brush and thicket, that it was 
an easy matter to come upon them and shoot them down. 

Hunters and explorers, therefore, visited the present area of Cald- 
well prior to 1830, and the locality was well known to the settlements 
in the lower portion of Ray, about Richmond, Bluffton, and on 
Crooked river. But the locality was not favorabli/ known. "Too 
much prairie," everybody said. At that date, when everybody lived 
as much ofi*the spoils of the chase as off the products of the soil, deer 
thickets and turkey roosts were indispensable. And, moreover, at 
that date, — when prairie sod was six inches in thickness and tough 
and compact as oakum, and the only plows in use were weak, shackly 
aflTairs, with wooden mold-boards, and at the best cast-iron points, — 
it was well to keep away from the unpromising prairies and confine 


agricultunil opei-iitions to the loose, rich mellow soil of the timber. 
By the time a " clearing" was effected in the timber, with a reason- 
able amount of grubbing, a crop of corn could be planted with a hoe, 
and when afterward tickled with the same instrument it would laugh 
with an abundant harvest. Withal there was a ijeneral belief that 
prairie soil would be unproductive, and when reduced to cultivation, 
in the winter would be too cold, and in summer too hot. 

At last, however, in the winter of 1830-31, one Ray county settler 
determined to make his home on upper Shoal creek, where there was 
timber, water and game in plenty for him. This was Jesse Mann, Sr., 
who in the spring of 1831 ^ came up from Ray county and built the 
first house and became the first settler in what is now Caldwell county. 
The location of Mr. Mann's settlement was half a mile northeast of 
the public square, at Kingston, on the ne. V4 of the sw. Vi of section 
22, township 56, range 28. 

Jesse Mann was born in Prince George county, Va., near Petersburg, 
October 15, 1765. He married Nancy White in Elbert county, Ga., 
February 20, 1800, and they became the parents of 14 children. 
They removed to Ray county from Howard about 1820. The first 
mortgage recorded in Ray was given by Jesse Mann, in July 1822, to 
Saml. Crowley, the property mortgaged being a negro boy named 
*' Chancey," and the consideration $100. Old Jesse had a number of 
slaves which he brought with him to Caldwell. He did not remain 
here long. In the early fall of 1832, during the excitement and un- 
easiness felt during the Black Hawk War, he returned to Ray county 
with his fiimily and never thereafter lived in Caldwell. He died in 
Ray county, near Knoxville, February 14, 1845. 

In the early summer of 1831, Jesse Mann induced two other Ray 
county settlers to join him in settling the Shoal creek country. 
These were John Raglan and Ben Lovell. Raglan settled on Shoal 
creek, three miles east of Kingston, near the Cox mill ford. Here 
he built a cabin and improved a farm. Lovell's settlement was an 
experimental one. He made only a camp near Raglan's, where he 
remained until the next fall, when he became dissatisfied and returned 
to Ray county. He is remembered as a rather worthless fellow, and 
there were no regrets at his departure. When Jesse Mann first came 
to Shoal creek there was not a white settler betwe(5n him and British 
America, so far as is now known, but a few months later some 

1 It is quite certain tliat Mr. Mann's settlement in tliis county was not made until 
tlie spring of 1831. This is tlie testimony of surviving members of his family. 


families located on Grand river, near the center of what is now 
Daviess county. These were named Stone, Stokes, Creekmore, 
Duval and Penniston. 

In July, 1831, Jesse M. Mann,^ settled on Log creek, half a mile 
southeast of Kingston, and about the same distance south of Jesse 
Mann, Sr. The two Manns and John Raglan were probably the only 
families living in the county at the beginning of the year 1832. Their 
situation vvas somewhat exposed, but by no means perilous. There 
were no hostile Indians in the country, and the wolves and panthers 
that infested the woods and timber lands were not very numerous or 
aggressive. People much accustomed to society might have deemed 
the situation infelicitous and extremely uncomfortable, but these first 
settlers of Caldwell county were pioneers to the manor born, and 
doubtless deemed their condition a most enviable one, having all the 
country to themselves and doing that which was right in their own 
eyes, as in the days when " there was no king in Israel." 

But in the spring of 1832 adventurous pioneers began to push into 
the new country, unpeopled and virgin, but fertile and beautiful. 
Amons: those who are said to have come in at this time were Abraham 
Couts, Thomas Vanderpool, William Givens and Wallace McAfee, who 
settled in the vicinity of Kingston ;^ Thornton Gwinn, David Gwinn, 
and Henry Gwinn, who came into Mirabile township; Frank Mc- 
Guire, who located at Salem, or east of Kingston; Elisha Cameron, 
who settled in Grant township, west of Polo, and Zephaniah Woolsey, 
who settled near the county line, in Fairview township, Robert 
White came from Ohio this year and located on Shoal creek, in 
Fairview township, a mile from the site of where afterwards Haun's 
mill was built, or at the " Mormontown ford." Jacob Haun, the 
builder of Haun's mill, came in the spring of this year from Green 
Bay, Wis., to Fairview township. 

In 1833 Samuel Hill, Eppa *Mann, Esq. McGuire, and George 
Roland settled in the neighborhood of Kingston ; George Williams 
came to a claim three miles east of Kingston, section 17, New York 
township; Jesse Clevenger and Joseph Hightower to locations east 
of Goose creek, in what is now Mirabile township. Michael Turnidge 

1 Old Jesse Mann had no middle name. The full name of his son was Jesse Martin 

2 Of the first colony that settled in Caldwell county, east of Kingston, or in what 
was known as the Shoal creek settlement, there is now (December, 1885,) but one mem- 
ber surviving, Mrs. Elizabeth Mann, widow of Jesse M. Mann, who resides in Lincoln 
township, and yet retains a good recollection of pioneer days. 


also came to Mirabile township and located on the northeast quarter 
of section 17. It was also in this year that the Lyons Brothers made 
their settlement at Salem. 

Accordini; to Mr. Johnson's Atlas sketch, some of the settlers who 
came to the county in 1884 were Henry Lee and David Roland, who 
settled on the north bank of Shoal creek, two miles northeast of 
Kingston; Richard Beenier, who settled in Fairview township, and 
Henry Crowley, who settled in Grant township. In 1835 came 
Thomas Skidmore, John Fletcher, Jesse Fletcher and Thomas 
Fletcher to Mirabile township. In 1836, among others who came, 
were William Royce, Thomas Crandall, Abe Jones, Sam K. McGee, 
John Taylor, Lewis Jackson and James Lee. 

The life of the early settlers of Caldwell county was that of the 
pioneers of the West generally, which has l)een written of and 
described so frequently that it need not be detailed here. The people, 
while they dwelt in log cabins and were plainly appareled and fed on 
humble fare, lived comfortably, happily and well. It can not well be 
said that they suffered hardships, since the deprivation of certain 
modern luxuries and conveniences was well sustained by ample sub- 

There was a scarcity of purple and fine linen; but there was an 
abundance of comfortable and durable linsey and jeans and homespun 
cotton, much better suited to their rough and tumble life. Fine clothes 
and gay raiment would have been as much out of place in the primitive 
log cabins and among the clearings of early days as would 'coon skin 
caps and buckskin breeches in the parlors and drawing rooms of the 
handsome residences that stand upon the well improved lands of the 
county to-day. In that day as now people dressed and lived according 
to their circumstances. • 

In their somewhat isolated positions the settlers were dependent 
upon one another for many thingsl* Men were willing to help a 
neighbor, because they felt that they might at some time need help 
themselves. A house-raising would start all the settlers for ten miles 
around. A new settler was always gladly received. He first selected 
his claim, cut his house logs and hauled them to the spot he had 
chosen for his home, and then announced his " raising." It did not 
take long to put up the cabin. The neighbors came from far and near, 
and whoever refused to attend a raising that could do so and had heard 
of it was guilty of a serious off'ense. The work of raising a cabin was 
often facilitated by a jug full of whisky, plenty and cheap in those 
days, and when the work was all done there were those not too tired 


to indulge in a scuffle or other rough sport, and sometimes there was 
a fisticuff. 

In the early history of the settlements mechanical conveniences 
were few and of an inferior character. Few of the settlers had been 
regularly trained to the use of tools, and, in consequence, every man 
became his own mechanic. Vessels and articles required for house- 
hold use were hewn out of blocks and loas of wood. Although these 
articles presented a rough and uncouth appearance, they answered 
every purpose, and families were as happy in their use as are the most 
favored people of later generations with the multiplied devices of 
modern invention. 

The first farms were opened up in the woods. The timber was all 
cut down. That which would make rails or fencing was utilized. The 
rest was piled and rolled together and burned. The stumps of the 
saplings were grubbed up, and then the land was plowed. The plow 
used was a very simple affair, with sometimes an iron point and some- 
times without, and always a wooden mold-board. It is said that some 
farmers used a plow made from the fork of a tree. The soil in the 
creek bottoms was like an ash heap for mellowness, and almost any- 
thing in the shape of a plow would serve to fit it for the reception of 
the seed corn. There Avas, of course, the usual difficulty in plowing 
regarding the stumps, and as most of the pioneers were not profane 
men, their sufferings at times were intense ! 

It is alleged that the first prairie farm was opened by T. W. Hig- 
gins in the spring of 1842. In the winter of that year he built his 
house fairly out on the bleak prairie, and when he selected the site the 
snow was fifteen inches deep and the thermometer below zero. The 
old settlers laughed at what they deemed his folly, and declared that 
nobody but a Yankee would settle so far from timber. But they, as 
well as Maj. Higgins, lived to declare that nobody but a tom-fool 
would settle in the timber when there was good, rich prairie to be had ! 

Under the circumstances it was but natural that the first settlers 
should have an unfavorable opinion of the prairies as to their fitness 
for agricultural lands. Covered with thick, strong grass, in wet sea- 
sons the moisture after a rain was held in the ground near or on the 
surface a long time before being absorbed or evaporated, and caused 
the belief that the soil would always be " soggy," and that in even 
moderately wet seasons crops would always drown out. Then there 
was the tough sod, which no ordinary plow then in use would turn ; 
the land could not be enclosed with a brush fence, as in the timber. 


but rails must be made and hauled ; there were but few springs on the 
prairies, etc., etc. 

Those who wrote of the prairies at that day did not regard them 
with much favor. Mr. Lewis C. Beck, an accomplished scientist, 
writing in his Gazetteer of Missouri (1823), of Ray county, to which 
Caldwell then belonged, has this to say (p. 244) of the prairies : — 

The prairies, although generally fertile, are so very extensive that 
they must, for a great length of time, and perhaps forever, remain 
wild and uncultivated ; yet such is the enterprise of the American citi- 
zen — such the emigration to the West, that it almost amounts to pre- 
sumption to hazard an opinion on the subject. Perhaps before the 
expiration of ten years, instead of being bleak and desolate, they may 
have been converted into immense grazing fields, covered with herds 
of cattle. It is not possible, however, that the interior of these 
prairies can be inhabited ; for, setting aside the difficulty of obtaining 
timber, it is on other accounts unpleasant and uncomfortable. In 
winter the northern and western blasts are excessively cold, and the 
snow is drifted like hills and mountains, so as to render it impossible 
to cross from one side of a prairie to the other. In summer, on the 
contrary, the sun acting upon such an extensive surface, and the 
southerly winds which uniformly prevail during this season, produce 
a degree of heat almost insupportable. 

It should not, by any means, be understood that these objections 
apply to all the prairies. The smaller ones are not subject to these 
inconveniences ; on the contrary, they are by far the most desirable 
and pleasant situations for settlement. They are of this description 
in the county of which we are treating; surrounded by forests, and 
containing here and there groves of the finest timber, watered by beau- 
tiful running streams, presenting an elevated, rolling or undulating 
surface, and a soil rarely equaled in fertility. 

Up to 1835 not much farming had been done in the county, and 
indeed not a great deal attempted. Every settler had his ''truck 
patch," wherein grew potatoes, a little corn, a few vegetables, etc. ; 
and he had also a corn field corresponding in extent to the length of 
time he had been in the county, his means, or his desires. 

Corn was the principal crop, and if enough of this was raised to 
supply the family with pone and Johnny-cake the settler was satisfied. 
There was no wheat raised of any consequence for some years. 

Cotton was raised quite successfully, although not extensively, in 
the first years of the settlement of Ray county. Some of the first 
settlers of Caldwell, the Manns included, raised small patches for the 
first few years after coming to this country ; but soon after the Mis- 


souri began to be navigated cotton yarn could be purchased in Rich- 
mond cheaper than it could be grown and spun here, and cotton rais- 
insf was abandoned. 

Flax was among the first crops raised. The seed was rarely sold, 
and the crop was cultivated for the bark, of which linen and linsey were 
made. Nearly every family had a flax patch and a flock of sheep — 
the dependence for clothing supplies. To be a good flax breaker was 
at one time considered a great accomplishment among the men, and 
the woman who was a good flax or wool spinner and weaver was the 
envy of many of her sisters. 

The early settlers of this county raised almost every thing they ate, 
and manufactured nearly every thing they wore. Their smoke houses 
were always well supplied with meat of various kinds, and honey of 
the finest flavor. The latter was actually so abundant that it was used 
for axle grease. After the first year or two there was plenty of meal 
in the chest and butter and milk in the cellar. Very little coff'ee and 
sugar were used, and tea was almost unknown. The family that had 
coffee two or three times a week were considered " high livers." 
Often it was only used once a week — Sunday morning for break- 

The hogs and cattle of the settlers increased very rapidly and throve 
abundantly, living almost exclusively on the wild " mast" then to be 
found everywhere. Bacon and lard were plenty — beyond the wants 
of the owners ; but there was no market at home for them. 

Upon the first settlement of Caldwell county the woods were full of 
game of all kinds and the country was a paradise for hunters. Bears, 
panthers, and wolves abounded. Panther creek, in the northeastern 
portion of the county, was named from the abundance of those ani- 
mals in the timber along its banks. Many an early settler, as he sat 
by his fireside, felt his blood chill as the piercing scream of a prowling 
panther was borne to his lonely cabin on the night wind. They w^ere 
frequently encountered, and many of them killed by the pioneer hunt- 
ers. Wild cats or catamounts were quite numerous. 

As to wolves the country was infested with them. There seem to 
have been three varieties, the large black, the gray, and the coyote or 
prairie wolf. The first two varieties made many a foray on the set- 
tlers' flocks and herds, and sometimes it was a difficult matter to raise 
sheep and pigs on account of the depredations of these marauders. 
The sheep had to be penned every night and the hogs carefully looked 
after. The latter ran in the woods, and the pigs were in great danger. 
Many a little porker was snapped up by the wolves and carried away. 
In time, as the hogs continued to run in the woods, and feed on the 


" mast," they grew wild and vicious, and often when attacked by 
wolves, would turn and fight and drive off their assailants. 

Deer were very plentiful. They could be found in every section. 
A settler could kill a deer almost anywhere and almost any time — 
before breakfast, if he wanted to — and the juicy venison steaks of 
the old time were long remembered. Wild turkeys, squirrels and 
other edil)le game were numerous and easily obtained. 

In the first settlement elk were plenty. As late as in the year 1839, 
Mr. C. R. Ross says he saw a herd of elk in Davis township, while on 
his way to Camden, Ray county, with a drove of hogs. It was about 
this time, however, when the elk left the country. 

Along the streams, in the timber, half 'the standing hollow trees 
were bee trees, and containing each from a quart to five gallons of 
honey. In time these trees were marked with the mark of the finder, 
sometimes his initials, sometimes a certain number of notches cut with 
an ax, and to cut another man's bee tree, no matter whose land it was 
on, was deemed as bad as stealing. 

One serious discomfort in early days was the presence of numbers 
of venomous rattlesnakes with which the country, especially the 
sloughs and prairies, abounded. Some of the old pioneers even yet 
relate wonderful snake stories. Writing of this county when it was a 
part of Ray, in 1836, Wetmore ( Gazetteer of Missouri, p. 158) says 
that rattlesnakes were here then, but not much to be dreaded. 
Further he says : — 

They are to be seen, but the infinite number of hogs that range 
through the forests and prairies are carrying on a war of extermination 
against these natural enemies of the human family. Rattlesnakes are 
likewise frequently destroyed by deer. An old buck makes a past- 
time to leap upon the coil of a snake, and cut it in pieces with his 
pointed hoofs. A horse will instantly take alarm, and sheer off from 
the rattling caution the snake is accustomed to give. Professor Silli- 
man very justly remarks of the rattlesnake. " That he never is the 
assailant ; when he gives battle, it is with previous notice ; and when he 
strikes his fangs inflicts a fatal wound." There are, however, within 
the knowledge of all medical men, antidotes for this poison ; and there 
is a plant in almost all the prairies and barrens of Missouri called 
♦' rattlesnakes' master " (the botanical term not remembered ), that 
never fails to effect a cure when properly api)lied and in season. 


The first white settler in Caldwell county was Jesse Mann, who came 
in March, 1831. Following him, not more than two months later, came 


John Raglan and Ben Lovell, and in July his son, Jesse M. 

The first child of white parents born in the county was born to 
Joseph and Elizabeth Hightower, in October, 1832. 

The first death among the settlers was that of Marilda Jane Couts, 
a little daughter of Abraham Couts. Her clothing taking fire, ac- 
cidentally, she was burned to death in the fall of 1832. Then Thos. 
Vanderpool, who lived on Log creek, nearly two miles southwest of 
Kingston, lost a child ; then Abraham Couts another ; then Thos. Van- 
derpool himself was accidentally killed. All these were buried in the 
old graveyard half a mile east of Kingston. 

The manner of Vanderpool's death was particularly distressing. 
His father, Rev. Winant Vanderpool, an Old School Baptist preacher, 
had been up in the Daviess county settlements preaching in the wilder- 
ness and was returning to his home, in Ray county, in company with his 
son Thomas. Nearing the Shoal creek timber Thomas started to look 
at some bee trees which he had discovered a short time previously, 
and his father accompanied him, carrying a gun. Passing through 
the brush, the lock of the gun caught and the weapon was accident- 
ally discharged, and the unhappy father saw his son fall to the earth 
a bleeding corpse. Rev. Vanderpool was greatly distressed at the re- 
sult of his want of care, and received general sympathy. It is said 
the accident occurred on a Sunday. 

The first wedding occurred in May, 1832, when Hardin Stone and 
Julia Mann were married. The ceremony took place at the resi- 
dence of the bride's father, Jesse Mann, Sr., half a mile east of Kings- 
ton, and was performed by Rev. John Stone, a brother of the groom. 
The widow of Jesse M. Mann, who is still alive and remembers the 
incident well, says that about the entire population of what is now 
Caldwell county was present at this wedding, and that the bride was 
smartly dressed in a wedding gown of white jaconet. Mr. and Mrs. 
Stone now live in Gallatin, Daviess county. 

The first preachers were Winant Vanderpool and John Stone, both 
Primitive or Old School Baptists, who lived in Ray county, but who 
visited this county as early as in 1832, and preached at the houses of 
the settlers on Shoal creek. 

The first schools were taught by the Mormons. In the vicinity of 
Kingston the first school was taught by a young lady Mormon, Miss 
Mary Ann Duty, in an abandoned cabin on Long creek. This was in 
the summer of 1838. 

The first well was dug by Jesse M. Mann, on his farm east of 

-1 A^^.A.Q 


Kingston (northwest southeast section 22, township 56, range 28), in 
the spring of 1836. Prior to this all the settlers obtained their water 
from springs. 

riliST MILLS. 

In the early settlement of Missouri the pioneers produced the corn 
meal for their bread chiefly by means of a mortar. The grain was 
put in and pounded for hours with a pestle, and when sufficiently 
beaten the finer particles were separated from the coarser by a common 
sieve, the finer being used for making bread, and the coarser for 
hominy. This process became slow and wearisome, and other meth- 
ods were introduced. A kind of hand mill rapidly supplanted the old 
mortar. It was constructed by putting the flat sides of two large 
stones together, the upper one well balanced on a pivot. A hole was 
made in the top of the upper stone, into which was forced a round 
pin, used as a handle, to put the mill in motion by one hand, while 
the other was used to feed it. Simple as were mills of this kind, they 
were, however, very scarce at first and were used only by a few. 
The majority clung to the old mortar and pestle, the noise of which 
could sometimes be heard long after the usual hour of retiring, busy 
in the preparation of the meal and hominy for the morning's break- 
fast. The constant employment of about one member of each family 
was required to keep the family provided with bread. 

The first settlers in this county visited the mills down in Ray county, 
as a rule, to procure their flour, and often to have their corn ground. 
The first power mill in Caldwell was that of the Lyons Brothers, at 
Salem, mentioned elsewhere, and built either in the fall of 1833, or in 
the spring of 1834. 

In 1834 Jacob Haun built Haun's mill, on Shoal creek, in Fairview 
township, at the site of the Haun's mill massacre. The same year, 
but afterwards, Robert White built another mill on Shoal creek, near 
Haun's, which he sold to William Mann, and he to John Raglan. 
This mill was washed away in the great freshet of 1839. Haun's mill 
stood till 1845 and was then torn down by C. R. Ross, as detailed 

On January 19, 1844, Robert White established a mill on the well 
known site of Filson's mill. 

Some of the early mills were driven by horse power. In 1847, 
Samuel Ritchie built a " pull around " mill at Salem. It was turned 
by a sweep at the end of which a horse or team was hitched. In 1855 
Judge Isaac Sumner, in partnership with Clias. J. Hughes, built a 
horse mill — or rather an ox mill — which was afterwards run by 


steam. About the same time Wm. Bryant erected a " pull around " 
mill on Log creek, west of Kingston. This was afterwards a tread 
mill. Bryant also had a saw mill driven by horse power. 

Some time in 1837 or 1838, the Mormons began the erection of a 
mill on Shoal creek, a short distance above the present bridge on the 
road between Hamilton and Kingston, and half a mile northwest 
from the latter place. When the expulsion of the Mormons came they 
sold to Joe Wilhoit and Samuel Massingale who completed the mill 
and operated it for some years, or until it was washed away. Some 
of the old timbers of this mill are now, or recently were, to be seen. 

Mr. Massingale was drowned at this mill in 1844. The stream was 
high and he tried to swim it on horseback. He was thrown off the 
horse into the stream and being unable to swim he was soon overcome 
by the strong current. The body was recovered. Massingale was 40 
years of age and left a wife and children. 


Up to December 26, 1836, what is now Caldwell county comprised 
a portion of Ray. The latter county was organized November 16, 
1820, out of Howard, and named for Hon. John Ray, one of the del- 
egates from that county to the first constitutional convention of the 
State. The legislative act establishing Ray connty defined its ter- 
ritory to be, " all that part of Howard county west of Grand river to 
the boundary line of this State," and further declared that, " all that 
portion of territory lying north of the county of Ray, and west of the 
range line dividing ranges 21 and 22, to the northern and western 
boundaries of the State, shall be attached to said county of Ray for 
all purposes, civil, military, and judicial." The western boundary of 
the state at that time was a line runnins^ due north from the mouth of 
the Kansas river (where Kansas City now stands) to the northern 
boundary, the Platte Purchase not having then been acquired. 

It was provided in the organizing act that, -when a division of Ray 
county should become necessary, its northern boundary line should 
be the line dividing congressional townships 55 and 56 ; and in 1825, 
it was provided that the said northern line should run between town- 
ships 53 and 54 ; but in time the line was established as at present — be- 
tween 54 and 55. In January, 1822, Clay county was formed out of 
the western part of Ray. The first county seat of Ray was Blufl'ton, 
on the Missouri (now extinct), but in 1828 Richmond became the 
capital. The first townships into which Ray county was divided, and 
which included the present area of Caldwell, may be mentioned. At 


the first session of the Ray county court, in April, 1821, the county 
was divided by lines running north and south into 3 municipal town- 
ships, viz. : Bluffton, which included all the territory between 
range 30 and Grand river ; Fishing River, including the territory west 
of the range line between 29 and 30, to the sectional line running a 
little east of where Liberty in Clay county stands; and Gallatin, 
comprising the remainder of the county west of the State boundary 
line. All the townships ran from the Missouri river to the northern 
boundary of the State. What is now Caldwell county was first a part 
of Bluffton township. 

In 1822, after Clay had been organized, Ray county Avas composed 
of but two municipal townships. Missouriton, including all the tract 
of county east of the main east fork of Crooked river to Grand river, or 
the Chariton county line ; and Bluffton, including the remainder of 
the county west, to the Clay county line. 

In February, 1823, Bluffton and Missouriton townships were divided 
and Crooked River township formed therefrom. Under the reorganiza- 
tion Bluffton lay between the west line of the county, and the range 
line dividing ranges 27 and 28; Crooked River between the line divid- 

CD CI ■' 

ing 27 and 28, and the line dividing 25 and 26 ; and Missouriton com- 
prised the eastern portion of the county extending to Grand river. 
What is now Caldwell county was then embraced in Bluft'ton and 
Crooked River townships, Ray county. 

In November, 1826, Fishing River township was formed out of 
Bluffton and comprised all of range 29, lying north of the Missouri 
river. In 1829, the name of Bluffton township was changed to Rich- 
mond, and the eastern and western limits of the township were the 
section line between sections 34 and 35, range 25, and the range line 
between ranges 28 and 29. The territory of Caldwell was bounded 
then as follows : Range 29 lay in Fishing River township, and the re- 
mainder of the county in Richmond township, Ray county. 

In May, 1832, the Riy county court created a new township out of 
Richmond, and named it Marion. Its boundary line began at the 
corner of sections 23, 26, and 27, 22, in congressional township 53, 
range 27 ; then ran due north to the township line between congres- 
sional townships 56 and 57; thence west to the line between ranges 28 
and 29; then south to the corner of sections 19, 30, in range 29, and 
24, 25, in range 29 in congressional township 53 ; thence east to the 
beginning. Marion township, Ray county, comprised among other 
territory what is now the west four miles of Lincoln and New York, 
and all of Grant and Kingston townships, Caldwell county. 


In May, 1832, the authorities of Rny created a new municipal town- 
ship, called Grand River. It included all the present townships of 
Davis, Fairview, and Breckinridge, the east two miles of Lincoln, 
New York and Gonier, in Caldwell county, and a consideral>le portion 
of Livingston and Daviess. 

In June, 1835, Shoal Creek township was established. It com- 
prised nearly the southern two-thirds of what is now Caldwell county, 
as follows : Beginnino' on the rano;e line between ranges 25 and 26, at 
the southeast corner of section 1, township 5(3, range 26, thence west 
to the county line, thence south eleven miles, thence east to the Carroll 
county line, thence north to the beginning. It was duly certified that 
at the time of its organization. Shoal Creek township contained 51 
taxable inhabitants, and the total population could not have been 
far from 250. At this time there were no settlements worth mention 
in the county of Caldwell outside of Shoal Creek township. 

The August election, 1835, was held at the house of Caleb Odell and 
Jesse Clevenger, Wallace McAfee and Francis McGuire were the judges. 
In 1836 the election was held at Odell's, and the judges were Jesse 
M. Mann, Wallace McAfee and Francis McGuire. 

In December, 1836, just prior to the organization of Caldwell, its 
territory was included in the municipal townships of Shoal Creek and 
Grand River, in Ray county. Grand River township, among other ter- 
ritory, in what is now Livingston and Daviess counties embraced 
what are * now the municipal townships of Davis, Fairview and 
Breckinridge, or the east six miles (range 26) of Caldwell county. 


When the Mormon leaders had determined upon the occupation of 
this portion of Missouri certain public men of the State thought they 
had discovered an easy and satisfactory solution of the Mormon problem. 
The Mormons had already selected Far West as their principal town 
and were clustering about it in considerable numbers, and at various 
points on lower Shoal creek. They seemed well enough pleased with 
the county, and were coming in by bands and companies every week. 

"Let us fix up a county expressly for the Mormons," exclaimed 
certain of the politicians and public men. " Let us send all the Mor- 
mons in the State to that county and induce all Gentiles therein to 
sell out and leave." The proposition suited every one. The Gentiles 
said, " If the Mormons are willing to go into that prairie country and 
settle, let them have it and welcome." The Mormons said, " If we may 
be allowed to remain peaceably and enjoy our religion, we will o"o into 



imj'" country that may be set apart for us, no matter how wild and un- 
broken it may be, and we will make it to blossom as the rose. If we 
obtain political control of a county we will honestly administer it and 
be loyal in all things to the State government over us." 

Arrangements were soon made. Every Gentile in the proposed 
new county that could be induced to sell his possessions at a reasona- 
ble price was bought out, and his place taken by a Mormon. The 
authorities of the church agreed that no Mormons should settle in any 
other countv without the previous consent of the settlers alreadv there. 

As previously stated, upon the organization of Ray county, in 1820, 
it was provided that when the county should be divided, its northern 
boundary should be " the township line between townships 55 and 56 ;" 
but the act of 1825, repealing all former acts and " defining the limits 
of the several counties in this State," fixes the northern boundar}'- of 
Ray as " the township line dividing townships jifiy-three and fifty- 
four.'''' It was proposed, therefore, to organize the new county out 
the first 24 miles square north of Ra\^ and with its southern boundary 
between the said townships 53 and 54. But the Gentile settlers living 
in the said township 54 protested vigorously against being put 
into the new Mormon county. This protest took the form of a nu- 
merousl}^ signed petition and some agitation. It became evident that 
when the Legislature should assemble it would be difficult, if not im- 
possible, to create the new county with its proposed southern boundary. 
Those having the scheme in charge, therefore, concluded' to fix the 
boundary line between townships 54 and 55, and thus make the " Mor- 
mon county " 18 miles north and south by 24 miles east and west. 
The county to be formed north of the Mormon county was to be 
24 miles square, no objection being made. 

lion. Alex. W. Doniphan, then a representative elect from Clay 
county, had l)een the leader, if not the proposer, of the scheme, and to 
him was assigned the work of preparing and introducing into the Leg- 
islature the act organizing the new counties and of pressing the bill 
to a passage. Fearing that a separate bill to organize the " Mormon 
county" might be defeated. Gen. Doniphan incorporated that propo- 
sition in the bill to organize the other county, and early in the month 
of December, introduced the measure, which soon passed without 
much opposition. Following is a copy of the important provisions 
of the act organizing Caldwell and Daviess counties. 

Be it enacted by the General As.senihly of the State of Missouri, 
as folloics : 1. All that portion of territory included in the follow- 
ing limits is hereby declared to be erected into a separate and distinct 
county, to be called the county of Caldwell, to wit: Beginning at a 


point where the township line dividing townships 54 and 55 intersects 
the range line dividing ranges 25 and 26 ; thence north along said 
range line to the division line between townships 57 and 58; thence 
west along said line to the division line between ranges 29 and 30 ; 
thence sonth along said line to the division line between townships 54 
iind 55 ; thence east along said line to the point of beginning. 

2. All that portion of territory included in the following limits is 
hereby declared to be erected into a separate and distinct county, to 
be called the county of Daviess, in honor of Col. Joseph H. Daviess, 
who fell at the battle of Tippecanoe, to wit : Beginning at the north- 
east corner of the county of Caldwell, as fixed by this act; thence 
north 24 miles ; thence west 24 miles; thence south to the northwest 
corner of Caldwell county; thence east along the north boundary line 
of said county to the place of beginning. 

3. Joseph Baxter, of the county of Clay, Cornelius Gilliam, of the 
county of Clinton, and Wm. W. Mangee, of the county of Ray, are 
hereby appointed commissioners to select a seat of justice for each of 
said counties ; and the said commissioners * * * shall meet on 
the first Monday in April next, at the house of Francis McGruire, in 
Caldwell county, for the purpose of selecting and locating the perma- 
nent seat of justice of said county ; * * * the said commission- 
ers shall, as soon as convenient, proceed to Daviess county for the 
purpose of selecting and locating a seat of justice for said county. 

T(T Tf! TIP 717 Tfr 71? Tt' vFT Tff If! Tf^ 

This act to be in force from after its passage. 
Approved December 29, 1836. 

As stated to the writer by Gen. Doniphan himself, in the summer 
of 1885, the origin of the names of the two counties was as follows: 
Gen. Doniphan's father, Joseph Doniphan, was a soldier of the Revo- 
lution, and one of the pioneers that accompanied Daniel Boone to 
Kentucky. In the latter State he belonged to a company of Indian 
scouts and fighters, commanded by Capt. Matthew (?) Caldwell. Of 
this Capt. Caldwell Gen. Doniphan often heard his father speak as a 
brave and gallant soldier, and a skillful Indian fighter. Col. Joseph 
H. Daviess, who was killed under Gen. Harrison at the battle of Tip- 
Pecanoe, Indiana, in 1811, was also an acquaintance and friend of Mr. 
Doniphan. When Gen. Doniphan drew up the bill for the organiza- 
tion of the two new counties, he named one of them for Col. Daviess, 
and the other Caldivell, in honor of his father's old captain. Caldwell 
county, Kentucky, was also named for Capt. Caldwell. 

January 25, 1839, the Legislature declared that, " all the territory 
between the northern line of Ray county and the southern line of 
Caldwell is hereby added to and shall form a part of Ray county." 
By the same act the northern boundary of Ray was fixed as "the 
division line between townships 54 and 55." (Laws 10th Gen. As- 
sembly, p. 25). 


Brief History of Mormonisrn — The Mormon Bible — Early History of the Mormons 
in New York and Ohio — Emigration to Jackson county, Mo. — Troubles with the 
"Gentile" Citizens — The Mormons Mobbed and Persecuted — Expulsion from 
Jackson County — Settlements in Ray and Clay — The "Mormon Problem" Solved — 
Caldwell County Created for the Exclusive Beneflt of the " Saints " — They Move Up 
and Take Possession — Settlements Elsewhere — Character of the Settlers in Cald- 
well — Troubles in the Church — Far West — Salem. 

The Mormon occupation of Caldwell county from 1835-36 to 1839 
forms an important period, not only in the liistory of the county, but 
in that of the State, and even in that of the republic. In detailing it 
in these pages, it is necessary, in order to arrive at a full and clear 
understanding of the subject, and make the story a complete and con- 
nected one, to give a condensed account of the adventures and 
experiences of the Mormons prior to their coming into this county, 
and also to refer briefly to Mormonism itself. 

To besrin with, it mav be fairly stated that nothins: in the history of 
modern fanaticism equals the progress of Mormonism in the United 
States and in all the world. It is marvelously strange that an unedu- 
cated youth, without wealth or social standing; indeed, without a 
prestige of common morality (for the founder of Mormonism is said 
to have been a disst)lute, unprincipled young rake, and notorious only 
for his general wickedness), should excite a revolutionary movement 
in the religious world, and be able to operate on the public credulity, 
by means of the wildest and most ridiculous pretensions to divinity 
and prophecy, and that, too, in an age of relinement and scientitic 

Joe Smith, the founder of Mormonism and its prophet, priest and 
leader, assumed to act by divine authority, and claimed that his mis- 
sion was of both a temporal and sjjiritual character. His mission was 
not only to radically and essentially change all the features of divine 
worship, and herald the millennial reign of Christ on earth, but was 
to establish a temporal kingdom in which his followers, denominated 
" the Saints," were to reign and crush the unl)clieving world beneath 
their righteous rule. When Smith first came to Missouri, in 1831, it 
was claimed that the foundations of this kingdom were laid at Inde- 



pendence, Jackson county, which Smith, in obedience to a revelation, 
called "The New Jerusalem." From this nucleus the kingdom was 
to be extended by a series of supernatural incidents and agencies, and 
by conquests more miraculous, important and complete than those 
which attended Mohammed in his campaign, which led to the estab- 
lishment of Islamism. 

To accomplish his designs, Smith at first proposed to convert all the 
Indian tribes of the West but not to incite them to avenge the wrongs 
they claimed to have suffered at the hands of their white conquerors 
and oppressors. The blood-thirsty Comanches, the cruel, crafty Sacs 
and Foxes, together with the Winnebagoes, the Pawnees, the Omahas, 
the Otoes and other tribes west of the Missouri, were to hear the 
voice of " the holy prophet of the Great Spirit," heed his coun- 
sel and consent to and aid in the establishment of Mormon supremacy 
on the American continent and eventually throughout the globe. 

The Mormon Bible or "Book of Mormon," as it is called, con- 
tains a pretended history of the original inhabitants of America, 
from whom it is claimed the modern tribes have descended. This book 
was to be largely used to convert the poor Indians. From the pages 
of this blunderino;, meaninijless fiction, this mass of but little more 
than senseless jargon, they were to be taught their high origin; they 
were to learn of high-toned ancestry that had discovered, settled and 
peopled a vast continent, and established a civilization far superior to 
that of their European enemies, who had dispossessed them of their 
hunting grounds, the once happy homes of their fathers. 

A brief sketch of Joseph Smith, the founder and chief apostle of 
Mormonisra, or the Church of the Latter Day Saints, as he christened 
it, will not be out of place here. He was born December 23, 1805, at 
Sharon, Windsor county, Vt. In 1815 he removed with his father's 
family to Palmyra, Wayne county, N. Y. When but 15 years old 
he claimed to have received the first remarkable vision. He after- 
wards asserted that while praying in the woods God appeared to him 
and announced that his sins were all forgiven, that all of the then ex- 
isting denominations of Christians were in error, and that he was 
chosen to reinstate the kingdom of God and re-introduce His gospel 
on earth. Smith acquainted none or but few with the knowledge of 
his divine visitation at this time, and three years thereafter had fear- 
fully fallen from grace, as it would seem, for he had formed and prac- 
ticed vicious habits of swearing, swindling and drunkenness. 

September 21, 1823, Smith claimed that he was again favored with 
a divine visitation and revelation. An angel of the Lord came to him 


while asleep ill bed, he asserted, uiid revealed to him the existence and 
preservation of the history of the ancient inhabitants of the American 
continent, which history was to be found recorded on certain plates or 
tablets of gold, buried near Palmyra. One of the early Mormon hymns 
declared : — 

An angel came down from Geneva, 

And to our prophet told 

That there were plates of gold 
Hid away in the hills of Cumorah 

Smith was further directed by the celestial messenger to take up the 
aforesaid plates. The next day he obeyed the divine command, and 
discovered the plates in a stone box buried in the hillside designated 
as "Cumorah," between the towns of Manchester and Palmyra, 
N. Y. The anjT^el of the Lord then safely delivered to Smith the 
plates, which were of gold, bell-shaped, seven by eight inches in size, 
and in the aggregate were about six inches thick (each plate being of 
thickness of ordinary tin plate) and fastened through holes in the 
smaller ends with rings. 

These plates contained all kinds of characters, fantastic, arabesque, 
and irregular, presenting a singular medley of imitations of Greek, 
Hebrew, Chaldean, and other characters, together with all sorts of 
hieroglyphics, representations of the sun, moon and stars, various 
cabalistic svmbols, etc. Smith at once set about translating these 
plates, and his labors were witnessed by Martin Harris, Oliver Cow- 
dery, and David Wliitmer, according to their affidavits, which appear 
in every edition of the Mormon Bible. These men swore that they 
saw the angel deliver the plates to Smith, and that they assisted in 
their transcribing.^ 


Be it known unto all nations, kindreds, tongues, and people, unto whom this work 
shall come, that we through the grace of God the Fatlier, and our Lord Jesus Christ, 
have seen the plates which contain this record, which is a record of the people of 
Nephi and also of the Lamanites, their brethren, and also of the people of Jared, who 
came from the tower of which hath been spoken ; and we also know that they have 
been translated by the gift and power of God, for His voice hath declared it unto us; 
wherefore we know of a surety that the work is true, and we also testify that we have 
seen the engravings which are upon the plates; and they have been shown to us by the 
power of God, and not of man. And we declare with words ot soberness, that an an- 
gel of God came down from heaven and he brought and laid before our eyes, that we 
beheld and saw the plates, and the engravings thereon ; and we know it is by the grace 
of God the Father, and our Lord Jesus Christ, that we beheld and bear record that 
these things are true, and it is marvelous in our eyes; nevertheless, the voice of the 
Lord commanded us that we should bear record of it; wherefore, to be obedient unto 


David Whitmer still lives, and resides jit Richmond, Ray county, 
an old man and an honest one. It is but the truth and fair to sav 
that he has always seemed to be honest and sincere in his opinions, 
and positive in his declarations of the particulars of the miraculous 
circumstances here recorded. Although declared an apostate by the 
modern leaders of the Mormon church, Mr. Whitmer still claims to 
be a Mormon, whether he is the victim of a delusion or not.^ 

the comraaudments of God, we bear testimony of these things. And we know that if 
we are faithful in Christ we shall rid our garments of the blood of all men, and be 
found spotless before the judgment-seat of Christ, and shalld well with Him eternallj' 
in the heavens. And the honor be to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy 
Ghost, which is one God. Amen. 

(Signed) Oliver Cowdery, David Whitmer, Martin Harris. 


Be it known unto all nations, kindreds, tongues, and people, unto whom this work 
shall come, that Joseph Smith, Jr., the translator of this work, has shown unto us the 
plates of which liath been spoken, which have the appearance of gold: as many of the 
leaves as the said Smith has translated we did handle with our hands; and we also 
saw the engravings thereon, all of which have the appearance of ancient work, and of 
curious workmanship. And this we bear record with words of soberness, that the 
said Smith has shown unto us, for we have seen and lighted, and known of a surety 
that the said Smith has got the plates of which we have spoken : and we give our 
names unto the world of that which we have seen ; and we lie not, God bearing wit- 
ness of it. 

(Signed) John Whitmer, Christian Whitmer, Jacob Whitmer, Peter 

Whitmer, Jr., Hiram Page, Joseph Smith, Sr., Hyrum Smith, Samuel H. Smith. 
1 A citizen of Caldwell county having made public a statement reflecting on the 
character of David Whitmer, the latter secured a testimonial, signed by many 
of the leading citizens of Richmond, where Mr. Whitmer has resided since the year 
1838, certifying that, from a long and intimate acquaintance with him, they knew him 
to be a man of the highest integrity, and of undoubted truthfulness. The Caldwell 
county man having alleged that Mr. Whitmer had recanted the former faith, and even 
denied his testimony, the venerable gentleman published the following reply: — 

Uiito All Nations, Kindreds, Tongnes, and People unto whom these Presents shall come: 
It having been represented by one John Murphy, of Polo, Caldwell county. Mo., that 
I, in a conversation with him last summer, denied my testimony as one of the three 
witnesses to the Book of Mormon, to the end, therefore, that he may understand me 
now, if he did not then, and that the world may know the truth, I wish now, 
standing, as it were, in the very sunset of life, and in the fear of God, once for all to 
make this statement : 

That I have never, at any time, denied the testimony or any part thereof, which has 
so long been published with that book, as one of the three witnesses. Those who 
know me best well know that I have always adhered to that testimony. And that no 
man may be misled or doubt my present views in regard to the same, I do again af- 
firm the truth of aHmy statements, as then made and published. 

He that hath an ear to hear, let him hear! It was no delusion. What is written Is 
written, and he that readeth let him understand. 

And that no one may be deceived or misled by this statement, I wish here to state 
that I do not indorse polygamy or spiritual wifeism. It is agreat evil, shocking to the 
moral sense, and the more so because practiced in the name of religion. It is of man 
and not of God, and is especially forbidden in the Book of Mormon itself. 

I do not indorse the change of the name of the Church, for as the wife takes the 


AVhile the translation of the plates was in progress, Martin Harris, 
one of the " scribes," stole 118 pa^es of the manuscript, as is 
claimed, and these have never been recovered. The work of translation 
was then suspended for a time, but in April, 1829, was resumed, 
Oliver Cowderv, whom John the Baptist came back to the earth and 
ordained for the work, acting as clerk. The ensuing year the Book 
of Mormon was published and given to the world as a revelation from 

Mr. Thurlow "Weed, a venerable journalist of national reputation, 
recentlv livinir in New York Citv, in a letter published in the New 
York Herald, July 29th, 1858, made the following statement concern- 
ing the publication of the Book of Mormon : — 

The original impostor, Joe Smith, came to the writer only thirty- 
two years ago with the manuscript of this Mormon Bible to be [)rinted. 
He had then but one follower (Martin Harris), a respectal)le and 
wealthy farmer of the town of Macedon, who offered himself as secu- 
rity for the printing. But reading a few chapters, it seemed such a 
iuml)le of unintelliirible absurdities that we refused the work, advising 
Harris not to mortgage his farm and besfgar his familv. But Joe 
crossed over the way to our neighbor, Elihu F. Marshall, and got his 
Mormon Bible printed. 

Mr. Weed was at that time one of the proprietors of a newspaper 
and printinir establishment, in Albany, N. Y. 

It has been alleged, and there is some evidence that the real author 
of the Book of Mormon was Rev. Solomon Spaulding, a Presbyte- 
rian clergyman, of Ashford, Conn., and a college graduate. Aban- 
doning the ministry, Mr. Spaulding engaged in merchandising, and 

name of her husband, so should the Church of the Lamb of God take the name of its 
head, even Christ himself. It is the Chvrch of Christ. 

As to the hliih priesthood, .Jesus Christ himself is the last Great High Priest, this 
too after the order of Melchisedec, as I understand the Scriptures. 

Finally, I do not indorse any of the teachings of the so-called Mormons, or Latter 
Day Saints, which are in conflict with the Gospel of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, 
as taught in the Bible and Book of Mornion; for the same gospel is plainly taught in 
both these books, as I understand the word of God. 

And if any man iloubt, should he not carefully and honestly read and understand 
the same before presuming to sit in judgment and condemning the light, which 
shineth in darkness and showeth the way of eternal life, as pointed out by the unerring 
hand of God? 

In the spirit of Christ, who hath said, " Follow thou Mo, for I am the life, the light 
and the way," I submit this statement to the world; God, in whom I trust, being my 
judge as to the sincerity of ray motives and the faith and hope that is in me of the 
eternal life. 

My sincere desire is that the world may be benefited by this plain and simple state- 
ment of the truth. 

And all the honor be to the Father, the Son and the Holy Ghost, which is one God. 
Amen. David Wiiit.mer, Sr. 

RiciiMOXi), Mo, March Id, 1881. 


resided at Cherry Valley, N. Y., Cotiiieiiut, O., and finally at 
Amity, Pa., where he died in 1816* He was the author of several 
works of fiction, the manuscript of which he was accustomed to read 
to his friends. Among the manuscripts was a romance of the mi- 
irration of the ten lost tribes of Israel to America, advancini; the 
hypothesis that the aborigines of America are the descendants of 
the Hebrew children. 

Being encouraged by some friends, Mr. Spaulding decided to pub- 
lish this latter fiction, and placed it in the hands of a printer at 
Pittsburg, Pa. One Sidney Rigdon, afterwards a prominent Mormon, 
was the printer. The book was never published, and the manuscript 
was returned to Spaulding. After the appearance of the Book of 
Mormon, Mr. Spaulding' s widow recognized it as having been almost 
wholly derived from her husband's manuscript, and 'May 18, 1839, in 
a card in the Boston Journal^ she published a full and authenticated 
statement regarding its history. It has long been claimed that Sidney 
Rigdon was the real author of the Book of Mormon, and that he de- 
rived it wholly or in great part from Spaulding' s romance, choosing 
Joe Smith as a proper person to give it to the world. 

Having made a number of converts. Smith and his apostles and fol- 
lowers removed to Kirtland, Ohio, in 1831. Meeting with much op- 
position from the people of that section, the Mormons decided to 
remove to the far West. Joe Smith made a visit to Missouri to find 
a location for the new " Zion " of his church. 

He at first visited Saline county, and spent some days in looking 
over the country in the Grand Pass neighborhood. He then passed 
on through Lafayette county, and into Jackson. At Independence he 
received a " revelation " that this was to be the seat of his kingdom. 
He made arrangements to enter several thousand acres of land, and 
called the place " The New Jerusalem." He then returned to 

In 1832, Smith returned with many of his followers to Jackson 
county. The land upon which they settled mostly lay west of Inde- 
pendence. The land and all the other property professedly belonged 
to the Mormons in common, but really the bishops and leaders owned 
everything, the land titles specially vesting in them. A storehouse 
called " the Lord's," but controlled by the leaders, was established 
at Independence. A newspaper called The Morning and Evening 
Star, the official organ of the church, was established. In thjs paper 
appeared every week divers " revelations," promising great things to 


the faithful, and direful woes against the unbelievers, the "wicked 

The Mormons met with but little welcome from their new neighbors 
in Missouri. Their presence was distasteful to the citizens of Jackson 
county — "the Gentiles" — who could not tolerate the nonsense of 
" now revelations," the " second kingdom," etc. 

The Mormon paper of June, 1833, published an article entitled, 
"Free People of Color," which roused against the sect the bitter 
hostility of the pro-slavery people of the county, then, as for years 
afterward, especially sensitive on the subject of abolitionism. The 
anti-Mormon paper at Independence about the same time came out 
with an article entitled, " Beware of False Froi)hets," leveled 
especially at the Mormon leaders, and which charged them with all 
sorts of wickedness, allesino; amono; other thinirs that the " ojoods " 
which the church claimed to own " in common," comprised the 
wives ! It is but the truth to say that no evidence worth attention 
was adduced in support of this allegation. The article was bitter and 
very hostile in its tone, and produced the effect its author (who, it is 
said, was Hon. Lilburn W. Boggs, then a citizen of Independence and 
Lieutenant-Governor, afterwards Governor) intended. The people 
were stirred up and insulted and maltreated the Mormons on all occa- 
sions. Numbers of the " Saints " were brutally beaten, and some 
were tied up and whipped unmercifully. 

A general meeting of the citizens of Jackson county " for the pur- 
pose of adopting measures to rid ourselves of the sect of fanatics 
called Mormons," was held at Independence July 20 (1833). About 
500 Gentile people from all parts of the county attended, and an " ad- 
dress to the public " was agreed upon. This address stated that only 
a little more than two years previously, " some two or three of these 
people appeared in Missouri ; now they number u})wards of 1,200 ; " 
that each successive spring and autumn poured forth a new swarm; 
that the mass of them were ignorant and poverty-stricken, " a little 
above the condition of the blacks; " that they exercised " a corrupt- 
ing influence " over the slaves ; and that,they believed and boasted 
that the whole country of Missouri was their destined inheritance, 
and that all the Gentiles, or unbelievers in Mormonism, were to be 
" cut otf " in the Lord's jrood time. The address concluded : — 


Of their pretended revelations from heaven — their personal inter- 
course with God and his angels — the maladies they pretended to heal 
by laying on of hands — and the contemptible gibberish with which 


they habitually profane the Sabbath, and which they dignify with the 
appellation of unknown tongues, we have nothing to say : vengeance 
belongs to God alone. But as to the other matters set forth in this 
paper, we feel called on, by every consideration of self-preservation, 
good society, public morals, and the fair prospects that, if they are not 
blasted in the germ, awaits this young and beautiful country — a 
once to declare, and we do hereby most solemnly declare : — 

" That no Mormon shall in future move and settle in this country. 

" That those now here, who shall give a definite pledge of their in- 
tention within a reasonable time to remove out of the country, shall 
be allowed to remain unmolested until they have sufficient time to sell 
their property and close their business without any material sacrifice. 

"That the editor of the Star be required forthwith to close his 
office, and discontinue the business of printing in this county ; and, as 
to all other stores and shops belonging to the sect, their owners must 
in every case comply with the terms of the second article of this 
declaration, and upon failure, prompt and efficient measures will be 
taken to close the same. 

" That the Mormon leaders here are required to use their influence 
in preventing any further emigration of their distant brethren to this 
country, and to counsel and advise their brethren here to comply with 
the above requisitions. 

" That those who fail to comply with these requisitions be referred to 
those of their brethren who have gifts of divination and of unknown 
tongues, to inform them of the lot that awaits them," 

The address being unanimously adopted, the meeting adjourned for 
two hours, and a deputation waited upon W. W. Phelps, the editor of 
the Star and of the Advertiser, and Edward Partridge, the bishop, 
and on the keeper of the Mormon store, and warned them to comply 
with the resolutions at once. This deputation soon reported to the 
meeting that no direct anssver had been obtained ; that the Mormons 
wished an unreasonable time in which to confer with Joseph Smith, 
their " Prophet," who was then at Kirtland, Ohio. It was therefore 
resolved that the Star printing office should be immediately razed to 
the ground, and the types and presses destroyed. This was done. 
The printing material was thrown into the Missouri river, after which 
several Mormons were severely beaten, and Bishop Partridge and 
store keeper Allen were seized, stripped naked, tarred and feathered 
liberally, and turned loose. One paddle of tar was thrust into Part- 
ridge's mouth and he was nearly suffocated. Lieut. -Gov. Boggs was 
in the vicinity and had full knowledge of the lawless proceedings, 
but refused to interfere. 

July 23 the Jackson county citizens again assembled. There were 
several hundred of them, well armed and bearing a red flag. They 


declared their intention of driving tlie " Saints" forcibly out of Mis- 
souri if they would not go peaceably. Thorouojhly overawed, the 
Mormons agreed, if time were given them, that they would leave the 
county. An agreement was signed that one-half of the Mormons 
with their wives and families should depart by the 1st of January and 
the other half by the 1st of April following ; that the paper should be 
suspended, and that no more Mormons should come into the country. 
No violence was to be done to the Mormons, provided these conditions 
were complied with. 

In their uncomfortable situation the Mormons petitioned Gov. Dan- 
iel Dunklin for aid, protection, relief and reparation. The Governor 
replied in a very sensible and conciliatory letter, in which he stated 
that the attack on them was illegal and unjustifiable, and recommended 
them to remain where they were, and to apply for redress to the 
courts of the country. The Mormons thereupon resolved to remain 
in Missouri, and to proceed in the " building up of Zion," trusting to 
the protection of the Governor and the other State authorities. They 
also commenced legal action against the ringleaders of the mob, and 
paid a strong legal firm $1,000 to prosecute them. 

But October 30 the Jackson county Gentiles were again in arms 
and raiding the " Saints." Ten houses of the Mormons were demol- 
ished and the inmates driven away on the Big Blue. The following 
day a number of other houses at Independence and in other parts of 
the county were plundered, and much Mormon property was forcibly 
taken and approi)riated. Some of the scenes enacted are said to have 
been altogether disgraceful, rivaling, if not surpassing, the worst ex- 
cesses of the Kansas jayhawkers and Missouri bushwhackers during 
the Civil War. 

In some instances the Mormons resisted. November 2, in a skir- 
mish at Linwood, two miles southeast of Kansas City, in what was 
known as the Whitmer settlement, two Gentiles were killed and 
several wounded. At last the State militia, under Lieut. -Gov. Boggs, 
was called out to "preserve the peace." The militia, however, was 
anti-Mormon to a man, and the unhappy Saints, knowing this, realized 
that they were at the mercy of their enemies, and saw that the}' had 
no alternative but to flee. It was absolutely perilous for a solitary 
Mormon to show himself in a town or villaije. 

Affrighted and almost terror stricken, the Mormons crossed the river 
and sought safety in Clay county. November 7 the crossing began. 
There was great discomfort and misery among the fugitives ; the 
weather was cold and rainy, and the plundered, half-clad women and 


children suffered severely. But the people of Clay received the new 
comers kindly. They allowed them to remain, rented them houses, 
furnished them provisions, and gave numbers employment. For this 
the Clay county people were long intensely hated by their Jackson 
county neighbors. Some of the Mormons lied to Cass county (then 
Van Buren), but were again driven and compelled to flee.^ 

The public authorities of the State, or some of them at least, were 
indignant at these lawless proceedings, and sympathized with the 
ertbrts made by the Mormons to obtain redress. The Attorney- 
General, then Hon. Robert W. Wells, wrote to them that if they de- 
sired to be re-established in their possessions in Jackson county an 
adequate public force would be sent for their protection. He also 
advised them to remain in the State and organize themselves into a 
regular company of militia, promising them a supply of the public arms 
if they should do so. 

But the Mormons were averse to fighting, or to taking any steps 
that should lead to open dissensions or any further trouble with the 
citizens of Missouri, whose good will they seemed anxious to obtain 
and secure, in order that they might be allowed to remain in the State 
in peace. They desired to go to what is now the State of Kansas, but 
that Territory then belonged to the]Indians and was not open to settle- 
ment by the whites. So they began to seek for new homes on the 
north side of the Missouri. In June, 1834, Joe Smith visited them in 
Clay county and counseled them to make no violent or forcible at- 
tempts to recover the " New Jerusalem," to which he assured them 
his church should be restored " in God's own time." 

As the Jackson county people had seized upon and occupied the 
houses and lands of the Mormons, and expected to retain them, it was 
but natural that they should desire some legal title to them. So they 
sent a proposition to the Mormons in Clay to buy their lands, offering 
them per acre the government price, $1.25, allowing nothing for im- 
provements. The greater portion of these lands had been entered and 
were in the name of Bishop Edward Partridge, the same whom the Jack- 
son county Gentiles had tarred and feathered. The Mormons refused 
the proposition, and it was finally agreed that the matter should be sub- 
mitted to certain prominent citizens of Clay for arbitration. The 
arbiters met at Liberty, and Jackson sent over thirteen commissioners ; 

iWhen, during the Civil War, in August, 1863, the counties of Cass and Jackson 
were among those depopulated and devastated by Gen. Evriug's " Order No. 11 " the 
Mormons declared it a Divine judgment on those counties for their persecutions of 
the " Saints " thirty years before. 


the Mormons were properly represented. The Jackson men, seeing that 
their case was a poor one, and that the decision would in all prob- 
ability be against them, withdrew after an hour or two's session of 
the council, and, accusing the Clay county men of sympathy with 
the Mormons, left Liberty in great indignation after a general fight 
had been prevented only by persistent effort. 

One of the most prominent of the delegation, James Campbell, 
swore that the war against the Mormons would now be renewed, and 
that he himself intended to kill Joe Smith and " give his carcass to 
the buzzards." That nio;ht, in recrossinfr the Missouri, the ferrv 
boat sank, and six or seven of the delegation, Campbell among the 
number were drowned. Campbell's body floated down stream some 
distance and lodged on a sand bar. When found, the buzzards had 
devoured and mutilated it horribly. Joe Smith announced the fact 
to his followers and claimed that Campbell had brought his fate upon 
himself by his threats against " the Prophet of the Lord ! " Many if 
not all of the Mormons believed him, and that the retributive justice 
of Heaven had fallen upon the others who were drowned because of 
their persecution of and unreasonable demands upon the Mormons ! 

A few days later Smith returned to Kirtland, Oliio, and did not 
return to Missouri until more than three years afterward. The Mor- 
mons in Missouri gradually extended their settlements in this quarter 
of the State, occupying portions of Clay, Ray, Carroll, Daviess, Liv- 
ingston, and Caldwell counties — the last three named counties not 
beino; or2;anized until 1836. 

It was, perhaps, in 1833, when the very first Mormon families came 
to what is now called Caldwell county, locating at first in the south- 
western portions, as can best be now determined. In 1834 other 
families followed ; in 1835, more ; and in 1836 the Mormons came in 
great force, in obedience to what they considered divine authority. 

It was during the summer of 1836 that the Mormons began their 
settlement of the county in earnest. It was then a portion of Ray, 
but the people of the northern portion of that county, as well as the 
Mormons, were informed that a new county was to be organized 
expressly for the occupation and general i)enefit of the latter. In- 
deed, an ai-rangement of that character had been made by the leaders 
of the Mormon church and certain prominent Gentiles. An entire 
county was to be set apart as a sort of reservation for the Saints. To 
be sure Gentiles were not to be forbidden to enter it, but it was 
believed that under the circumstances few, if any, would desire to do 
so. The Mormons were to have undisturbed possession of the new 


county; they were to hold the county offices, send a representative 
to the Legishiture, and in return for these privileges they were not to 
settle in any other county save by express consent and permission, 
previously obtained, of two-thirds of the non-Mormon residents of the 
township in said county wherein they desired to make location. 

Everybody thought this a complete and satisfactory solution of the 
Mormon problem, which then, as often since, demanded attention and 
settlement. The Missourians were satisfied, because they had a poor 
opinion of the prairie soil of the proposed new county, which they 
declared was fit only for Mormons and Indians, and doubted whether 
it could ever be made really valuable. Moreover, they wished to rid 
themselves of the presence of the despised sect, whose members were 
clannish and exclusive, as well as unpleasantly peculiar. The Mor- 
mons were satisfied, because the}^ wished for peace and security and 
desired above all to enjoy their religion undisturbed and undismayed. 

Very soon in the summer and fall of 1836 the Mormons left Ray 
and Clay and pushed up into the new Canaan, which had been 
reported upon by Phelps and Whitmer, and which when visited was 
found to be equal to the representations made of it. A few Gentile 
settlers were found, but nearly all of them were bought out — all who 
would sell. Nothinsf could have been fairer oi more equitable than 
the acquisition of the territory afterward called Caldwell county by 
the Mormons. 

The leadins: authorities and shining lights of the Mormon Church 
came up with the emigration to the new country. There were W. W. 
Phelps, Bishop Edward Partridge, Sidney Rigdon, Philo Dibble, Elias 
Higbee, John Whitmer, Oliver Cowdery and others. In time came 
Joseph Smith, Hiram (or Hyrum) Smith, John Taylor, Lyman 
Wight, Parley P. Pratt, Orson Hyde, Thos. B. March, G. W. Hinkle, 
and Alexander McRae. 

In December, 1836, the county of Caldwell was organized, a meas- 
ure of much importance to the Mormons. The county seat was 
located at Far West, and courts held in the school- house. Justices 
of the peace were appointed in the different townships and all the 
political machinery of the county was controlled by the Mormons. 
The militia of the county, all or nearly all Mormons, organized and 
nmstered, and a regiment was formed under the laws of the State, of 
which either "General" George W. Hinkle or Lyman Wight was 

Settlements were made up and down Shoal creek and thickly along 
the southern tier of townships of the county. Mills were built, shops 


were opened, stores established, and the foundations for a thrifty and 
successful community were securely laid. Emigrants came iu from 
Ohio and other States, l)ut chiefly from the Mormon colony at Kirt- 
^and, Ohio, while the Saints in Ray and Clay and elsewhere in Mis- 
souri joined their brethren in Caldwell as soon as they could do so. 

By the summer of 1838 the population of the county was about 
5,000 of whom, it is safe to say, 4,900 were Mormons. A.U of what 
were considered valuable lands for settlement were taken in one form 
or other — either "squatted" upon or entered at the land office in 
regular form. The most desirable locations iu Caldwell havins: been 
taken, the Mormon settlement extended into other counties. In the 
spring of 1837 quite a detachment went up into Daviess, and by 
written permission of the few Gentile settlers there, made locations in 
that county. Three miles above Gallatin, on the east bluffs of Grand 
river, they laid out a town which they called Diamon (pronounced 
Di-a-wio?i). The locality was named " Adam-on-Diamon," signifying, 
it is said, *' the grave of Adam," as certain of the Mormon wise men 
claimed it to be the burial place of the progenitor of the human race ! 
Some of the Mormons located at Gallatin and elsewhere throughout 
the county. Over in Clinton county there were perhaps 50 Mormon 
families in 1833. Down in Carroll county, at DeWitt, on the Mis- 
souri, in the spring of 1838, Gen. Geo. W. Hinkle and John Mur- 
dock, as trustees for the Mormons, purchased the town site, laid it oiY 
into lots, and soon a thriving village of one hundred houses was built. 
DeWitt was designed to be a steamboat landing and a point from 
which goods and immigrants could l)e forwarded to Caldwell county. 

It is claimed that all the Mormon settlements outside of this county 
were made with the prior consent of the inhabitants then living where 
the settlements were made : the consent was obtained, in nearly every 
instance, by the payment of money, either for the lands of the pioneer 
Gentiles or for some articles of i)ersonal property they owned. 
Money was scarce at that day, and although the pioneers did not ap- 
prove Mormon doctrines, they did approve of Mormon gold and 
silver, and they were willing to tolerate the one if they could obtain 
the other. But afterward certain of the Gentiles claimed that the 
Mormon occupation had been by stealth and fraud, and perhaps in 
some instances this was true. 

By far the majority of the Mormon settlers in this quarter were 
poor. Many of them were able to enter and improve but 40 acres of 
land, and nearly all their houses were cabins. Like other pioneers 
they had come to the country to better their condition ; to worship as 


they pleased, and to be with their brethren, were of course considera- 
tions. Every head of family was guaranteed a home, and if he was 
unable to buy one it was given him from the lands held by the trustees 
of the church. Among so many, however, there could but be those 
of some wealth, as well as craftsmen of various kinds, skilled mechan- 
ics and artisans. There were also many persons of education and 
accomplishments. School teachers were plenty and schools were 

Among the many preachers and " elders " were some eloquent and 
accomplished speakers. Some of the preachers occasionally spoke in 
a sort of gibberish and jargon, which was termed " the unknown 
tongue," and which was claimed to be a species of supernatural lan- 
guage, spoken only under Divine inspiration for holy purposes, and 
oidy to be understood and interpreted by the especially gifted. It 
was held by many that this ♦' unknown tongue " was the language in 
which the original plates of the Book of Mormon was written. 

In the summer of 1838 dissensions broke out among the Mormons 
themselves in Caldwell and other parts of Missouri. The prophet, 
Joseph Smith, had come out from Ohio the previous winter or early 
spring, and undertook the government and conduct of his people in 
person. In order to successfully administer affairs he invariably an- 
nounced that his commands were the results of Divine revelations, 
were the orders of the Deity, in fact, communicated to the people 
through him. He had a " revelation " regarding this matter or that 
as it seemed to please him. The people of course could not refuse to 
obey the orders of the Almighty, and so for a time Smith kept them 
in tolerable subjection. 

At last, however, certain of the Mormons declared that the prophet 
had been seduced and corrupted by evil counselors, and that his pre- 
tended '* revelations " regarding certain matters were fraudulent, and 
his conduct at variance with his own former teachings as well as in 
violation of the commands of the Bible and the Book of Mormon. 
Bitter controversies arose and finally David Whitmer. and Oliver 
Cowdery, two of the three *' original witnesses " of the finding of the 
sacred plates, withdrew from the colony at Far West and removed to 
Richmond, Ray county, where Cowdery died in 1850, and was buried, 
and where David Whitmer yet lives. Others withdrew — the noted 
Sidney Rigdon among them. Some left the county, while others 
merely " dissented " and refused to either emigrate or continue in fel- 
lowship with the church. Cowdery, Whitmer, Martin Harris, who 
were all of the three "witnesses," were expelled by Smith from the 



church, as were Rigdoii and many others. Smith afterward forgave 
Cowdery and Rigdoii. 


The headquarters of the Mormons in Missouri wer(3 now located in 
Caldwell Ci)unty, at a new city called Far West. This was a second 
" New Jerusalem," it must be presumed, the first being at Independ- 
ence. Here the " Saints" set to work to recover their wasted for- 
tunes, and began the ui)building of a new Zion. As Far West was at 
one time a locality towards which all eyes in Missouri were turned, 
and about which all ears were hearing, an extended mention thereof 
will not be out of place here. 

The site of Far West was selected by John Whitmer and W. W. 
Phelps, constituting an exploring committee sent out by the Mor- 
mons when they had crossed the river from Jackson county into 
Clay, to find for them a new location where they might locate and 
not be disturbed. The committee came out in the summer of 1836, 
rode for days throughout this and Clinton and Daviess counties, and 
finilly made choice of the locality referred to. The town site was a 
mile square, and lay five miles in a direct line northwest of where 
Kingston now stands, eight miles southwest of Hamilton, in Mirabile 
township, two miles from its east line and the same distance from the 
northern boundary of that township. (The numbers of the land com- 
prising the original plat were the sw. ^ section 11, se. \ section 10, 
ne. \ section 15, nw. ^ section 14, all in township 56, range 29.) 

W. W. Phelps seems to have been the Mormon Joshua who led 
the latter day spies up from the Paran of Clay county to spy out the 
Canaan of Caldwell. Doubtless he was instructed, too, as was Joshua, 
to "see the land, what it is ; and the people that dwelleth therein, 
whether they be strong or weak, few or many ; and what the land is 
that they dwell in, whether it be good or bad ; * * * whether it 
be fat or lean; whether there be wood therein or not." It was as 
important to ascertain at that day in this prairie region regarding the 
land whether or not there was " wood therein," as whether or not it 
was «' fat." 

The town site was entered August 8th, 1836. The north half was 
entered in the name of W. W. Phelps ; the south half in the name of 
John Whitmer ; but both Phelps and Whitmer merely held the land 
in trust for " the Church," The date of the entry goes to prove that 
the first exploration was in the summer of 1836. 

Soon after the selection of the second " promised land," in Cald- 


well county, and the location of the second temple, the Mormons carae 
pourino^ in and soon a village of respectable proportions sprang up 
where the wild prairie grass waved tall and luxuriant. As has been 
stated the town site was a mile square, giving plenty of room for the 
building of a large city. It was laid out in blocks 396 feet square, and 
the streets were alike on a grand scale. The four principal avenues 
were each 132 feet wide, and all the others 82| feet wide. These 
diverged at right angles from a public square in the center, designed 
as the site of the grand temple. 

Nearly all the first houses in Far West were log cabins. In a few 
months, however, some frames were built, a portion of the lumber 
being brought from lower Eay, and a portion being whip-sawed. Per- 
haps the first house was built by one Ormsby ; this was in the summer 
of 1836. It is said that John Whitmer's house was built January 19, 
1837. In the fall of 1836, a large and comfortable school-house was 
built and here courts were held after the location of the county seat 
until its removal to Kingston. The Mormons very early gave atten- 
tion to educational matters. There were many teachers among them 
and school-houses were among their first buildings. The school-house 
in Far West was used as a church, as a town hall and as a court-house, 
as well as for a school-house. It first stood in the southwest quarter 
of town, but upon the establishment of the county seat it was removed 
to the center of the square. ^^^ 

In the summer of 1838, there were 150 houses in Far West. There 
were 4 dry goods stores, 3 family groceries, half a dozen black- 
smith shops, and 2 hotels. The latter were kept by John Whitmer 
and Warmsley. A printing press and material were in the place, but 
no printing was ever done — at least no paper was issued. 

In the summer of 1838, preparations were begun for the building 
of a temple in the center of the town. The excavation for the cellar 
under the prospective structui-e, 120 by 80 feet in area, and 5 feet in 
depth, was made in about half a day, more than 500 men being em- 
ployed in the work, with no other implements for loosening the dirt 
than mattocks and spades, and with no other means of removing it 
than hand-barrows. The corner stones of the temple were laid 
soon after, but the exact date has been controverted. Some accounts 
fix it on July 4, 1837, on the celebration of Independence Day, but 
Switzler and others deny this. The Mormon records at Salt Lake 
show and conclusively prove that they were laid July 4, 1838. 

But little else was done, however, than to lay the corner stones and 
dig the foundation. A few loads of stone were hauled up and yet lie 


scattered about the excavation, which is still plain to be seen. Storm 
clouds arose on the horizon, and the leaders, by the advice of the 
" Prophet," forbore to expend any more labor and means upon the 
temple until the sis^us were more promising and it should be reasona- 
bly certain that they should hold it and worship in it permanently. 

Upon the departure of the Mormons, in 1839, many of the houses 
in Far West were either torn down or hauled away into the country 
and used for farm and dwelling houses. The town, however, con- 
tinued to be the county seat until 1843. The first house in King?<ton 
after the town was laid off was removed from Far West by Walter A. 
Doak. Upon the removal of the county seat the town gradually 
sank into insignificance and dwindled away. The post-office, which 
was established in the fall of 1836, was continued for many years. 
The cemetery, west of the town, gradually fell into disuse and fiecay, 
and now (1886) is a corn field. 

At this writing, the one mile square which formerly composed the 
town site of Far West is cut up into fine fertile farms. The excava- 
tion for the temple is still to be seen at almost its original depth. A 
few of the stones, intended originally for the temple's foundation, lie 
scattered about and are occasionally chipped by relic hunters. Jacob 
Whitmer, a son of John Whitmer — who, with W.W. Phelps, located 
the old town — owns the northejvst quarter of the town and the 
temple site. ^^^ house in which Joseph Smith once lived, which 
stood 200 yar^o aouthwest of the temple foundation, was recently torn 
down and the logs used in building a stable. It was a small story and 
a half building, of logs, with a large stone chimney. 

Amonor the Mormon residents of Far West was the widow of Mor- 
gan, the so-called exposer of the mysteries'of Masonry, whose sudden 
disappearance from his home in New York, in the year 1826, created 
the suspicion of his having been abducted and murdered by certain 
zealous members of the craft. There was sreat excitement throughout 
the country at that day over this alleged murder, which was never 
proved, and certain politicians in New York and New England organ- 
ized a political party, national in its character, and whose leading prin- 
ciple was hostility towards Freemasonry. In 1832 this party had a 
Presidential candidate, Hon. Wm. Wirt, who carried one State, Vermont. 

Another resident of Far West was John D. Lee, the chief actor in 
the famous — and infamous — Mountain Meadow massacre. Lee first 
joined the Mormons at Far West. Brigham Young was also a resident 
of Far West, coming from Kirtland, Ohio, iu the spring of 1838, and 
remaining until after the surrender. 



In the fall of 1833 three Mormons, brothers, named Lyons, Jack- 
son county fugitives, came to near the mouth of Log creek, two miles 
southeast of Kingston, and made an improvement. They built a 
horse mill, which they operated for a year or two. A blacksmith shop 
came next, and then three or four other families came to the locality, 
and the place took the form of a village, and was called Salem, from 
the old Hebrew word signifying peace. It is said that at one time it 
was contemplated to call the village Jeru-Salem, or tlie foundation of 
peace, but eventually the prefix Jerw was dropped. 

Salem was the first town — if it be proper to call it a town — in 
Caldwell county. It was never anything but a small hamlet, however. 
In 1834, while this was a portion of Ray county, there was a voting 
precinct established at Salem, and at the August election of that year 
about 20 votes were cast. 

In 1839 the Lyons brothers sold out to John Diistiii, who laid out 
40 acres into town lots, and had a public sale of lots in the fall and 
winter of that year. A man named McHenry received 5 acres of land 
as a bonus and established a "tavern." McHenry was at one time a 
justice of the peace. He was a Mormon, and remained here after the 
exodus. He was succeeded in the tavern by Gaynor Pierce. Sher- 
man Brown, who lived near Salem, was another justice of the peace. 
A man named Saml. Ritchie was a leading citizen of Salem, and one 
account says he was instrumental in the founding of the town. He 
had a horse mill which was operated some years. 

In 1843 Solomon Cox built a water mill on Shoal creek at the site 
of Salem — or rather near it, for really Salem did not lie immediately 
on Shoal creek, but half a mile south of the stream, and nearly the 
same distance from th6 mouth of Log creek, in the angle l)etween the 
two streams. Cox's mill was a noted institution in early days. It 
was washed away years ago. 

The statement has been published that at least one term of the cir- 
cuit court was held at Salem, after the removal of the county seat 
from Far West, but this is a mistake. The courts were held at Far 
West until Kingston was laid out and a court-house built, and never 
held at Salem. 



Origin of the War — The First Blood is Shed in Daviess County — The Troubles in that 
County and Elsewhere — The Mormons Call Out Their Troops — Capt. "Fear Not" 
and His Company of " United Brothers of Gideon" — The Fight on Crooked River 
Between Capt. Patton and His " Danites," and Capt. Saral. Bogart and His Com- 
pany of "Tigers" — Gov. Boggs Calls Out the Militia of the State Against the 
Mormons — Gens. Atchison, Lucas, Doniphan and Other Commanders Talse the 
Field — Gen. Lucas Moves Upon and Captures Far West and 600 Prisoners — Terms 
of the Surrender — Full Details — Gen. Lucas Returns Home and Gen. John B. 
Clark Assumes Command — Gen. Clark's Speech — Suffering of the Mormons — 
They are Expelled from the County and from the State in Mid-winter. 


Ill a history of Caldwell county uot all the details of the so-called 
Mormon War can be given. Only incidental and general mention 
can be made of events occurring in other counties. It is believed, 
however, that enough will be given in this chapter to enable the 
reader to understand what is meant by the Mormon War and to put 
him in possession of the facts relating to the most important incidents 
in connection therewith. Whoever shall write the history of Mor- 
monisra in the future must mention the troubles encountered by that 
institution in Missouri in 1838, and especially must he note what 
occurred in Caldwell county, for here were the headquarters of the 
Mormons and the head center of the institution, and here the most 
imj)ortant events of the war occurred. In the hope of assisting future 
historians as well as of interesting and informhig the present citizens 
of Caldwell county, the writer has been at great pains and consider- 
able expense to compile the account herein presented, and offers it as 
the most complete, elaborate, and authentic narrative of the Mormon 
War ever pu])lished. 

The hostility of the people of Jackson county towards the Mormons 
and Mormonism has already been noted. In time this hostility 
existed in every county where the "Saints" settled save in Clay. 
Ray county Gentiles hated them; Carroll county Gentiles detested 
them ; Daviess county Gentiles vowed hostilities against them, and it 
was not long until the few Caldwell county Gentiles shared the com- 
mon sentiment of detestation towards the new sect and condemned 


the arrangement that had been made which permitted their permanent 
occupation of the country. 

Dreadful stories Were told of the conduct of the Mormons, and 
dreadful assertions and predictions made regarding their future if they 
were allowed to remain in the country. As they had come mostly 
from the free States, they were charged with being Abolitionists, who 
had designs upon the institution of slavery here in Missouri. Certain 
of their speakers had declared from time to time that " the earth is 
the Lord's," and that He had given certain portions of it in Missouri 
to His Saints, and that in time He would deliver over to them the 
whole world. These declarations were misquoted and distorted to 
the effect that the Mormons claimed all the country then^ and regarded 
the Gentile settlers only as so many intruders and trespassers whom 
they meant to dispossess at the earliest opportunity, peaceably if 
they could, forcibly if necessary. 

In Daviess there were bitter feuds between Mormons and Gentiles . 
The latter claimed that the Mormon occupation of that county at 
Adam-on-Diamon and elsewhere had been accomplished by fraud and 
force and without the consent of the settlers already there. More- 
over they avowed that the doctrine of Mormonism was as obnoxious 
to them as the presence of its believers or their practices, and that 
they would no longer tolerate either in their midst. It was declared 
that the Mormons were many of them horse thieves and cattle thieves 
and were insolent and overbearing in their demeanor. 

In Caldwell there were not more than 20 Gentile families in the 
spring of 1838. These had no particular grievance against their Mor- 
mon neighbors, but were opposed to them and their presence here on 
general principles. They derided the Mormon religion as tom-non- 
sense, if not blasphemy, but believed its devotees to be sincere and 

On the part of the Mormons it was claimed that the only cause of 
complaint against them was that they had come into a new country, 
subdued the wilderness, and opened up to cultivation fine fertile farms 
which their Gentile neio-hbors coveted and desired to obtain at low' 
prices or at no prices at all ; that the charges of thievery and robbery 
against them were wholly false, but that the Gentiles themselves were 
the thieves and robbers, and had frequently taken and converted to 
their own use the property of their Mormon neighbors, alleging that, 
in the case of certain horses and cattle, the animals had trespassed 
upon them ; that in a few instances certain Mormons had taken by 
way of reprisal a few head of horses and held them until certain 


other Moiraon property which had l)een taken by the Gentiles was 
restored, but that these proceedings had been condemned by the 
authorities of the church and would not be repeated ; that the Gen- 
tiles were insulting and brutal in their conduct, and frequently 
assaulted and beat the Mormons without any provocation, and let no 
occasion pass without insulting them, and that they ev^en grossly 
insulted and abused their women. 

At the August election, 1838, a riot occurred at Gallatin between 
the Mormons and the Gentiles. The latter would not allow the Mor- 
mons to vote, and it is admitted were the aggressors. Two Gentiles 
were killed and half a. dozen more wounded. Both parties then 
armed to defend themselves and a sort of guerrilla warfare was kept 
up in the county for some weeks. The people of Daviess and Liv- 
ingston petitioned Gov. Boggs to remove the Mormons from the 

Early in Septeml)er a number of the citizens of Daviess assembled at 
Millport, near Adam-on-Diamon, and began a raid on the Mormons. 
According to the journal of Hiram Smith, their conduct was out- 
rageous. It says the Gentiles '♦ took away our hogs and cattle, 
threatened us with extermination or utter extinction, saying that they 
had a cannon, and that there should be no compromise only at its 
mouth. They frequently took our men, women and children pris- 
oners, whipping them and lacerating their bodies with hickory withes, 
and tying some of them to trees and leaving them in most uncomfort- 
able positions without food and water for two or three days." Much 
worse offenses were also charged. 

Down in Ray county along the northern border the Gentile settlers 
were (or pretended to be) apprehensive of forays upon them from 
the Mormons in Caldwell. Capt. Samuel Bogart went to Maj.-Gen. 
D. R. Atchison, at Liberty, who was then in command of this military 
division, and presentedja petition to be allowed to form a company to 
" clean out " the Mormons if they should invade Ray comity territory, 
and to patrol the country along the northern border of Ray and keep 
watch and ward against the ** Joe Smithites." 

The Mormons of Daviess dispatched messengers to Gen. Atchison 
and to Judge Austin A. King, at Richmond, then the judge of this 
circuit, demanding assistance. Gen. Atchison returned with the mes- 
sengers, went immediately to Diamon, and from thence to Millport, 
and found the f.icts substantially true as they had lieen reported to 
him — that the Gentile citizens of Daviess county, to the number of 
250 or 300, were assembled in a hostile attitude and threatening the 


Utter exteruiination of the Mormons. He also found that the Mor- 
mons had settled in the county with the full permission of the resident 
citizens at the time. 

Gen, Atchison hastily returned to Clay and ordered out certain 
detachments of the militia of his division to proceed to Daviess county 
and protect the Mormons and preserve the peace generally. Perhaps 
500 troops marched to Diamon. Among these were some companies 
from Carroll and Saline counties, who had marched np Grand river, 
camping the first night out in Daviess near the old block house on 
Splawn's ridge, in the central part of Daviess, east of Gallatin, near 
Millport, and the next night at Diamon. Though the troops were 
sent out to protect the Mormons, they were heartily opposed to them 
and in sympathy with their enemies, and had matters come to a fight 
would most certainly have taken sides with the latter. Gen. At- 
chison seeinof this determined to evacuate the country as soon as 
a fair semblance of peace could be observed. He remained in camp 
a few days near Diamon, and then marched his troops away, fear- 
ing ever}' hour that they would unite with those he had come to put 

Even before the militia had disbanded or left Daviess county, the 
Gentiles declared and began open warfare against the Mormons, firing 
upon them whenever they met them, burning a number of their houses 
and taking possession of their horses and driving off their cattle. 
The Mormons soon retaliated. "The Prophet," Joseph Smith, sent 
them from Far West a re-enforcement of 50 men under Capt. Seymour 
Brunson (or Brownson). Col. Lyman Wight called out every able- 
bodied Mormon man and boy capable of carrying and handling a 

A dreadful state of affairs resulted. Armed l)ands roamed over 
Daviess, Caldwell, and a portion of Livingston counties. Both Mor- 
mons and Gentiles were under arms, and doing injury to eacl other 
when occasion offered. The burning of houses, barns and stacks of 
grain was generally indulged in by both parties. Pillaging and rob- 
bery were common. In his "Life and Confession" (p. 70), John 
D. Lee says that Joseph Smith declared on this occasion that it was a 
civil war, and that by the rules of war each party was justified in 
spoiling his enemy. " This," says Lee, " opened the doors to the 
evil disposed, and men of former quiet became perfect demons in their 
efibrts to spoil and waste away the enemies of the church." The 
town of Gallatin, then numbering half a dozen houses, was sacked 


and burned. Of his own experience, and referring to certain incidents 
of the war, John D. Lee says : — 

While I was engaged with the Mormon troops in ranging over the 
country, the men that I was with look a large amount of loose prop- 
erty, but did not while I was with them burn any houses or murder 
any men. Yet we took what property we could find, especially pro- 
visions, fat cattle and arms and ammunition. But still many houses 
were burned and much damage was done by the Mormons, and they 
captured a howitzer and many guns from the Gentiles. Frequent 
attacks were made upon the Mormon settlements. The Mormons 
made an attack on Gallatin one night, and carried off much plunder. 
I was not with them, but I talked often with them and learned all the 
facts al)out it. The town was burned down, and everything of value, 
including the goods in two stores, was carried off by the Mor- 
mons. * * * ^ company went from Adam-on-Diamon and 
burned the house and buildings belonging to my friend McBrier. 
Every article of movable property was taken by the troops : he was 
utterly ruined. This man had been a friend to me and many others 
of the brethren ; he was an honorable man, but his good character and 
former acts of kindness had no effect on those who were working, as 
they pretended, to build up the kingdom of God. The Mormons 
brought in every article that could be used, and much that was of no 
use or value was hauled to Adam-on-Diamon. Men stole simply for 
the love of stealins;. Such inexcusable acts of lawlessness aroused 
every Gentile in the three counties of Caldwell, Daviess, and Carroll, 
and brought swarms of armed Gentiles from other localities. 

The howitzer referred to was taken by a squad of Mormons from a 
company of Gentiles en route to Millport. This was accomplished 
without the firing of a gun, the Gentile escort running away. The 
affair happened in the forks of Grand river, east of Gallatin. One 
man, named Ira Glaze, of Carroll, was taken prisoner and made to 
ride the cannon to Diamon. 

Meantime, the Mormons in Caldwell county had been preparing for 
war. The regiment of State militia in the county, composed of Mor- 
mons to a man, had once been commanded by Geo. W. Hinkle, but 
he was now down at De Witt, and Lyman Wight took command. A 
company of " Danites," or " Destroying Angels," was formed from 
some of the bravest and best men for especial service.^ Guns were 

' From sworn statements of Thos. B. Marsh and Orson Hyde, two leading Mor- 
mons, made at Riclimond, October 24, 1838, something of the true character of the 
Danites may be learned. Following, see extracts from their affidavit: <<* * * 
They have among them a company all consisting of what are considered true Mor- 


put ill order and ammunition provided. Companies drilled and pa- 
raded frequently. Fanciful titles were bestowed on the leaders. 
Capt. David Patton, of the Destroying Angels, was called " Capt. 
Fear Not." Col. Hinkle was called "The Thunderbolt." Col. 
Wight was designated " The Intrepid." All told, the Mormon regi- 
ment in Caldwell numbered 600 or 700 men. 

Troubles thickened and multiplied. Down in Carroll county the 
citizens, under Col. W. W. Austin, attempted the expulsion of the 
600 Mormons at DeWitt, under Hinkle. At the August election a 
vote was taken to decide whether or not they should be allowed to re- 
main, and it was practically unanimous that they should not. In time 
the citizens were re-enforced by their neighbors from Ray, Clay, Jack- 
son, Saline, Howard, and Chariton, and DeWitt was regularly be- 
sieged for two or three days. Congreve Jackson was elected a 
brigadier-general commanding the forces. September 21, the Mor- 
mons (who, in the meantime, had been re-enforced by a company 
from Far West, led by Col. Lyman Wight), surrendered and agreed 
to leave the county. The citizens paid them back the money they had 
gfiven for the town site, allowing nothing for building or other im- 
provements, and the Mormons, wretched and miserable, and stripped 
of nearly all their earthly possessions, left for Caldwell county, 
many families, even women and children, making the journey on foot. 

Capt. Samuel Bogart, with his company of Ray county " patrols," 
had been scouting through the country, occasionally encountering a 
few Mormons, whom he invariably drove from his county into Cald- 
well. He sent word to the Mormon militia at Far West that he was 
coming up in a few days to " clean them out." News came a few 
days later that Bogart was on his way into Caldwell at the head of a 
strong, well armed company, and Capt. David Patton was sent down 
from Far West with his company of 50 men to repel the inv^ ^ers. 
Capt. Patton was a " Danite," and as previously stated, was known 
among his brethren as Capt. " Fear Not." Arriving at the southern 
boundary of the countyj he learned that Bogart and his company were 

mons, called the Danites, who have taken an oath to support the heads of the church 
in all things they say or do. Many, however, of this band are much dissatisfied with 
this oath, as being against moral and religious principles. On Saturday last, as we 
are informed, they had a meeting at Far West, at which they appointed a company of 
twelye by the name of the ' Destruction Company,' for the purpose of burning and 
destroying, and that if the people of Buncombe came to do mischief upon the people 
of Caldwell, and committed depredations upon the Mormons, they were to burn Bun- 
combe, and if the people of Clay and Ray moved against them, this company was to 
burn Liberty and Richmond." 


encamped on Crooked river, in tlie northwestern part of Ray county, 
2 miles southeast of the present viUagc of Lisbonville, and he resolved 
to attack them suddenly, and if possible, surprise them. 

Creeping silently down the Crooked river valley, keeping in the 
timber and under cover, the Mormons made a niofht march and arrived 
at the Gentile position before daylight, on the morning of October 25. 
Just as the dawn appeared, or rather just before it appeared, the Mor- 
mons sprang suddenly upon the Gentile camp. Capt. Patton, in 
front of his company, and wearing a white blanket overcoat, was the 
first enemy seen. Calling out in trumpet tones the old Jewish battle- 
cry, " The sivord of the Lord and of Gideon!'^ and then shouting, 
'* Charge, Danitesl Charge! " he bravely rushed forward upon his 
enemy. So conspicuous a target was soon hit. A ball entered his 
body, passing through the hips and cutting the bladder. But he kept 
on his feet and continued to lead his men for some time before yield- 
ing to the effects of the wound, calling out almost with every breath, 
" Charge, Danites ! " 

The Gentiles, who numbered but 36 men, were completely routed 
and driven from the field in a few minutes. They fought bravely and 
effectively, but could not withstand the sudden and impetuous attack 
which was made upon them, and Capt. Bogart led them off in the 
direction of Elkhorn, but finally fell back to the southern part of the 
county. The Mormons did not pursue, owing chiefly to the fall of 
their leader, whose death had a demoralizing effect upon them, chiefly 
because they had deemed him invincible, as he had repeatedly de- 
clared that he could not be killed. 

In this engagement the Mormons lost Capt. Patton and two men 
named Patrick O'Banion and Gideon Carter killed, and James Hol- 
brook and another man wounded. In the dark the latter fought by 
mistake, and cut up one another with their corn knives, or " swords," 
as they called them, very severely. Capt. Bogart's Gentiles lost 
Moses Rowland killed and Thos. H. Loyd, Edwin Odell, James 
Lockard, Martin Dunnaway, Samuel Tarwater, and Wyatt Craven 

Two Mormons attacked Tarwater with corn knives and nearl}' cut him 
to pieces. He received a terrible gash in the skull, through which his 
brain was plainly visible, one terrible blow across the face severed the 
jaw bone and destroyed all the upper teeth, and there was an ugly 
gash made in his neck. He kept his bed six months and his wounds 
considerably affected his speech and his memory, Mr. Tarwater is 
yet alive, and resides near Orrick, Ray county. Since 1840 he has 


drawn a pension from the State of Missouri of $100 per year, for the 
wounds and disability he received in the Crooked river fight. Wyatt 
Craven lives near Crab Orchard, Ray county. He was taken prisoner 
early in the fight, and the Mormons started with him to Far West, but 
after traveling some distance they released him and told him to go 
home. He started off and was walking away pretty briskly, when 
Parley P. Pratt, a very prominent and noted Mormon and one of 
the " Twelve Apostles," laid his gun against a tree, took deliberate 
aim, fired and shot him down. Then, believing he was dead, the Mor- 
mons went off and left him.^ 

The Danites carried Capt. Patton l)ack to Far West with them the 
day of the fight. That night he died. His death cast a gloom over 
the entire community. It robbed many of the fond belief that the 
Saints were invincible and supernaturally protected. " If Capt. Fear 
Not can be kiUqd," asked some in consternation, " who can claim im- 
munity from the Gentile weapons of death ? " Joseph Smith explained 
it all. He preached the funeral sermon of Patton in the hall of Far 
West, and told his people, to the astonishment of many, that the 
Mormons fell by the missiles of death the same as other men ! He 
also declared that the Lord was angry with the people, for they had 
been unbelieving and faithless, and had denied his servants the free 
use of their earthly treasures,"^ That is the people had not contrib- 
uted freely of their substance to the support of the Prophet and his as- 
sociates, and therefore, the Lord had permitted Patton, Carter and 
O'Banion to be killed ! 

The news of the fight on Crooked river spread rapidly and caused 
the most intense excitement. All the Gentiles in the northern part of 
the county abandoned their homes and fled southward near Richmond 
and elsewhere for safety, believing that a general raid upon them '>y 
the " Saints " was imminent.. The Mormons had fired the first gun, 
and were to be considered the aggressors, and wherever the news was 
received there was a general and vehement demand that they be at 
once " put down," severely punished for what they had done, and 
efiectually disposed of. 

Gov. Lilbnrn W. Boggs, whose residence was at Independence, 
Jackson county, and who shared the general hatred and distrust of the 
Mormons, in response to numerously signed petitions, and perhaps in 

1 In his " Life and Confessions," p. 73, John D. Lee says it was Tarwater whom 
Pratt shot; but he is mistalven. Both Tarwater and Craven are yet living. 

2 John D. Lee, p. 75. 


obedience to what he considered to be his duty, ordered that the Mor- 
mon regiment of militia in Caldwell county should be disarmed and 
disbanded; that certain of their leading men, including the Prophet, 
who were alleoed offenders airainst the law, should bo arrested and 
turned over to the civil authorities; and that the remainder of the 
Mormons, every man, woman, and child, should be expelled from the 

Maj.-Gens. D. R. Atchison and Saml. D. Lucas, commanding respec- 
tively the third and fourth divisions of the Missouri militia, were or- 
dered to take the field at once and proceed to Far West. They at once 
called out their divisions. Gen. Atchison, at the time, resided at Lib- 
erty, and the first subordinate he put into the service was his fellow- 
townsman, Brig. -Gen. A. W. Doniphan, commanding the first brigade, 
composed of the militia from Clay, Clinton, and the counties in the 
Platte Purchase. Doniphan started at once with but. two companies 
from Clay, ordering the remainder of his brigade to join him en route 
to Far West or at that point as soon as possil)le. The first day out 
from Liberty he was joined by Capt. Nehemiah Odell's company, of 100 
men, from Ray. This latter company belonged in Gen. H. G. Parks' 
brigade district, but the captain said the men had no confidence in 
their brigade commander, and would not fight under him. Odell's 
company was known as " The Fishing River Tigers." 

Gen. Lucas' division district lay south of the river, and he resided at 
Independence. He put the troops under Brig. -Gen. James Graham, 
of Lafayette county, in motion, crossed the river and proceeded to 
Richmond, near which place he was joined by Gen. Atchison in 

On Monday, October 29th, the troops, except Doniphan's brigade, 
ordered out by Gens. Atchison and Lucas (as per their report to Gov. 
Boggs of that date) took up their line .of march from the camp near 
Richmond for Far West. The same night they encamped on Lin- 
ville's creek, a short distance from the road, about 16 miles south 
of Far West. Here they received an express from Gen. Doniphan, 
informing them that he was then encamped on Log creek, with a force 
of 500 men, and that he would join them at the crossing of that 
creek, on the road from Richmond to Far West, by 10 o'clock the 
next morning. 

On the 30th the commands formed a junction at the last named 
point, the total force then amounting to al)out 1,800 men. While 
here, Gens. Lucas and Atchison received Gov. Bo^ijs' orders, dated 
October 26th, and Gen. Lucas an order of the 27th, and a letter of 


the same date. Gen. Doniphan states to the writer hereof that at 
this time he also received an order and a letter from Gov. Boijofs. 
The order, Gen. Doniphan says, commanded him to obey the orders 
of Gen. John B. Clark, when he should arrive and assume command, 
as he had been ordered to do, and the letter was very denunciatory of 
the Mormons, and declared, among other things, that " they must all 
be driven from the State or exterminated." 

It is asserted that Gen. Atchison's orders or directions from the Gov- 
ernor were to the same purport as Doniphan's letter from the Gov- 
ernor, and that thereupon Gen. Atchison withdrew from the military 
force, declaring that he would be no party to the enforcement of such 
inhuman commands. On the other hand, it is asserted that the Gov- 
ernor's orders to Atchison relieved him from command, directing 
him to turn over his command to Gen. Lucas. ^ At any rate. Gen. 
Atchison left the militia at Log creek on receipt of the Governor's 
orders and returned to his home at Liberty, and Gen. Lucas was left 
in sole command. 

Gen. Lucas then moved forward for Goose creek, one mile south of 
Far West, taking the old Richmond and Far West road, which ran a 
mile or more east of the present road from Mirabile to Far West, 
and may still be seen. Arriving at Goose creek "an hour by sun," 
the troops were directed to go into camp, but just as they were en- 
camping Gen. Lucas received word from Gen. Doniphan, from the 
latter's position, on the right of the line, that he had discovered a 
party of mounted Mormons approaching Far West from the east, and 
requesting permission to intercept them if possible. Leave was 
granted and a considerable detachment of Doniphan's brigade, 
mounted, started off at full speed to accomplish the order, but the 
Mormons succeeded in reaching Far West, and the protection of the 
line of earthworks which had been thrown up about the place on re- 
ceipt of the news of the advance of Gen. Lucas and his troops. 

Gen. Doniphan approached within 200 yards of the Mormon breast- 
works with his force of 250 or 300 men, when the Mormons advanced 
and displayed a force which the militia estimated was composed of 
800 men, but which the Mormons say numbered but 150. At this 
juncture Gen. Lucas ordered forward Gen. Graham's brigade, from 
Lafayette and Jackson (holding Gen. Parks' and a portion of Gen. 
Robert Wilson's, mounted, in reserve), to the relief of Gen. Doniphan, 
but after making these dispositions, the commanders deemed it pru- 

1 Repeated letters to Gen. Atchison on this subject have received no answers. 


dent not to attack the Mormons that night, bnt to withdraw the 
troops and march against them in the morning, which was done, and 
all the troops, exce[)t the detachment from Wilson's brigade, returned 
to camp as dark set in. Gen. Wilson's detachment did not return 
till 9 p. m. 

The next morning, October 31st, Gen. Lucas received a message 
from Col. Geo. W. Hinkle, commanding the forces under arms at Far 
West, the Caldwell county militia, requesting an interview with him 
on an eminence near Far Wcst^ which he would desio-iiate bv hoistinof 
a white flag. Gen. Lucas, whose headquarters were on Goose creek, 
during the entire expedition against the Mormons, replied to Hinkle 
that he would meet him at 2 p. m. that tlay. The General at this 
time was ver}' busily engaged in receiving and disposing of fresh 
troops or re-enforcements that were pouring in hourly by hundreds. 

Among the companies was one commanded by Cornelius Gilliam, a 
former sheriff of Clay county, and an ex-State Senator, Gilliam's 
company was from the Platte Purchase, and the men were painted and 
feathered and otherwise rigged out as Indians. Gilliam himself wore 
a full Indian costume, h;id his war paint on, and called himself " the 
Delaware Chief," and his men " the Delaware amarujans." They 
would whoop and yell, and otherwise comport themselves as savages. 

When Capt. Bogart's company, which was in the fight at Crooked 
river, came up the men were regarded as heroes, although en route 
they had burned every Mormon cabin they came upon, and had wan- 
tonly shot down much live stock and destroyed other property. The 
outlvins: Mormon settlements had by this time nearlv all been aban- 
doned, the occupants fleeing to Far West for safety. The militia for- 
aged upon the county, and much property was taken, and much 
destroyed without cause. One man shot a cow, and finding she was 
too poor to make good beef he skinned a strip of hide from her back 
and this strip he tied about a tree to fasten his horse's halter into. 
Some militia over in the edge of Clinton drove a dozen sheep into a 
vacated dwelling-house and burned the whole up together. Gilliam's 
♦'Indians" had l)een stationed at Hunter's Mills a few days pre- 
viously and committed many excesses. 

At 2 p. m. of the 31st, Gen. Lucas, accompanied by his staft' offi- 
cers and Brig. -Gens. Doniphan, Wilson and Graham — Gen. Parks 
being left in command of the camps — started for the interview with 
Hinkle. The Mormon leader was met at the point agreed on. He 
stated that his object in asking Gen. Lucas for the interview was to 
learn if there could not l)e some compromise or settlement of the diffi- 


ciilty other than a resort to anns. The general replied by reading to 
Hinkle the orders and instructions of the Governor, and giving hira a 
copy of them, and by submitting to him in writing the foUowing prop- 
ositions, a compliance with which aU)ne would prevent a battle: — 

1. The Mormons to give up Joseph Smith and other leaders of the 
church to be tried and punished. 

2. To make an appropriation of the property of all who had taken 
up arms to the payment of their debts and to make indemnity for the 
damages they had done or occasioned, which latter clause was held to 
mean that the Mormons should pay all the expenses of the war against 
them . 

3. To give up their arms of every description, to be receipted for. 

4. All those not held for trial or under legal process to leave the 
State and be protected out l^y the militia ; but to be permitted to 
remain where they were under protection until further orders were 
received from the commander-in-chief. 

Col. Hinkle very readily agreed to the propositions, but wished to 
postpone the matter until the following morning. Gen. Lucas then 
informed him that he would require to be delivered to him Joseph 
Smith, Jr. (the Prophet), Sidney Rigdon, Lyman Wight, Parley P. 
Pratt, and George W. Robinson, as hostages for the faithful compli- 
ance with the terms. Gen. Lucas further said he would pledge him- 
self and every one of his officers present that in case he (Hinkle), 
after reflecting and consulting upon the propositions during the night, 
declined acceding to them, the hostages should be returned to him in 
the morning at the same point where they had been received ; but it 
was understood, so Gen. Lucas says, that in case there was a com- 
pliance with the propositions, the hostages were to be held for trial as 
part of the leaders called for by the first stipulation. Hinkle was then 
given until " an hour by sun in the evening," to produce the host- 
ages, and Gen. Lucas and his party returned to their camp on Goose 

Hinkle returned to Far West. Doubtless, this oflicer was actuated 
by the noble motive of desiring to save the lives of scores if not hun- 
dreds of his brethren in his action, but he concealed the real state of 
afftiirs from the leaders of the church, and his conduct was marked 
with something of diplomacy — the Mormons called it duplicity and 
treachery. He visited the parties designated by Gen. Lucas, and 
informed them that they were wanted, not for hostages, but to confer 
with Gen. Lucas and the other military authorities in arranging a 
compromise or truce. Doubtless he feared that if he disclosed the 



real purpose for which they were wanted, they would refuse to sur- 
render themselves, and the most direful results would follow. He 
knew that the militia against him numbered about 3,000, or about five 
to one of his own force, that a fight could result but one way, and 
under the Governor's orders the consequences would be most frightful 
and terrible — practically wholesale slaughter. "Gen." Hinkle was 
a Kentuckian, and personally brave and fearless. He did not fear 
danger for himself, but for his brethren, and his course, it must 
be admitted, was certainly for the best. Yet the Mormons ever 
afterwards regarded him as a traitor, and he was cut oft' from the 
church, and spent his last days in Iowa, and died aloof from his 
former brethren. 

Joseph Smith and the others readily agreed to accompany Hinkle 
to meet Gen. Lucas, and accordingly accompanied him to the place of 
meeting agreed upon. 

When Gen. Lucas reached his camp, he at once issued orders 
directing his troops to make preparations to march on Far West " by 
an hour and a half by sun," with a determination that in case the 
hostages were not produced to make an attack forthwith. 

Gen. Parks' brigade was directed to be mounted, and to form on 
the right of the division, to act as flankers if necessary, and if re- 
quired to pass entirely around the town and form on the north side, 
with instructions to make the attack . at the report of the cannon, 
which was to be the signal for the general attack. Gen. Graham's 
brijjade was mounted and formed on the extreme left to act as 
flankers, and if required to move around and form a line on the west 
side of town, with the same instructions as Gen. Parks as to the sis:- 
nal for attack. Gen. Doniphan's brigade was ordered to parade on 
foot, and to form on the left of Parks' brigade, with instructions to 
forfn in line of battle on the south side, and with the greneral instruc- 
tions as to the commencement of attack. The artillery company, 
with one cannon, was placed at the head of Doniphan's and Gen. Wil- 
son's l)rigades, with instructions to occupy an eminence within 300 
yards of the town. 

His army being thus disposed, at the appointed time Gen. Lucas 
took u[) the line of march in the direction of Far West. When the 
troops had reached a position within six hundred yards of the town, \ 
the general discovered the white flag and the hostages advancing. He 
immediately halted the army and rode forward and met them, re- 
ceived the hostages and placed a guard over them, and ordered his 
forces back to the encampment on Goose creek. 


That night while the prisoners were in Gen, Doniphan's camp, nu- 
merous militia officers exclaimed in their hearing that they ought to 
be killed. It is said that a council of the principal field officers de- 
clared that they should be shot the next morning. Of these threats 
the prisoners had full knowledge, and were not a little uneasy ; indeed 
some of them were much alarmed. The threats were in earnest, too. 
The militia officers were not trifling ; they really wished and intended 
to kill Smith and his companions in cold blood, and there were many 
threats and symptoms, that if they were not formally executed they 
would be assassinated. 

Yielding to the pressure upon him, it is alleged that Gen. Lucas, 
at about midnight, issued the following order to Gen. Doniphan, in 
whose keeping the hostages were : — 

Brigadier- General Doniplian. — Sir: You will take Joseph Smith 
and the other prisoners into the public square of Far West, and shoot 
them at 9 o'clock to-morrow morning. 

Samuel D. Lucas, 
Major-General Coimnanding. 

But Gen. Doniphan, in great and righteous indignation, promptly 
returned the following reply to his superior : — 

It is cold-blooded murder. I will not obey your order. My 
brigade shall march for Liberty to-morrow morning, at 8 o'clock; and 
if you execute those men, I will hold you responsible before an earthly 
tribunal, so help me God ! 

A. W. Doniphan, 
Brigadier- General. 

The prisoners somehow heard of the order, and kneeled in prayer, 
and prayed fervently that it might not be executed. And it was not. 
Flagrantly insubordinate as was Gen. Doniphan's refusal, he was 
never called to account for it. The Mormons have always remembered 
Gen. Doniphan's humanity on this occasion, as well as on others, and 
when, in 1874, he went to Salt Lake City, he was received with much 
feeling, and shown every regard and attention by Brigham Young and 
the other authorities of the church and city, and by even the masses 
of the people. 

It did not take long to convince Smith and his fellow-prisoners that 
it was best they should surrender to Gen. Lucas, and it is said that 
they consented at last and sent word to their brethren in Far West to 
lay down their arms and submit to the demands upon them. This 
was far better than to have exposed themselves and their followers to 


the cruel mercies of Bogart's tind Oilell's "Tigers," Neil Gilliam's 
*' Delaware amarnjans," and the Jackson county " Rangers." 

On the morning of November 1st Gen. Lucas ordered his whole 
force of from 2,500 to 3,000 men to parade at 9 o'clock, and to 
again take up the line of march for Far West half an hour later. 
It was understood at this time that the Mormon forces were to sur- 
render without a fight, l)ut preparations were made as if a contiict 
were certain, and only the superior officers knew the true situation. 

The troops marched out and formed in the prairie about 300 yards 
southeast of the town. The Mormons were confronted on three sides. 
Gen. Wilson's brigade formed the west line. Gen. Doniphan's the east 
line. Gen. Graham's and Gen. Parks' the south line, with the artil- 
lery company and the cannon in the center of the two latter, leaving 
the north side of town open and unguarded. 

Many of the commands, especially the Jackson county regiment, 
were eager for the fiarht to besfin, not knowino: that there was to be a 
surrender, or at least that one had been promised. Soon there came 
a stillness and a hush upon the line, followed by a period of intense 
but quiet excitement and great uneasiness and impatience. Presently 
the head-logs on the Mormon breastworks were seen to tumble out- 
ward, a white flag went up, and in obedience to the commands of their 
officers, the" Mormon companies were observed to be forminof into a 
regiment, which presently came out (300 strong, <• Gen. " Hinkle at 
. the head, and forming into a hollow square, " grounded arms." Col. 
Hinkle then rode forward, and after a graceful salute, delivered up his 
sword and pistols to Gen. Lucas, ^ then turned away to his men and, 
with tears upon his cheeks, and in a voice broken with emotion, said 
to them, "Boys, it's all over; it had to be done." 

About G30 guns, consisting of hunting rifles, shot-guns and a few 
muskets, and some rude swords, home-made, and a few pistols, were 
given up and hauled off* by the State authorities, but it can not be 
stated here what disi)osition was made of them. No compensation 
was ever allowed the Mormons for their property, which was taken 
or destroyed, and of course no return was made for their arms. 
These, as has been stated, with the exception of those belonging to 
the Danites, were indiflerent for the most part. The Danites had 
good guns and pistols. 


' Vide Gen. Lucas' report. A sword in possession of a Masonic lodjie at Carrollton 
is said to be Hinkle's old sword; but as this is claimed to have been taken from the 
Mormon leader by Col. Sarshel Woods, it is certainly not the sword given up by Hinkle 
to Gen. Lucas. 


Some of the Mormon officers had good swords. These officers all 
bore commissions, signed by Gov. Boggs, in the 53d regiment of Mis- 
souri militia, of which George W. Hinkle was colonel; Lyman Wight, 
lieutenant-colonel ; and Jefferson Hunt, majoi'. The regiment was 
regularly made up, accordiug to the State law, from Caldwell county. 
Some of the other officers were Amasa Lyman and Seymour Brownson 
(called Brunson), who were captains; Geo. P. Dykes was a jieuten- 
ant; Jacob Gates was an ensign. The Mormons under arms were all 
militiamen, regularly enrolled and mustered. 

After the Mormons had laid down their arms and become prisoners, 
Gen. Lucas directed a company from the respective brigades to form 
a front, rear, right flank and left flank guard, and to march the pris- 
oners back to Far West, and take charge of them until the next morn- 
ing, A company from Doniphan's l^rigade was placed in charge' of the 
arms. Then, "in order to gratify the army," as Gen. Lucas] says, 
the troops were marched around and through the town, and '^there 
were many disorderly scenes. A great deal of plundering was done. 
Some whisky had been obtained in some way, and many of the men 
were drunk. Some hard stories of their conduct were afterward told 
by the Mormons. 

Considering the " war " at an end in this quarter. Gen. Lucas issued 
orders for Gen. Doniphan's brigade, with the exception of one com- 
pany, and Gen. Graham's brigade to take up the line of march for 
their respective headquarters, and on arrival thereat to be dismissed 
from service. Gen. Robert Wilson was directed to take charffe of the 
prisoners selected for trial and the arms ; to march the prisoners to 
Gen. Lucas' headquarters at Independence, to await further orders, 
and to dismiss all of his troops except a guard for the prisoners and 

November 2 Gen. Lucas relieved the guard placed over the prisoners 
at Far West by four companies of Gen. Parks' brigade, and placed 
them under the command of Col. B. M. Thompson, of Ray county, 
2d brigade, 3d division, with instructions to report to Maj. Gen. John 
B. Clark on his'arrival. The remainder of Gen. Parks' brigade, with 
Capt. Neil Gilliam's company of Gen. Doniphan's brigade, under the 
command of Gen. Parks, was ordered to Adam-ondi-Ahman (com- 
monly called Adam-on-Diamon, or Diamon), in Daviess county, with 
instructions to disarm the Mormons at that place. • 

In the meantime Gov. Boggs had ordered Gen. John B. Clark, of 
Howard county, majoi'-general commanding the 1st division of mil- 
itia, to proceed to Far West with his division, and assume command of 


the forces openiting against the Mormons and direct operations. On 
the 4th of November Gen. Chirk with about 1,600 men, and 500 more 
eight miles off, arrived at Far West, and relieved Col. Thompson. 
The next day he took 56 of the men of the town prisoners and had 
them strictly guarded. He acted " vigorously," as he had been di- 
rected, and proceeded to make the Mormons feel the helplessness of 
their situation. Guards were stationed all about Far West, and none 
of the inhabitants were allowed to go out on any errand whatever. 
There was considerable suffering among them on account of the 
scarcity of wood, corn, and provisions. Many who had abandoned 
their farms and homes and fled to Far West when the troubles began 
were in a sad plight. The militia were foraging liberally upon their 
crops and likewise upon their flocks and herds, and destroying their 
property, while the}' themselves were sufl'ering with hunger and cold. 
The De Witt refugees had arrived, to the number of some hundreds, 
and as they were nearly all in want they had to be cared for by their 

A few days after his arrival Gen. Clark removed a portion of the 
restraint he had imposed upon the Mormons, allowing them to go 
out for wood, provisions, etc. He assembled the multitude on the 
temple square and delivered to them a written speech, a copy of which 
is here given. It goes far to prove that Gen. Clark was ordered to 
"exterminate" the Mormons, not excepting the women and children, 
and burn their houses and otherwise destroy their property. 

Gentlemen: You whose names are not attached to this list of 
names, will now have the privilege of going to your flelds to obtain 
corn for your families, wood, etc. Those that are now taken will go 
from thence to prison, be tried, and receive the due demerit of their 
crimes ; but you are now at libcrt}', all but such charges as may be 
hereafter preferred against. It now devolves upon you to fulfill the 
treaty that you have entered into, the leading items of which I now 
lay before you. The first of these you have already complied with, 
which is, that you deliver up your leading men to be tried according 
to law. Second, that you deliver up your arms — this has been at- 
tended to. The third is, that you sign over your properties to defray 
the expenses of the war — this you have also done. Another thing 
yet remains for you to comply with — that is, that you leave the State 
forthwith : and whatever your feelings concerning this affair, whatever 
your innocence, it is nothing to me. Gen. Lucas, who is equal in 
authority with me, has made this treaty with you. I am determined 
to see it executed. 7Vi<' orders oj the Governor to me ivere, that you 
should he exterminated, and not allowed to continue in the State ; 
and had your leaders not been given up, and the treaty complied 


with, before this, you and your families would have been destroyed, 
and your houses in ashes. 

There is a discretionary power vested in my hands, which I shall 
try to exercise for a season. I do not say that you shall go now ; 
but you must not think of staying here another season, or of putting 
in crops; for the moment you do, the citizens will be upon 3^ou. 1 
am determined to see the Governor's message fulfilled, but shall not 
come upon you immediately. Do not think that I shall act as I have 
done any more — but if I have to come again, because the treaty which 
you have made here shall be broken, you need not expect any mercy, 
but extermination, for I am determined the Governor's order shall be 
executed. As for your leaders, do not once think — do not imagine 
for a moment — do not let it enter your minds — that they will be 
delivered, or that you will see their faces again ; for their fate is fixed, 
their die is cast, their doom is sealed. 

I am sorry, gentlemen, to see so great a number of apparently 
intelligent men found in the situation that you are; and, oh! that I 
could invoke the spirit of the unknown God to rest upon yon, and 
deliver you from that awful chain of superstition, and liberate you 
from those fetters of fanaticism with which you are bound. I would 
advise you to scatter abroad, and never again organize with bishops, 
presidents, etc., lest you excite the jealousies of the people, and sub- 
ject yourselves to the same calamities that have now come down upon 
you. You have always been the aggressors, you have brought upon 
yourselves these difficulties by being disaffected, and not being sub- 
ject to rule — and my advice is, that you become as other citizens, 
lest by a recurrence of these events, you bring upon yourselves irre- 
trievable ruin. 

Soon after Gen. Clark returned home and the Mormons were allowed 
to remain in the county unmolested for a time, but were ordered to 
prepare to move as soon as possible. The troops of Gen. Willock's 
division, many of whom came from Marion, Lewis, Shelby, and other 
counties in the northeastern portion of the State, were encamped at 
Keytesville, in Chariton county, ready for a forward movement 
Avhen ordered. Perhaps the total number of militia called out was 

In the consummation of the " treaty " with Gen. Lucas, and by the 
orders of Gov. Boggs, when, as a Mormon poet says : — 

The people of Missouri, 
Like a whirlwind in its fur}', 
And without judge or jury, 

Drove the saints and spilled their blood, — 

there were many distressing scenes. Having been banished from 
the State they concluded to settle in Illinois, on the Upper Mississippi, 


and evoiituall}'^ selected Hancock county, on the Mississippi, opposite 
the southeiistern part of Iowa, as their future home. 

In the midst of an inclement winter, in December, 1838, and in 
January, 1839, many of the Mormon men, women, and children, the 
sick and the aged, as well as the young and strong, were turned out of 
their homes in this county and Daviess, into the prairies and forests, 
without food, or sulhcient protection from the weather. In some in- 
stances in Daviess, their houses were burnt before their eyes and the}' 
turned out into the deep snow. Onl>' a few cabins in the southwestern 
part of Caldwell were burned at this time. 

Numerous families set out at once for Illinois, making the entire 
distance, in midwinter, on foot. A large majority, however, re- 
mained until spring as under the terms of the treaty they were allowed 
to remain in the county until tiiat time. All through the winter and 
early spring those who remained prepared to leave. They offered 
their lands for sale at very small tiijures. In fact many bartered their 
farms for teams and wagons to get awa}' on. Some traded for any 
sort of property. Charles Ross, of Black Oak, bought 40 acres of 
good land, north of Breckinridge, for a blind mare and a clock. 
Some tracts of good land north of Shoal creek, in Kidder township, 
l)rought only fifty cents an acre. Many of the Mormons had not yet 
secured the patents to their lands, and though they had regularly en- 
tered them, they could not sell them ; the Gentiles would not buy un- 
less they could receive the Government's deeds, as well as the 
grantor's. These kinds of lands were abandoned altogether, in most 
instances, and afterward settled ui)on i)y Gentiles who secured titles 
by keeping the taxes paid. 

Quite a number of Mormon " dissenters" refused to follow off the 
Prophet to Illinois, and remained in Caldwell and Ray, where they or 
some of their descendants still remain. Others aijain abandoned the 
Mormon religion altogether, and after a time denied that they had 
ever believed in it, or that they had ever held any affiliation with 
the Mormon church whatever. But l)y the 10th of May all the Mor- 
mons in full fellowship had left Missouri for the new Mormon capital 
at Nauvoo, 111. The first of the expatriated Mormons went first to 
Quincy, III., and from thence to Nauvoo. 

Not long after the surrender at Far West, the Mormons of Daviess 
county surrendered to the militia at Adam-ondi-Ahman, upon the 
same conditions as their brethren had in Caldwell. Lack of space 
forbids the publication of the details of the campaign here. It may 
he stated that the conduct of the Mormons in that county was more 


reprehensible than that of their brethren in Caldwell, although they 
claimed to have acted in retaliation for their treatment by the 
'* mobs" of Daviess, who, the Mormons assert, were the aggressors. 

What authority Gen. Lucas had to make such a " treaty " and 
to impose such conditions is not clear. It would seem that he re- 
garded the Mormons as composing a foreign nation, or at least as form- 
ing an army with belligerent rights, and with proper treaty-contracting 
powers. The truth was they were and had not ceased to be citizens 
of Missouri, amenable to and under the jurisdiction of its laws. If 
they had committed any crime they ought to have been punished, just 
the same as other criminals. There was no authority for taking their 
arms from them except that they were proved to be militia in a state of 
insubordination. There was no sort of authority for requiring them to 
pay the expenses of the war. There was no sort of authority for requir- 
ing them to leave the State. It was monstrously illegal and unjust to 
attempt to punish them for offenses for which they had not been tried 
and of which they had not been convicted. It would be a reasonable 
conclusion that in making his so-called "treaty" Gen. Lucas was 
guilty of illegal extortion, unwarranted assumption of power, usurpa- 
tion of authority, and flagrant violation of the natural rights of man. 

By an act of the Legislature approved December 11, 1838, the sum 
of $2,000 was appropriated, " for the purpose of relieving the indigent 
and suffering families in Caldwell and Daviess counties, and the fol- 
lowing commissioners were appointed to expend the sum and distrib- 
ute "food, raiment, and other necessaries" among the deserving : 
Anderson Martin, Wm. Thornton and John C. Richardson of Ray 
county ; Elisha Camron, John Thornton, and Eli Casey, of Cla}' ; 
Henry McHenry, of Caldwell, and M. T. Green, of Daviess. It is 
asserted that not a dollar of the appropriation was expended for the 
benefit of the Mormons, although the act itself did not especially ex- 
clude them. The Gentiles were the sole beneficiaries. 

The same Legislature also prohibited the publication of " the orders, 
letters, evidences, and other documents relating to the Mormon dis- 
turbances," and enjoined the Secretary of the State from " furnishing 
or permitting to be taken copies of the same for any purpose whatso- 
ever." Two years later, however, this j^rohibition was rescinded. 
(See Acts 10th Gen. Assembly, p. 334.) Why the act was passed in 
the first place may better be conjectured than positively asserted. 

The prisoners taken away from Far West by Gen. Lucas were 
Joseph Smith (the Prophet), Hiram Smith (his brother), Gen. Geo. 
W. Hinkle, L}'man Wight, Sidney Rigdon, Orson Pratt, Parley P. 



Pratt, Alex. McRae, Caleb Baldwin, Luman Gibbs (the basket 
maker), Maurice Phelps, King Follett, Wm. Osbiirn, Arthur Morri- 
son, Elias Higbee, Joshua Worthington, Wm. Voorhees, Jacob Gates, 
and a few others. They were taken to Richmond, and from thence 
to Independence. This, it seems, was done by Gen. Lucas for no 
other reason than to grace his triumph, in imitation of the Roman 
conquerors, who were wont to carry their captives back to the Eternal 
City after a foreign conquest and parade them with their other tro- 
phies in a grand procession through the streets. 

The prisoners were exhibited in Independence to make a show and 
sport for the multitude, but in a few days they were returned to Rich- 
mond. Here by a court of inquiry. Judge King presiding, they were 
remanded to Daviess county, to await the action of the grand jury on 
charge of murder and treason against the State. The Daviess county 
jail being poor, some were kept at Richmond and Jo. Smith and oth- 
ers sent to the stone jail at Liberty. 

Indictments for various offenses — treason, murder, robbery, re- 
ceiving stolen goods, arson, resisting legal process, etc., were after- 
wards found against them, but not one conviction was ever had. 
Quite a number had their cases dismissed or nolle pros'd. Sidney 
Rigdon was released on habeas corpus. The others were granted 
changes of venue and their cases sent to Boone county. On the way 
to Columbia Joe Smith contrived to escape, by the connivance of his 
guard, as is supposed. Parley P. Pratt and others knocked down the 
jailor at Columbia, July 4, 1839, and escaped. Luman Gibbs was 
tried and acquitted. The cases against the others were dismissed. 



Full and Authentic Details of this Terrible Tragedy — Sworn Statements of Some of 
Those Who Were Present — The Names of All of the Killed and Wounded — Subse- 
quent Experiences of Some of the Survivors, etc., etc. 

In the afternoon of October 30, 1838, the day the militia arrived at 
Far West, occnrred what has since been generally known as " the 
Haun's Mill Massacre." Following is perhaps the first complete and 
correct account of this affiiir ever published. 

At Jacob Haun's mill, on the north bank of Shoal creek, in the 
eastern part of the county, in what is now Fairview township (nw. V4 
ne. 1/4, section 17-56-26 ), were, besides the mill, a blacksmith shop and 
half a dozen or more houses, and perhaps 20 Mormon families. Some 
of these families were living in tents and covered wagons, having 
recently come into the country, or having lived elsewhere in the county 
had become alarmed at the aspect of affairs, and liad come to the mill 
for safety. News that the militia of the State had been ordered to 
expel them had reached the Mormons, and following these tidings 
word was brought that a considerable number of men livius: in Liv- 
ingston county, together with some from Daviess, had organized near 
Spring Hill, in Livingston county, and were preparing to attack them. 
A company of about thirty men, indifferently armed with shot guns and 
squirrel rifles, was organized, and David Evans, a Danite, was chosen 
captain. It was determined to defend the place. 

Learnino^ that the force oro-anizino; ag-ainst them numbered some 
hundreds, some of the older men amono; the Mormons ur^ed that no re- 
sistance should be made, but that all should retreat to Far West.^ It 

1 John D, Lee says that the morning after the fight on Crooked river, Haun himself 
came to Far West to consult with the Prophet concerning the removal of the Mormons 
on Lower Shoal creek to Far West. The Prophet said, " Move in, by all means, if you 
wish to save your lives." Haun replied that if the settlers left their homes all of their 
property would be lost and the Gentiles would burn their houses and other buildings. 
Jo. Smith said, " You had better lose your property than your lives, but there is no 
danger of losing either if you will do as you are commanded." Haun thought he and 
his neighbors could protect and defend themselves, and Smith finally gave them per- 
mission to remain, saying they would consider him a tyrant if he forced them to leave 
and abandon their propertv and come to Far West. 



seems that the Prophet had advised this, but nevertheless had given 
them permission to remain if they thought they could protect them- 

Others opposed retreating and the abandonment of their property 
to the •♦ mol) of Gentiles," and when an old man named Myers re- 
minded them how few they were, and how many the Gentiles num- 
bered, they declared that the Lord would send his angels to help them 
when the day of battle should come. Some of the women, too, urged 
the men to stand firm, and offered to mold bullets and prepare patch- 
ing for the rifles if necessary. 

North of Haun's mill, a short distance, was a body of timber and 
brush, and north of this, towards where Breckinridge now stands, was 
a stretch of prairie for miles. For a day or two Capt. Evans kept 
a picket post in the northern edge of the timber, but having entered 
into a truce with Capt. Nehemiah Comstock, commanding one of the 
Livingston county companies, and no other enemy appearing, this post 
was withdrawn. 

This truce was effected by means of a messenger, who rode between 
Comstock and Evans, and its terms were that the Gentiles were to let 
the Mormons alone as long as they were peaceable, and vice versa. 
The Mormons agreed also to disband their military organization if the 
Gentiles would disband theirs, and this it is claimed was agreed to. 
But the Mormons heard that over in Livingston, directly east of them, 
another company of Gentiles, under Capt. Wm. Mann, was menacing 
them; and so they did not disband, for while they confided in Com- 
stock's company, they had no confidence in Mann's, which for some 
time had been operating at and near AVhitney's mill, on Shoal creek 
(where Dawn now is), stopping Mormons on their way to Caldwell 
from the East, turning them back in some instances, taking their arms 
from them in others, etc. 

The Gentile force in Livingston county numbered about 200 men, 
and was under the command of Col. Wm. O. Jennings,* then the 
sheriff of that county. Three companies composed it, led by Capt. 
Nehemiah Comstock, Thos. R. Bryan and William Mann. It took 
the field in earnest about the 25th of October, and for a few days 
prior to the 30th was encamped about three miles northeast of Breck- 
enridge, at least Comstock's company was. Perhaps Mann's was 
employed in the southern portion of the county until the 29th. 

' Col. Jennings was assassinated In Chillicothe In 1861. (See History of Livingston 


Learning that the Mormons at Haun's mill had not disbanded, and 
yielding to the almost universal desire of his men, who were eager to 
seize upon any pretext for a tight, Col. Jennings set out from his 
camp last mentioned, after noon of the 30th of October, intending to 
attack and capture Haun's mill, and encamp there that night. The 
route lay via where Mooresville now stands, or between Mooresville 
and Breckinridge, and on across the prairie, and the march was made 
swiftly and without interruption. 

Within two miles of the mill Col. Jennings left his wagons and two 
Mormon prisoners, captured some days before, in charge of a squad 
of men, of whom James Trosper, now of Breckinridge, was one, and 
pressed rapidly on. Entering the timber north of the town, Jen- 
ning's men passed through it unobserved right up to the borders of 
the hamlet. Capt. Nehemiah Comstock's company had the advance. 

The Mormon leader, David Evans, had become apprehensive of an 
attack, and was about sending out scouts and pickets. It was ar- 
ranged to use the blacksmith shop as a fort or block-house. This struc- 
ture was of logs, with wide cracks between them, and had a large 
door. The greater portion of the Mormons were unsuspicious of 
imminent danger, and the women and children were scattered about. 
Nearly every house contained two or more families. There were two 
or three small houses on the south bank of the creek thus occupied. 
It was now about four o'clock in the afternoon of a warm and beauti- 
ful Indian summer day. 

Suddenly from out of the timber north of the mill the Livingston 
militia burst upon the hamlet. In a few seconds the air was filled 
with wild shouts and shots, and the fight was on. It can scarcely be 
called a fight. The Mormons were thrown into confusion, and many 
of them ran wildly and aimlessly about. The women and children 
cried and screamed in excitement and terror, and the greater number, 
directed by the men, ran across the mill dam to the south bank and 
sought shelter in the woods south of the creek. Perhaps half of the 
men, Evans among them, ran with their guns to the blacksmith shop 
and began to return the fire. Some were shot down in an effort to 
reach the shop or as they were tryijig to escape. 

The fire of the Mormons was for the most part wild and ineffective ; 
that of the militia was accurate and deadly. The cracks between the 
logs of the shop were so large that it was easy to shoot through them, 
and so thickly were the Mormoms huddled together on the inside that 
nearly every bullet that entered the shop killed or wounded a man. 


Firing wjis kept up all the while on the fleeing fugitives, many of 
whom were shot down.^ 

Seeing that he was placed at a decided disadvantage, Capt. Evans 
save orders to retreat, ordering every man to take care of himself. 
The door of the shop was thrown open, and all the able-bodied sur- 
vivors ran out, endeavoring to reach the wood. Some were shot be- 
fore thev <^ot to shelter. Capt. Evans was somewhat excited, and, as 
he afterwards related, ran all the way to Mud creek with his gun 
loaded, not having lired it during the fight. The militia fired at the 
fuo-itives until they were out of range, but did not pursue them, as 
the few who escaped scattered in almost every direction. 

After the engagement was over, and all the able-bodied male Mor- 
mons had been killed, wounded or driven away, some of the militia- 
men beiran to "loot" the houses and stables at the mill. A great 
deal of property was taken, much of it consisting of household arti- 
cles and personal effects, but just how much can not now be stated. 
The Mormons claim there was a general pillage, and that in two or 
three instances the bodies of the slain were robbed. Some of the 
militia or their friends say onh' two or three wagons were taken, one 
to haul off the three wounded, and sufficient bedding to make their 
ride comfortable ; but on the other hand two of those who were in a 
position to know say that the Mormon hamlet was prett}'^ thoroughly 
rifled. One man carried away an empty 10 gallon keg, which he 
carried before him on his saddle and beat as a drum. Another had a 
woman's bonnet, which he said was for his sweetheart. Perhaps a 
dozen horses were taken. 

Col. Jennings did not remain at Haun's mill, in all, more than an 
hour, or an hour and a half. Twilight approaching, he set out on his 
return to his former camp, for one reason fearing a rally and return 
of the Mormons with a larjje re-enforcement, and doubtless desirino; 
to reflect leisurely on his course of future operations. 

Reaching his camp near Woolsey's, northeast of Breckinridge, 
Col. Jennings halted his battalion and prepared to pass the night. 
But a few hours later he imagined he heard cannon and a sfreat 

1 Some years after the fight Mr. Chas. R. Ross tore down the old blacksmith shop, 
antl cut down a number of trees in the grove to the west from which direction the 
uiiiitia advanced to the attack. He says that the logs of the shop contained many bul- 
lets, as did tlie trees which he felled. The most of the balls found in the latter 
were at a distance of 30 or 40 feet from the ground, showing how far above their ene- 
mies' heads the Mormons uniformly fired. 


tumult in the direction of Haun's mill, betokening the presence of a 
large Mormon force, and rousing up his men he broke camp, and 
moving rapidly eastward, never halted until he had put the West 
fork of Grand river between him and his imaginary pursuers ! 

From the records of the Mormon Chui-ch it seems that 17 men of 
the Mormons were either killed outright or mortally wounded. Their 
names, as kindly furnished for this history by Rev. F. D. Richards, 
assistant historian and custodian of the church records at Salt Lake, 
are : — 

Thos. McBride, Alex. Campbell, Hiram Abbott, 

Levi N. Merrick, Geo. S. Richards, John York, 

Elias Benner, Wm. Napier, John Lee, 

Josiah Fuller, Augustine Harmer, John Byers, 

Benj. Lewis, Simon Cox, Warren Smith, 

Sardius Smith, aged 10, and Chas. Merrick, aged 9. 

Esq. Thos. McBride was an old soldier of the Revolution. He was 
lying wounded and helpless, his gun by his side. A militiaman 
named Rogers^ came up to him and demanded it. " Take it," said 
McBride. Rogers picked up the weapon, and finding that it was 
loaded, deliberately discharged . it into the old man's breast. He 
then cut and hacked the old veteran's body with a rude sword, or 
" corn-knife," until it was frightfully mangled. Wm. Reynolds, a 
Livingston county man,^ killed the little boy Sardius Smith, 10 years 
of age. The lad had run into the blacksmith shop and crawled under 
the bellows for safety. Upon entering the shop the cruel militiaman 
discovered the cowering, trembling little fellow, and without even 
demanding his surrender fired upon and killed him, and afterwards 
boasted of the atrocious deed to Chas. R. Ross and others. He 
described, with fiendish glee, how the poor boy struggled in his dying 
agony, and justified his savage and inhuman conduct in killing a mere 
child by saying, " Nits will make lice, and if he had lived he would 
have become a Mormon." 

Charlie Merrick, another little Mormon boy, was mortally wounded 
by another militiaman. He too was hiding under the bellows. 

1 Either a brother of a mau who kept a ferry across Grand river, near Gallatin, or 
else the ferryman himself. 

' Joseph Young states that it was a Carroll county man named Glaze, but this is a 
mistake. Reynolds was undoubtedly the man. 


The Mormons wounded, accordiiio; to the Mormon records, num- 
bered 12, as follows : — 

Isaac Laney, Wni. Yokum, Jacob Potts, 

Nathan K. knight, Tarlton Lewis, Chas. Jimison, 

Jacob Myers, Jacob Haun,^ John Walker, 

George Myers, Jacob Foutz, Alma Smith, aged 7. . 

^ A young Mormon woman, Miss Mary Stedwell, was shot through 
ihe hand, as she was running to the woods. Doubtless this shooting 
was accidental. 

The militia, or Jennings' men, had but three men wounded, and 
none killed. John Renfrow, now living in Ray county, had a thumb 
shot oft*. Allen England, a Daviess county man, was severely wounded 
in the thi<:h, and the other wounded man was named Hart. 

Dies iroef What a woeful day this had been to Haun's Mill ! What 
a pitiful scene was there when the militia rode away upon the conclu- 
sion of their bloody work ! The wounded men had been given no at- 
tention, and the bodies of the slain were left to fester and pntrify in 
the Indian summer temperature, warm and mellowing. The widows 
and orphans of the dead came timidly and warily forth from their 
hiding places as soon as the troops left, and as they recognized one a 
husband, another a father, another a son, another a brother among the 
bloody corpses, the wailings of grief and terror that went up were 
pitiful and agonizing. All that night they were alone with their dead. 
A return visit of Jennings' men to complete the work of " extermina- 
tion " had been threatened and was expected. Verily, the experience 
of the poor survivors of the Haun's Mill affair was terrible ; no won- 
der that they long remembered it. 

The next morning the bodies had changed, and were changing fast. 
They must be buried. There were not enough men in the place to 
dig graves, and it could not be determined when relief would come. 
There was a large unftnished well at the place, and the bodies were 
gathered u[), the women assisting, and borne, one at a time, all gory 
and ghastly, to this well and slid in from a large plank. All of the 
corpses vvere disposed of in this way ; then some hay or straw was 
strewn over the ghastly piles and then a thin layer of dirt thrown on 
the hay. 

Soon after the burial was over, the same day, Comstock's company 

' Founder and owner of the mill. 


was sent back to give the dead a decent sepulture. Seeing what had 
been done already, they rode away, glad to be relieved from the job. 
The next February Mr. Charles R. Ross moved into the house and oc- 
cupied the property to which the well belonged. Soon aJ'ter his 
arrival some warm days came, and an offensive smell arose from the 
well. Mr. Ross at once set to work and tilled up the loathsome 
sepulcher, even making a good sized mound over it. In time this 
mound was leveled, and now it is almost impossible to fix the exact 
location of the pit. 

Whatever of merit there was in the attack on Haun's Mill, and 
whatever of glory attaches to the famous victory, must be given to Col. 
Wm. O. Jennings mainly. He made the attack on his own responsi- 
bility, without orders from Gov. Boggs, or any other superior author- 
ity, although the Governor afterwards approved what was done. True, 
Jennings' subordinates must be given their share, in proportion to 
the part they bore, but Col. Jennings stands among them all as a Saul 
among his fellows, the AjaxTelamon of the contest, the Hector of the 
fight ! 

It is but proper that both sides of the story of the affair at Haun's 
Mill — fight, skirmish, massacre, or butchery, whatever it was — 
should be given. The best Mormon account extant is embodied in an 
affidavit of Joseph Young, a brother of Brigham Young, made at 
Quincy, 111., the June following the occurrence. This affidavit, much 
of which is undoubtedly true, is yet among the Mormon records, and 
a copy has been furnished for use in this history by F. D. Richards, 
the Mormon custodian of records. Following is the copy : — 


On the 6th day of July hist I started with my family from Kirtland, 
Ohio, for the State of Missouri, the county of Caldwell, in the upper 
part of the State, being the place of my destination. On the thir- 
teenth day of October 1 crossed the Mississippi at Louisiana, at which 
place I heard vague reports of the disturbances in the upper country, 
but nothing that could be relied upon. 

I continued my course westward till I crossed Grand river, at a 
place called Compton's Ferry, at which place I heard, for the first 
time, that if I proceeded any further on my journey I would be in 
danger of being stopped by a body of armed men. I was not willing, 
however, while treading my native soil and breathing republican air, 
to abandon my object, which was to locate myself and family in a 
fine healthy country, where we could enjoy the society of our friends 
and connections. Consequently, I prosecuted my journey till I came 
to Whitney's Mills, situated on Shoal creek, in the eastern part of 
Caldwell county. [Southwestern part of Livingston. — Compiler.] 



After crossing the creek ami going about three miles, we met a 
party of" the mob, about ibrty in nunilier, armed with rifles and 
mounted on liorses, who informed us that we couhi go no farther 
west, threatening ns with instant death if we proceeded any farther. 
I asked them the reason of this prohibition ; to which they replied 
that we were *' Mormons ; " that ever}'^ one who adhered to our 
religious faith wonld have to leave the State in ten days or renounce 
their reliirion. Accordini^ly thev drove us back to the mills al)ove 
mentioned. Here we tarried three days, and on Friday, the 2(5th, 
we recrossed the creek, and ibllowing up its banks we succeeded in 
eluding the mob for the time being, and gained the residence of a 
friend in Myers' settlement. 

On Sunday, the 28th of October, we arrived al)out twelve o'clock 
at Haun's Mill, where we found a number of our friends collected 
together, who were holding a council and deliberating nj^on the best 
course for them to pursue to defend themselves against the mob, who 
were collecting in the neighborhood under the command of Col. Jen- 
ninirs, of Livin<rston, and threatening them with house burnin<r and 
killing. The decision of the council was that our friends should place 
themselves in an attitude of self-defense. Accordingly about twenty- 
eijjht of our men armed themselves and were in constant readiness for 
an attack of any small body of men that might come down upon 

The same evening, for some reason best known to themselves, the 
mob sent one of their number to enter into a treaty with our friends, 
which was accepted, on the condition of mutual forbearance on both 
sides, and that each party, as far as their influence extended, should 
exert themselves to prevent any further hostilities upon either partv. 
At this time, however, there was another mob collecting on Grand 
river, at William Mann's, who were threatening us, consequently we 
remained under arms. 

Monday passed away without molestation from any quarter. On 
Tuesday, the 30th, that l)loody tragedy was acted, the scenes of whioh 
I shall never forget. More than three-fourths of the day had passed 
in tranquility, as smiling as the preceding one. I think there was no 
individual of our company that was apprised of the sudden and awful 
fate that hung over our heads like an overwhelming torrent, which 
was to change the prospect, the feelings and circumstances of about 
thirty families. The banks of Shoal creek on either side teemed with 
children sporting and playing, while their mothers were engaged in 
domestic employments, and their fathers employed in guarding the 
mills and other property, while others were engaged in gathering 
in their crops tor the winter consumption. The weather was very 
pleasant, the sun shone clear, all was tranquil and no one expressed 
any apprehension of the awful crisis that was near us — even at our 

It was about four o'clock, while sitting in my cabin with my babe 
in my arms, and my wife standinix hy my side, the door l)eing open, 
I cast my eyes on the opposite bank of Shoal creek, and saw a large 


company of armed men, on horses, directing their course towards the 
mills with all possible speed. As they advanced throucjh the scatter- 
ing trees that stood on the edge of the prairie they seemed to form 
themselves into a three square position, forming a vanguard in front. 

At this moment, David Evans, seeing the superiority of their num- 
bers (there being 240 of them according to their own account), swung 
his hat and cried for " peace." This not being heard, they continued 
to advance, and their leader, Mr. Nehemiah Comstock, fired a gun, 
which was followed by a solemn pause of ten or twelve seconds, when 
all at once, they discharged about 100 rifles, aiming at a blacksmith's 
shop into which our friends had fled for safety ; and charged up to the 
shop, the cracks of which between the logs were suflicienLly large to 
enable them to aim directly at the bodies of those who had there fled 
for refuge from the fire of their murderers. There were several fami- 
lies tented in rear of the shop, whose liVes were exposed, and who, 
amidst a shower of bullets, fled to the woods in different directions. 

After standing and gazing on this bloody scene for a few minutes, 
and finding myself in the uttermost danger, the bullets having reached 
the house where I was living, I committed my family to the protec- 
tion of heaven, and leaving the house on the opposite side, I took a 
path which led up the hill, following in the trail of three of my breth- 
ren that had fled from the shop. VVhile ascending the hill, we were 
discovered by the mob, who immediately fired at us, and continued so 
to do till we reached the summit. In descending the hill, I secreted 
myself in a thicket of bushes, where I lay till eight o'clock in the 
evening, at which time I heard a female voice calling my name in an 
undertone, telling me that the mr)b was gone and there was no dan- 
o-er. I immediately left the thicket and went to the house of Benja- 
min Lewis, where I found my family (who had fled there) in safety, 
and two of my friends mortally wounded, one of whom died before 
mornino;. Here we passed the painful night in deep and awful reflec- 
tions on the scenes of the preceding evening. 

After davlight appeared some four or five men, with myself, who 
had escaped with our lives from the horrible massacre, repaired as soon 
as possible to the mills to learn the condition of our friends, whose 
fate we had too: ruly anticipated. When we arrived at the house of 
Mr. Haun we found Mr. Merrick's body lying in rear of the house. 
Mr. McBride's in front was literally mangled from head to foot. We 
were informed by Miss Rebecca Judd, who was an eye-witness, that he 
was shot with his own gun after he had given it up, and then cut to 
pieces with a corn cutter by a Mr. Rogers, of Daviess county, who 
keeps a ferry on Grand river, and who has since repeatedly boasted 
of this act of savage barbarity. Mr. York's body we found in the 
house, and after viewing these corpses we immediately went to the 
blacksmith's shop, where we found nine of our friends, eight of whom 
were already dead, the other, Mr. Cox, of Indiana, struggling in the 
agonies of death, who expired. We immediately prepared and carried 
them to the place of interment. This last office of kindness, due to 
the relics of departed friends, was not attended with the customary 


ceremonies or decency, for we were in jeopardy every moment, ex- 
peeling to be fired upon by the mob, who we supposed were lying in 
ambush waiting for the first opportunity to dispatch the remaining few 
who were providentially preserved from the slaughter of the preceding 
day. However, we accomplished without molestation this painful 
task. The place of burying was a vault in the ground, formerly in- 
tended for a well, into which we threw the bodies of our friends pro- 
miscuously. Among those slain I will mention Sardius Smith, son of 
Warren Smith, about 12 years old, who, through fear, had crawled 
under the l)ellows in the shop, where he remained till the massacre 
was over, when he was discovered by a Mr. Glaze, of Carroll county, 
who presented his rifle near the boy's head and literally blowed off the 
upper part of it. Mr. Stanley, of Carroll, told me afterwards that 
Glaze boasted of this fiend-like murder and heroic deed all over the 

The number killed and mortally wounded in this wanton slaughter 
was 18 or 19, whose names, as far as I recollect, were as follows.' 

Miss Marv Stedwell, while fleeinof, was shot through the hand, and, 
fainting, fell over a log, into which they shot upwards of 20 balls. 

To finish their work of destruction this band of murderers, com- 
posed of men from Daviess, Livingston, Ray, Carroll and Chariton 
counties, led by some of the principal men of that section of the upper 
country (among whom, I am informed, were Mr. Ashley, of Chariton, 
member of the State Legislature ; Col. Jennings, of Livingston county ; 
Thomas R. Bryan, clerk of Livingston county ; Mr. Whitney, Dr. 
Randall, and many others), proceeded to rob the houses, wagons and 
tents of beddins: and clothing, drove off horses and wasrons, leav- 
ing widows and orphans destitute of the necessaries of life, and 
even stripped the clothing from the bodies of the slain. According 
to their own account, they fired seven rounds in this awful butchery, 
making upwards of 1,600 shots at a little company of men, about 
30 in number. I hereby certify the above to be a true statement 
of facts, according to the best of mv knowledsje. 

Joseph Young. 

Subscribed and sworn to by Joseph Young, June 4, 1839, before C. 
M. Woods, clerk of the circuit court of Adams county. III., at Quincy, 
in said county. 

Let us hear now the story as told by Mrs. Amanda Smith, whose 
husl)and, Warren Smith, and little 10 year old son, Sardius Smith, 
both perished in the mas.sacre. ' 


To lohom this may concern: I do hereby certify that my husband, 
Warren Smith, in company with several other families, were moving 
from Ohio to Missouri. We came to Caldwell countv. Whilst we 

* See precedlntj paste, as also for the names of the woiindod. — Compiler. 


were traveling, minding our own business, we were stopped Uy a mob; 
they told us that if we went another step, they would kill us all. 
They took our guns from us (as were going into a new country, we 
took guns along with us) ; they took us back five miles, placed a guard 
around us, there kept us three days and let us go. 

I thought : Is this our boasted land of liberty? For some said we 
must deny our faith, or they would kill us ; others said we should die 
at any rate. The names of this mob, or the heads, were Thomas R. 
Brien, county clerk, Jefferson Brien, Wra. Ewell, and James Austin, 
all of Livingston county. After they let us go, we traveled ten 
miles, came to a small town composed of one grist mill, one saw mill, 
and eight or ten houses belonging to our brethren ; there we stopped 
for the night. 

A little before sunset a mob of 300 came upon us. The men hal- 
looed for the women and children to run for the woods ; and they ran 
into an old blacksmith shop, for they feared if we all ran together, 
they would rush upon us and kill the women and children. The mob 
fired before we had time to start from our camp. Our men took off 
their hats and swung them, and cried " quarter" until they were shot. 
The mob paid no attention to their cries nor entreaties, but fired in- 

I took my little girls — my boys I could not find — and started for 
the woods. The mob encircled us on all sides but the l)rook. I ran 
down the bank, across the mill pond on a plank, up the hill into the 
bushes. The bullets Avhistled all the way like hail, and cut down the 
bushes on all sides of us. One girl was wounded by my side, and fell 
over a log, and her clothes hung across the log ; and they shot at them, 
exi)ecting they were hitting her ; and our people afterwards cut out of 
that log 20 bullets. 

I sat down to witness the dreadful scene. When thev had done 
firing, they began to howl, and one would have thought that all the 
infernals had come from the lower region. They plundered the prin- 
cipal part of our goods, took our horses and wagons, and ran off, 
howling like demons. 

I came down to witness the awful scene. Oh horrible ! what a 
sight! My husband, and one son 10 years old, lifeles-< upon the 
ground, and one son 7 years old, wounded very bad; the ground cov- 
ered with the dead. These little boys crept under the bellows in the 
shop; one little boy 10 years old had 3 wounds in him ; he lived 5 
weeks and died; he was not mine. 

Realize for a moment the scene : — It was sunset ; nothing but hor- 
ror and distress ; the dogs, filled with rage, howling over their dead 
masters ; the cattle caught the scent of innocent blood, and bellowed ; 
a dozen helpless widows, 30 or 40 fatherless children, screaming and 
groaning for the loss of their fathers and husbands; the groans of the 
wounded and dying — all these were enough to have melted the heart 
of anything but a Missouri mob. 

There were 15 dead and 10 wounded ; 2 died the next day. There 
were no men, or not enough to bury the dead ; so they were thrown into 


a dry well and covered with dirt. The next day the mob came back. 
They told us we must leave the State forthwith, or be killed. It was 
cold weather, and they had our teams and clothes; our men all dead 
c wounded. I told them they might kill me and my children, and 
welcome. They sent to us from time to time, if we did not leave the 
State, they would come and kill us. We had little prayer meetings. 
They said if we did not stop them, they would kill every man, woman 
and child. We had spelling schools for our little children ; they said 
if we did not stop them, they would kill every man, woman and child. 
We did our own milking, got our own wood ; no man to help us. 

I started the 1st of February for Illinois, without money (mob all 
the way), drove our own team, slept out of doors. I had 5 small 
children; we suffered hunger, fatigue and cold ; for what? For our 
religion ; where, in a boasted land of liberty, '• deny your faith ordie " 
was the cry. 

I will mention some of the names of the heads of the mob : Two 
brothers by the name of Comstock, William Mann, Benj. Ashh^y, 
Robert White, one by the name of Rogers, who took an old scythe 
and cut an old white headed man all to pieces. 

I wish further also to state that when the mob came there (as I 
was told by one of them afterwards), their intention was to kill every- 
thing belonging to us that had life ; and that after our men were shot 
down by them, they went around and shot all the dead men over 
again, to make snfe of their lives. 

I now leave it with this honorable Government to say what my 
damaores mav be, or what thev would be willing to see their wives 
and children slaughtered for, as I have seen n\y husband, son and 

I lost in property by the mob — to goods stolen, $50; one pocket- 
book and $50 cash, bank-notes; damage of horses and team, $100; 
one gun, $10; in short, my all. Whole damages are more than the 
whole State of Missouri is worth. 

Written by my own hand, this 18th day of April, 1839. 

Amanda Smith. 

QuiNCV, Adams county, III. 

Hiram Smith, the brother of the "Prophet," in his "statement 
on record in the archives of the church at Salt Lake makes the follow 
ing reference to the affair at Haun's Mill : — 

» > 


Immediately after this, there came into the city a messenger from 
Haun's Mill, bringing the intelligence of an awful massacre of the 
people who were residing in that place, and that a force of 200 or 
300, detached from the main body of the army, under the superior 
command of Cai)t. Nehemiah Comstock, who, the day previous, had 
promised them peace and protection, but on receiving a copv of the 
Governor's order to fxtfrnnnafe or to expel, from the hands of Col. 
Ashley, he returned upon them the following day, and surprised and 
massacred the whole population, and then came on to the town of 


Far West, and entered into conjunction with the main body of the 
army. The messenger informed us that he himself with a few others 
fled into the thickets, which preserved them from massacre, and on 
the following morning returned and collected the dead bodies of the 
people, and cast them into a well. There were upwards of 20 ( ?) 
who were dead or mortally wounded. One of the name of Yocura 
has lately had his leg amputated, in consequence of wounds he 
then received. He had a ball shot through his head, which entered 
near his eye, and came out the back part of his head, and another 
ball passed through one of his arms. 


* * * We traveled through the lower part of Missouri without 
any difficulty, the people treating us kindly and advising us to leave 
the main road, as mobs were collecting on it. We traveled on by 
roads and came out at Compton's Ferry, on one fork of Grand river, 
where we camped. Next day we traveled across a prairie of 30 
miles, without inhabitants, and arrived at Wliitney's mill, on Shoal 
creek, Livingston count}^ Mo. We crossed over the mill pond next 
morning in a flat boat and started across to Caldwell county, a dis- 
tance of 14 miles. When we were about two miles out we met a party 
of 60 men, armed and mounted, led by Thomas Brien, who compel- 
led us to give up our arms and return to Whitney's mill, where we 
remained a week. * * * While they were drunk and asleep one 
afternoon, we hitched up, re-crossed the mill pond, told the women 
living there that we were going back out of the State, and took the 
back track for two miles, where we halted a few minutes and requested 
Elder Joseph Young to take the lead of the company, which now 
numbered 11 wagons and families. He objected, but appointed Bro. 
Levi Merrick to take charge. We started on, leaving the main road 
and taking a dividing ridge without any track and traveled on that 
afternoon and night and halted just before day-break to bury a son of 
mine, 16 years old, who had just died. * * * xhe next da}'' 
Bro. Walker's son-in-law [of Caldwell county] piloted us to Haun's 
mill, where we arrived in the afternoon, found a number of brethren 
waiting to get grinding done. We remained until next morning, and, 
as we had been on short rations for a number of days, we purchased 
some grain, and, as we could not get it ground until late in the day, 
we concluded to wait till next morning. 

About 30 minutes past 3 o'clock p. m. that day (October 30) Bro. 
David Evans, Father Myers and another brother returned from an 
appointed meeting with the mol), wlio agreed in writing to let the 
Saints alone if the Saints would let them alone. Bro. Evans said he 
did not feel like the mob intended to keep their word, and advised 
the brethren to keep out a double guard, and while he was organizing 
it and within half an hour after his return his fears were confirmed. 
* * * I had just finished eating. I caught my gun and hung my 
powder-horn over my neck, when the buckskin string was cut by a 


ball fired bv their leader, which also passed through my vest pocket, 
taking out my pocket knife. « * » The women and children were 
so ten-ified that some of them would run in front of the mob's guns 
and crv, " murder ! murder ?" * * * As one man was running to 
help cut him [Esq. McBride] down, swearing as he went, 1 fired my 
o-un the first time. The ball passed through one hip and lodged in 
the other. He was always a cripple afterwards. * * * Two men 
had Bro. Warren Smith stripped of his coat, hat and boots, and were 
drair<nno- him around after he was dead and kickinsf him. * * * 
The first wound I received was in the finger of my right hand. The 
next in my left leg and the next in my body, the ball entering just 
al)()ve the small of my back and lodging just below the pit of my 
stomi'ich. The last shot brought me to my hands and knees. I re- 
covered myself and tried to escape. * * * I made out to get three- 
quarters of a mile farther through timber and brush, and secreted 
myself in some fallen tree tops. * * » j remained about three 
quarters of an hour. A little after sunset I saw Sister Polly Wood 
( formerly Miss Polly Merrill). I motioned for her to come to me. I 
could not call her, neither could I stand up. She came and tried to 
lead me back, but I was too weak. She then kneeled down and placed 
her hands on m}' wounds and prayed the Lord to strengthen and 
heal me. I never heard a more powerful prayer. The Lord answered 
her prayer, and I received strength and walked back to Haun's house 
b}' resting three or four times. * * * The mob were all gone, 
and had taken with them all our horses, wagons, cows and all of our 
property of every description, both belonging to our camp and the 
settlement, which numbered a half dozen houses or more. Bro. 
Haun's house escai^ed their ravages, but his horses were taken from 
the stable. I had nothing left but a small trunk ; the contents were 
gone excepting a bottle of consecrated oil, which they had left on the 
ground. Sister Haun and my wife passed the night in dressing the 
wounds and making comfortable, as far as possible, the wounded and 
dying. Their groans and shrieks made the night hideous and hor- 
rible beyond description, and the women were the only ones to ad- 
minister comfort during tht»,t night of desolation and suffering; I 
prevailed on them to sing "Moroni's Lamentation," contained in 
our hymn book. * • * 

A few days after the massacre the mob returned to the mill, and 
ground U[) all the lirethren's grain in that region of country. They 
numbered about 100, and remained about a month, killing hogs, rob- 
bing l)ee stands and hen houses. I and my family suffered much for 
food. At the end of six weeks I began to get around a little, and was 
again fired upon by a mol) of 14. I escaped into the woods unhurt. 

About the first of February I and three or four of the brethren left 
for Illinois, locating near Lima. The next fall I gathered with the 
Saints ;it Nauvoo. In September, 1842, my wife died from injuries 
and hardships received and endured at Haun's Mill, and during the 
Missouri persecution. 

Nathan Kinsman Knight. 


John D. Lee states that many of the ivonnded Mormons were thrown 
into the well, and that some who were taken out afterwards recovered ; 
but this is wholly untrue, although Lee says that his information was 
obtained from David Lewis, Tarleton Lewis, Isaac Laney and Wm. 
Laney; they were all Kentuckians, and were in the fight. Isaac Laney 
was shot seven times and had 13 ball holes in his person ; five shots 
were in his chest. After being thus frightfully wounded he ran 300 
yards to a cabin, where a woman gave him shelter. She raised a loose 
plank or puncheon in the cabin floor and he crawled beneath the floor 
and then she replaced the plank. In two hours the militia had left, 
and Laney was taken out, anointed with oil and prayed over. He 
said the pain left him, and for two weeks he did not suffer at all. He 
then took cold and his wounded hip pained him, but another applica- 
tion of prayer relieved him. Lee says : "I heard Laney declare this 
to be a fact. I saw him four weeks after the massacre and examined 
his person." 

Mr. Chas. Ross says a Mormon named Huntsman was one of the 
killed, but the Mormon records do not contain his name, and Mr. G. 
Huntsman of Fillmore City, Utah, says that although three of the 
Huntsmans, his ancestors, were at the mill the day of the massacre, 
none of them were hurt. 

Two or three days after the Haun's mill affair, Col. Jennings started 
with his battalion to join the State forces at Far West. His route lay 
through the northern part of Caldwell county. He had not proceeded 
far when he met a messenger who informed him that the Mormons 
there had surrendered, and giving him orders to move to Daviess 
county and join the forces under Gen. Wilson, operating against the 
Mormons at Diamon. The battalion was present at the surrender at 
Diamon, and in a day or so Capt. Comstock's company was ordered 
to Haun's Mill, where it remained in camp some weeks, watching the 
widows and orphans of those slain in the massacre, and taking care 
that no outbreak should occur. 

While in camp at the mill, according to the statements to the writer 
of two members of the company (Robt. White and James Trosper), 
•the militia lived off the country, and " lived fat too." The Mormon 
cattle and hogs had been turned into the fields and were fat and fine, 
the mill furnished plenty of breadstuffs, and there were other articles 
of provisions to be had for the taking. The company remained at the 
mill until peace was entirely restored. 



The Black Hawk War — The " Heatherly War" — Mormon Claims — Dissenting Mor- 
mons — A Land Shark — Reminiscences of an Old Settler — Miscellaneous Inci- 
dents — Two Noted Tragedies of Early Times — Building of the Hannibal and St. 
Joseph Railroad —The "Yankees" — Murder of Samuel Stonum. 


Upon the bresikiiig out of the Black Hawk War, in the summer of 
1832 (see p. 53), there was great alarm and uneasiness among the 
settlers in the Shoal creek country. The alarm was given that the 
Indians were moving down from the Iowa country upon the defense- 
less settlements of Northern Missouri, and it is believed that all of the 
settlers then living in Caldwell got ready at once to leave. Nearly all 
went down to Ray county for shelter and protection. Some took with 
them all their movable property, but a majority fastened up their 
cabins and took only their families and a portion of their stock, 
making occasional return trips to look after their household goods 
and the growing crops in the truck patches. Two or three families 
never returned. Old Jesse Mann's, the first in the county, was one 
of these. He settled in Ray, near Knoxville, and made there his per- 
manent home. 

After remaining in Ray county a week, Jesse M. Mann and his wife 
concluded to brave the supposed dangers and return to their cabin 
home on Shoal creek, so that Mr. Mann could plow his corn and 
attend to his crops generally. They did so, and for more than two 
weeks it is believed they were the only inhabitants of the county. 
During this time the only human beings they saw besides themselves 
were two Indians, hunters, who came to their cabin on one occasion. 
The nearest white people lived fifteen miles distant, in Ray county. 

To the westward, in Clay county. Col. Shubael Allen took a bat- 
talion of volunteers and marched northward nearly to the Iowa line, 
thence eastward to Grand river, scouting the country thoroughly to 
see that no Indians were on the war path in that direction or descend- 
ing upon the settlements in this quarter. No hostiles were encoun- 
tered and Allen soon returned to Liberty. 



During the " Heatherly War " (see History of Livingston County) 
there was really more of uneasiness and alarm in Caldwell county 
than during the Black Hawk War. The lying, sensational reports of 
the Heatherly gang found ready credence among the settlers, and 
many expected a sudden and bloody savage invasion. The Mormons, 
then in the county in considerable numbers, agreed to unite with their 
Gentile neighbors in defending the settlements against the expected 
raid. There was some mustering at Far West and Salem, and quite a 
number of the county militia accompanied Gen. Ben Thompson's 
troops, of Ray and Carroll, on their march into the upper Grand 
river country. 

When the truth was learned, as it was in a few days, the alarm of 
the people was changed to disgust, and their uneasiness to ridicule and 
merriment. A good lesson was learned from the " war," however, 
and thereafter the people were very slow to believe cock-and-bull 
stories about Indian raids, and felt more confidence in their situation 
and fewer fears for their safetv. 


After the departure of the banished Mormons June 10, 1839, the 
population of Caldwell county was considerably increased by the ad- 
vent of parties who had purchased Mormon claims and lands at ridic- 
ulously low prices, and now sought to make out of them all that could 
be made. The Mormons' abandoned cabins were occupied by Gentile 
settlers here and there throughout the county, who in many instances 
completed the improvements on the farms which the Mormons had 
begun. Very many, indeed, were the ♦' Mormon Claims," so-called 
in this county in 1839-40-41. 


Quite a number of those who came to the county with the Mormons 
and as Mormons, abandoned the church while here and became dis- 
senters or "renegades." There were two classes of these. One 
class still embraced the Mormon faith, but refused to be governed by 
the then authorities of the church, and to follow them to Illinois. To 
this class the Whitmers and others belonged. The other class com- 
prised those who renounced entirely both the faith and practices of the 
church, alleging that they had been deluded and deceived, but that 


now their eyes were opened to the true character of Mornionism, 
which they charged to be a humbug upheld and covered over by a few 
unscrupulous men who sought their own temporal and personal wel- 
fare alone. Many of the latter became permanent residents of this 
and other counties, and in time all recollection and knowledge that 
they had once been *' Mormonites " had passed away, especially after 
they themselves had passed away. There are many persons yet in 
this quarter of the State, good orthodox Christians too, who would be 
astonished to learn that their ancestors at one time believed that there 
was one God, and that Joe Smith was His true Prophet. 

Many tracts of land in this county were entered and patents obtained 
by the location of land warrants given to the soldiers of the War of 
1812. Many of these were bought from the soldiers by speculators 
and soki to and located by other parties. The sixteenth section of every 
congressional township was set aside to be sold for the benefit of the 
public school fund, and could only be offered for sale on petition of a 
majority of the inhabitants of said township. The county court had 
jurisdiction over the matter. Some of the sixteenth sections were 
sold prior to 1850. 


A few years after the Mormons had left there came into the eastern 
portion of the county a man named Oliver B. Craig, a Kentuckian, 
from Lexington, who had in his possession a large number of Govern- 
ment patents for land in this county, on which many settlers were living 
in undisputed possession, as they thought. Craig had obtained these 
patents from the Mormons who had originally entered the lands cov- 
ered by them, and many settlers paid him handsomely to secure pos- 
session of the initial and only missing links in their chains of title. 
Others who had deeds of some sort or other from the Mormons whom 
they had bought out, refused to be blackmailed by this sharper, and 
old Charley Ross drew a knife on him and by a fervent promise to cut 
his heart out if he should try to collect a cent from him, induced Mr. 
Craig to forego the attempt. It is said that the land shark was after- 
wards sent to the penitentiarv from Lexinsjtou for horse stealinj;. 

"Smoked titles" came to be known to the people in time, and 
existed even after the Civil War. These were forged and fraudulent 
titles and deeds to lands written on paper which had been held in a 
current of smoke until it turned to a yellowish color, giving it the 
appearance of age. Certain unscrupulous parties ascertained the 
numbers of lands on which they knew parties were residing without 


perfect titles to what they claimed to possess, and forging deeds there- 
to on smoked paper, presented them and demanded either possession 
of the land for which they called or a cash compromise. A profitable 
arrangement for the sharpers was usually elfected. 


Judge John Brown, a resident of the county since 1839, furnishes 
the following reminiscences of early days in Caldwell : — 

My father, Lowden Brown, settled in this county on the last day of 
February, 1839. He located on a tract of new land, two and a half 
miles southwest of where Kingston now stands. He was born in 
Virginia, in 1790; removed to Pulaski county, Ky., in 1817 or 1818, 
and to Lafayette county. Mo., in 1838, where he lived until he came 
to Caldwell, where he purchased 400 acres of land from the Mormons. 

The Mormons entered about all the land that was worth entering, 
and some that was not. There was a cabin on nearly every 40 
acres of timbered land. Those who were not able to buy were fur- 
nished land by the church. They seemed to care for the poor and 
furnished them homes and kept them at work. They did a great deal 
of work, all among themselves, especially in building. There were 
many excellent mechanics among them, but they had not made many 
public improvements. They built one large school-house near Far 
West, which was moved before it was quite finished into the town and 
completed and used as a court-house as long as the county seat was at 
Far West. 

The county seat was removed to Kingston in 1843 and the stakes 
were stuck where the court-house now stands, where then was a little 
field in cultivation about as large as the present public square. All 
around was thick brush. A small road passed east and west a little 
south of the public square, leading from Far West to Salem, two 
miles east of Kingston. 

At this time there but three water mills in the county, all on Shoal 
creek — two in the eastern part of the county (Haun's and White's), 
and one north of Far West (Fugitt's). There was a good horse mill 
north of Far West. It was owned by a Mormon named Gai*dner, 
who stayed here some years after the Mormons left. 

After the Mormons were driven out, this county was settled by 
citizens of various States. Although strangers to each other at first, 
all soon became acquainted, and helped one another as if they all be- 
longed to one family. The settlers labored under many disadvantages. 
Every man invested his money in land. The country was new and 


this land had to be put in cultivation and the people supported from 
it. Very slow proji^ress was made. There was but very little money 
in circuhition ; all had been invested in land. 

Very sfood crops were raised. Wheat was very fine, but it conld 
not be sold for cash; it was hauled to Lexington and bartered for 
groceries. All the money that the farmers seemed to want was enough 
to pay their taxes. Dressed pork was worth $1.25 per hundred 
weight ; milch cows, $10 each; good horses, $40 — all in trade. Those 
were hard times, but the people did not complain and seemed to enjoy 
life. The people had confidence in one another, and every man ad- 
vised and counseled his neighbor for the best — especially how to 
keep out of debt. No property was mortgaged to secure a debt ; a 
simple note of hand was sufficient. 

Taxes were very low — about 25 cents on the $100. There were 
very few men whose taxes amounted to $5. Land was not taxed 
until about 1842. Under the law then, land was not taxed until five 
years after it had been entered. 

The first murder in the county was that of Beatty, by Capt. Saml. 
Bogart, at Far West, in November, 1839. (Mentioned elsewhere.) 

Some of the settlers were Christians, and it was not long after the 
first settlement until preaching was had in their log cabin homes. I 
think the first sermon after the Mormons left was preached in ray 
father's house in June, 1839, by Dr. Rainwater, a local Methodist 
preacher, then of Knoxville, Ray county, and now of St. Louis. 
People came from all parts of the county to the meeting. The next 
year the conference sent a traveling preacher up from Richmond. 
He preached and organized a class at my father's house, and another 
at Far West ; he also preached at the house of Ed. Jones in the 
western part of the county. 

The Old School Baptists held services on Log creek in about 1842, 
and the Methodists had meetings in Kingston as soon as there was a 
suitable house to preach in. I believe that the first church house in 
the county was built by the Presbyterians at Mirabile in 1854 [see 
history of Mirabile township], and the next by the members of the 
M. E. South, at Kingston, in 1860, but the latter was not completed 
until after the close of the war, and was then sold to the Christian 
Church, as there was no class then of the Southern Methodists. 

A minister named Wooster [Worcester?] was killed by lightning 
in Kingston, in about 1848. He lived near the Elk Grove, south of 
Breckinridire. He came into town one Saturdav evening to have his 
large prairie plow mended, and left his buggy standing on the north- 


east corner of the square, and sought shelter from an approaching 
storm in the house, put up by Mr. Doak, the first in the place — still 
standing. He was standing in front of the fireplace, in the east 
room, when a thunderbolt struck the chimney and passing through 
the wall, came down and tore to pieces a clock that stood on the- mantel 
over the fireplace and killed the minister instantly. Some persons 
beheved one of the clock weights struck him and killed him. 


The Presidential campaign of 1840, which was of such general in- 
terest throughout the country, and is yet memorable as the " Log 
Cabin Campaign," was the first through which Caldwell county passed 
after it became a county. There was some excitement among the 
political partisans and a Democratic or Van Buren meeting was held 
at Far West, and addressed bv Hon. Austin A. Kinsj. A small Whigr 
meeting at the same place in the interest of Gen. Harrison, was ad- 
dressed by James H. Birch, as is best remembered. The Democrats 
carried the county by a small majority. 

In 1843 the county seat was removed from Far West to the newly 
laid out capital of the county at Kingston. (See chapter on the 
local history of Kingston.) Commissioner C. J. Hughes attended to 
the sale of lots, the erection of the court-house, etc., in an efiicient 
manner, and no complications or difficulties resulted from imperfect 
conveyances or illegal action. The population of the county at this 
time was less than 2,000, and of course but little public business was 
transacted. In 1840 the total population was but 1,458. 

Militia musters formed interesting episodes in the life of the people 
up to the repeal of the militia law in 1846. The able-bodied male 
population of the county between the ages of 18 and 45 constituted 
the militia. This force, according to its numbers, was divided into 
companies, battalions^ regiments, brigades and divisions. Sixty men 
made a company, three companies a battalion, two battalions a regiment , 
and certain counties comprised a brigade or division district. Some 
counties had two or more regiments ; Caldwell had but one. Of this 
Col. Thos. N. O. Butts was colonel ; he was elected by his regiment 
and commissioned by the Governor. 

Under the law the militia were required to meet at stated times for 
drill and instruction. The members who absented themselves with- 
out good excuse were liable to fine and imprisonment. The first bat- 
talion musters were held at Salem, in 1841. Regimental musters were 
held on the ground where Bonanza now is and at Kingston. 


In 1844 the first t;ix sales were held in the county. Prior to this 
time they had been at Jefferson City. The change was of great 
convenience to the people. 

During the Mexican War but few men from this county enlisted 
and their names are not now recalled. In the eastern part of the 
county an attempt was made at one time to form a company, but 
soon abandoned. Two or three men from that quarter joined Capt. 
Slack's company of Livingston. ( See History of Livingston county. ) 

But the Mexican War made a market for some of the products of 
the county, and the ill wind that raised the war clouds blew some- 
thing of good to the people. Horses and the corn to feed them were 
in demand at Ft. Leavenworth, the chief depot of the Army of the 
West. Bacon and flour for the soldiers were wanted, and nearly all 
of the farmers of Northwest Missouri had somethinof of the kind to 
sell and disposed of it at good prices. Leavenworth was a nearer and 
better market then than St. Louis, for the Government uniformly 
paid gold and silver for what it purchased. 

Upon the breaking out of the California "gold fever" in 1849, 
many of the people of this county caught the infection and were 
♦• carried off " by it. In nearly every neighborhood in the county 
there were victims, although many were not seized with the fever 
until the following vear. It is estimated that during the years 1849 
and 1850 more than 100 men left the county for California. Some 
took the northern route crossing the river at St Joseph ; others 
crossed at Weston and Leavenworth. 


The first homicide in the county after the departure of the 
Mormons was the killing of a man named Beatty, by Capt. 
Samuel Bogart, at Far West, in November, 1839. Capt. Bogart 
was the same who commanded a Ray county company in the 
Mormon war, and is mentioned elsewhere. At the time of the 
killing of Beatty, however, he lived four miles west of Kingston, 
south of Goose creek, on a farm which came down to the Plattsl)urg 
road. His house was nearly a mile north of the road. Beatty was a 
young man, and a nephew of Wesley Hines, between whom and 
Bogart there was a quarrel. 

On the day of the homicide there was a special election in the 
county to fill a vacancy which had occurred in the county court. 
Capt. Bogart was a candidate, and was that day elected. Far West 
was a voting place, and the Captain was present, as was Beatty. The 


latter took up the quarrel of his uncle, and accosted Bogart, and the 
two were quarrelhig when Beatty advanced upon Bogart in a threat- 
ening manner. "Stand back," demanded Bogart, "and don't press 
me." Turning to a Mr. Walters, he said: "Walters, take notice 
that I have warned him not to press me." Beatty continued to 
advance, when Bogart, quick as a flash, jerked out a single-barreled 
pistol and shot him dead. 

Immediately afterward Capt. Bogart left for his home. Selecting 
his best horse he set out at once in an attempt to leave the country 
and escape the penalty of the law, of which he seemed greatly afraid. 
Striking southward he rode in the direction of Richmond. It was a 
rainy season, and all the streams were bank full. Reachino- Crooked 
river, at Dale's mill, after nightfall, he found the stream " booming " 
high, but dismounting he drove his horse into the water, and seizing 
its tail was towed across in safety. Arriving at Richmond he called 
up Wiley C. Williams and informed him he was on his way to the land 
office at Lexington to enter a very valuable tract of land in this 
county ; that other parties wanted the same land, and would start for 
the land office the next morning to enter it, and he must go ahead of 
them, and that was the reason why he stood before them, all wet and 
dripping and splashed with mud, and the reason he had called him up 
at so late an hour was that he wanted to borrow $200 in gold to enter 
his land. The money was given him, and again he sped away into the 
night, taking the road to Lexington. Reaching the river he roused 
the ferryman, and telling him the land story prevailed on him, hy 
paying him a $20 gold piece, not only to ferry him across the 
river immediately, but to keep his boat on the south side until 
nearly noon the next day, and on no account to cross any person or 
persons from the north bank until that time. 

Capt. Bogart's cunning but plausible story and his good horse 
carried him out of danger, and he made his way in safety to that 
haven of refuge for fugitive criminals in those days — the new Re- 
public of Texas — where he attained considerable prominence aft- 
erward, making the country his permanent home. He sent for his 
family and sold out his property in Caldwell, paid all his debts, and 
lived a reputable life ever afterward. He was indicted for the murder 
by thegrand jury atFar West not long after its perpetration, but never 


In 1847 occurred the murder of a citizen of the count}'^ named 
Oster, who lived in what is now Fairview township, half a mile 



northeast of Elk Grove. He was killed by his soii-in-law, Wm. Tay- 
lor, who was assisted by his father, younger brother, and Henry Gist. 

Wm. Taylor had married Oster's daughter, and the couple had 
afterward separated, owing, it is said, to Taylor's ill-treatment of his 
wife, who had returned with her one child to her father's. The Tay- 
lors lived in Gentry county. Wm. Taylor had tried repeatedly to get 
possession of the child then in custody of its mother. At last, one 
Sunday, when the old man Oster and the most of the older members 
of his family were at church at Elk Grove, he and his father and brother 
and Gist raided upon the premises and, after some controversy and 
strugHing, succeeded in getting possession of the child. 

The alarm was given by one of the younger members of the family, 
and Mr. Oster ran home before the kidnapers had left. In some 
sort of encounter Taylor shot his father-in-law down and rode away, 
bearing the child before him on ahorse. Meeting some parties in the 
road, he coolly informed them that he had killed " old Oster as dead 
as a nit," and did not want " any more trouble about it, either ! " 

All four of the kidnapers were arrested. Wm. Taylor, the principal, 
was confined in the Buchanan county jail, but escaped therefrom and 
was never recaptured. Henry Gist burned off the jail door at Platts- 
burg, where he was confined, came home and was not rearrested, or 
at least not tried or reimprisoned. Old man Taylor was tried, con- 
victed, sentenced to the penitentiary for two years, but pardoned 
out; the younger Taylor was not tried, the case against him being 


The building of the Hannibal and St. Joseph Railroad through the 
county, from east to west, in the year 1858, was an event of much 
importance and consequence to our people. It not onl}'^ put them in 
communication with the outside world, but it raised the value of their 
lands, enhanced that of others, and caused to be built four new towns, 
whose existence is of so much advantage to the county to-day, and 
will be for all time. Thousands of people were brought in by the 
road, new homes were made, and it may truthfully be said that Cald- 
well county dates the beginning of her really prosperous career from 
the completion of the Hannibal and St. Joe Railroad. 

At first it was contemplated to bnild the road through the county by 
way of Kingston, and in such event the county court promised to 
make a subscription to the stock of the road, amounting to $50,000. 
A survey was made up Shoal creek, but it is not probable that the 


authorities of the road ever seriously contemphited building it along 
that line. But there was one compensation for the building of the 
road through the northern part of the county — there was no large 
public subscription to pay. The only subscriptions were private, and 
there were not many of these. The lands granted the road along the 
line in this county, and the average ease with which the road-bed was 
constructed, compensated the management for the location. The 
private subscriptions did not aggregate a very large sum, for at that 
dav the people had but moderate means, and there were not many 
people either. 

As there was no public subscription in Caldwell to the railroad, there 
was no tedious and expensive litigation over disputed bonds, no break- 
ing of the public faith, and no fraud or robbery on the part of the 


After the building of the railroad, settlers came in, as stated, very 
rapidly. The majority were from the Northern or Eastern States, and 
were for the most part thrifty, intelligent and enterprising. These 
did not confine themselves to any particular portion, but chose loca- 
tions everywhere. They were especially numerous in the eastern part 
of the county, and in the northwestern. They brought with them 
their native " Yankee " industry and tact, and did much towards the 
development of the county, and inlaying the foundations of its present 

In 1844 Hon. George Smith had removed from Ohio to the western 
part of the county and purchased a large tract of land, on which he 
lived for 24 years. He brought with him 1,100 head of sheep, the 
first large flock which had crossed the Mississippi into the State, 
He was, therefore, the pioneer wool grower of Missouri, a fact of 
which he was always justly proud. Through his influence a large 
number of other Ohioans became citizens of this county. 

Mr. Smith became one of the prominent citizens of the county, 
and indeed of Missouri. In 1864 he was elected Lieutenant-Gov- 
ernor. The county was always proud of him, and he did much for 
its interest and for the general welfare of his neighbors. He removed 
to Cameron in 1868, and there died a few years since. 


January 14, 1854, Saml. Stonum, a resident of the northern part 
of Kockford township, was assassinated near his home and died eight 


days later. Before his death he accused one Nathaniel Lindsay of 
the murder, and thereupon he was arrested. It seemed that Stonuni 
was at work in the woods eniraged in chopping, when a man who, he 
declared, was Lindsay crept upon him and shot him with a rifle. 
Eventually Lindsay was admitted to bail and fled the country. When 
he had been absent a year or two his bondsmen attempted to have 
themselves released from liability on his bonds by proving that he was 
dead, but the jur}'^ disagreed. When the court-house was burned, in 
1860, all the papers in the case were destroyed, and no further pro- 
ceedings were commenced against him at the time. 

In June, 1804, Lindsay returned and was arrested at the residence 
of his father, a mile and a half west of Kidder, by Maj. Abe Allen, 
of Ray, Capts. Streater and Chapman, Lieut. G. AY. Ray, Rueben 
Spevy and Mr. Betts. He was brought to Kingston and on examina- 
tion before Justices Falker, McGlothlin and Cormana, was discharged. 
Capt. S. M. Davis and E. S. Estel) were the attorneys for the prose- 
cution and J. M. Hoskinson and Capt. H. J. Chapman defended the 
prisoner. The prosecution ofi'ered in evidence the dying declarations 
of Stonum as remembered by certain persons; but as these declara- 
tions had been reduced to writing and afterward the writing destroyed, 
the defense objected to their introduction on the ground that they 
could not be proved by parol testimonj^ and the magistrates refused 
to receive them. The State also off'ered in evidence the record of 
proceedings of a former examination before a justice of the peace, but 
this was also objected to and the objection sustained. No further 
evidence being offered the prisoner was discharged. 

Lindsay claimed he was not guilty, and stated that at the time the 
shooting was done he was a mile or more away from the scene. It is 
said that some time after his discharge he was cither sun-struck or 
killed by a thunderbolt as he was riding on the public road. 



The Elections of 1860 — Election of Delegates to the State Convention of 1861 — 'fhe 
Caldwell County Beacon — Beginning of the Civil War — Secession Flags — Col. 
Jeff. Thompson's "Order No. 1."— The "Caldwell Minute Men" — The Union 
Home Guards — Their Part in the Battle of Blue Mills Landing — Roll of Capt. 
Johnson's Company of Home Guards — Mulligan's Men — Maj. James' Fifth Bat- 
talion — The " Cornstalk Fight " — A Rebel Raid from Ray — Killing of Judge James 
Steele. 1862 — Organization of Col. Catherwood's 6th Cavalry, M. S. M. — The 
Enrolled Militia — During the Poindexter Raid — The Tragedies on the Crab 
Apple — Killing of Capt. S. M. Longford by the Rebels, and of Four "Rebel Sym- 
pathizers," Three Out of One Family, by the Militia — House Burning, etc. — The 
Meaning of Civil War. 


At the August election, 1860, in this county the vote stood as be- 
low recorded. There were then five townships, viz : Blythe, Rocktbrd, 
Davis, Grand River and Elm. 

Governor — Sample Orr, Bell-Everett, 364; C. F. Jackson, Doug- 
las Democrat, 325 ; Hancock Jackson, Breckinridge Democrat, 18 ; 
James B. Gardenhire, Republican, 21. 

Congress — E. H. Norton, of Platte, Democrat, 409 ; John Scott, 
of Buchanan, Bell-Everett, 391 ; H. B. Branch, Republican, 1. 

Representatives — W. S. Pollard, Bell-Everett, 462; Charles J. 
Hughes, Democrat, 390. 

Sheriff — R. G. Murray, Democrat, 431; John C. LiHard, Bell- 
Everett, 424. 

County Clerk — Ed. Ennis, Democrat, 424; Lemuel Dunn, Bell- 
Everett, 418. 

There were quite a number of Republicans in the county, but only 
a few of them, comparatively, voted the ticket representing their 
real principles. The majority voted for Sample Orr, the Bell and 
Everett, or Union nominee, regarding him as the candidate most likely 
to defeat Claiborne F. Jackson, whose election they ardently desired 
to prevent. 

At the Presidential election in November, the vote in Caldwell re- 
sulted as follows: For Bell and Everett, 367 ; Douglas and Johnson, 
263 ; Breckinridge and Lane, 186 ; Lincoln and Hamlin, 43. Al- 
though not all the Republicans in the county had voted, enough had 



(lone so to make it evident that there was a considerable Free Soil 
element here. As many had voted for Orr for Governor to defeat 
Jackson, so many had voted for Bell to prevent Douglas from carry- 
ing the State. But it was also true that many Democrats, not only 
in this county but throughout the State, and even throughout the 
Southern States, voted for Bell in order to defeat Lincoln ! 


Except during the special election February 18, 1861, to choose 
delegates to the State Convention, no very important political inci- 
dents occurred in this county between the Presidential election and 
the firing on Ft. Sumter. In this district, composed of Clinton, 
Caldwell, Ray and Carroll counties, there was only one secession can- 
didate, Rev. Augustus H. F. Pavne,^ of Clinton. The four other 
candidates, James H. Birch, of Clinton, p]x-Gov. A. A. King and 
Geo. "W. Dunn, of Ray, and R. D. Ray, of Carroll, were all uncon- 
ditional Union, men. Upon these candidates the vote in Caldwell 
stood : R. D. Ray, 577; Austin A. King, 503 ; Geo. "W. Dunn, 501; 
J. H. Birch, 404; A. H. F. Payne, 124. The vote indicates the 
overwhelming sentiment in the county at the time in favor of the 
Union, a sentiment, too, that never changed. 

Messrs. Birch, Dunn, and Ray, who were the successful candidates 
to the convention, acted throughout their experience with the conser- 
vative Union men, opposing secession in any form, and rejecting 
abolition in every guise. 


In October, 1860, the first newspaper in the county, the Caldwell 
County Beacon, Avas established at Kingston. Wilbur F. Boggs was 
editor. The paper was Democratic in politics, and on the outbreak 
of the war was secession in sentiments. Prior to the firing on Sum- 
ter, however, it had 1)een conservative, but its editor and those con- 
trolling the policy of the paper were understood to be secessionists. 
It excited what influence it had in favor of the Southern cause, and 
being the only paper published in the county, and the only paper read 
by many, it of course contributed something to the formation of pub- 
lic opinion. 

"When war had actually broken out the peoi)le were quite well pre- 
pared to take sides. The Union men, or •' sul)missionists," as their 

1 Killed in the spring of 1863, in Platte county, by Federal militia. 


enemies called them, were largely in the majority, and were cool and 
determined. The Secessionists made up in spirit and demonstration 
what they lacked in numbers. The Beacon newspaper was stoutly in 
favor of " arming to resist the despot Lincoln," and every issue teemed 
with editorials bustling and bristling. The number for May 3 con- 
cluded a spirited " leader " as follows : — 

In the name of their honor, their chivalry, their devotion to justice, 
and, if incorrigible upon these points, in the name of t\\e\v self-interest, 
which will arouse even Black Republicans to battle, we appeal to Mis- 
sourians whether they will lie supinely upon their backs crying " peace, 
peace," while the instruments, the grappling ^Vows of their destruction 
and degradation, are being fixed upon them? Or will they rather, as 
freemen, men who cherish the principles fought for and obtained by 
their Revolutionary sires, say to the negro-loving autocrat, who dis- 
graces and pollutes the helm of State, that although they are devoted 
to the Union, and are willing to make sacrifices (pecuniary) for the 
perpetuity of this glorious experiment of self-governuient, yet they 
will not be trodden under the feet or made the tool of a Black Repub- 
lican military tyrant. That they will not stand with their arms folded 
and see their commerce destroyed, their prosperity retarded, and their 
notions of decency and propriety insulted by the quartering of an 
army of abolition, negro thieving, subjugating, mercenary troops in 
their midst, although it is done in the hallowed name and for the pro- 
fessed protection of the Union . Missourians have but to act as becomes 
men to be free, but by inaction they loill become what they would 
then deserve to be — slaves! 


In May, a pole bearing a secession flag was raised in Breckinridge, under 
the auspices of the " Breckinridge Guards," a Secession company com- 
manded by Capt. E. R. A. Stewart, G. W. Withers, and perhaps others ; 
and Miss Sallie Napier, on behalf of the ladies, made a spirited address, 
calling on the men of the community to rally in defense of their homes 
against " the Lincoln invaders." But when the Federal troops came 
a Mr. McWilliams, himself a Secessionist, cut down the pole, and the 
flas was secreted. In the summer of 1864 the militia officers forced 
some of the citizens of the town of Confederate sympathies to dig up 
the stump of the pole and cast it away. 

JEFF. Thompson's order. 

The authorities of the State being in sympathy with the rebellion, 
and — it is but the truth to say it — preparing for secession, the Union 
people were placed at a disadvantage. They could not organize regu- 


larly and legally under the State laws and orders of the Executive 
unless they placed themselves in an attitude of hostility to the General 
Government. Prior to the convening of the special session of the 
Legislature Gov. Jackson had ordered the militia of the State into 
encampments " to attain a greater degree of efficiency and perfection 
in organization and discipline," and on the 23d of April Col. M. Jeff. 
Thompson, then inspector for this military district (the Fourth), is- 
sued the following order: — 


St. Joseph, Mo., April 23, 18(U. 
To the People of the Foiirth MiUtury District of Missouri, Atchison, 

ITodaivay, Worth, Gentry, Harrison, Daviess, DeKalh, A)ulrew, 

Holt, Buchanan, Clinton, Caldwell, Platte, Ray and Clay 

Counties : 

Fellow Citizens — Through the dark and troublous times which 
now overshadow our country it is necessary, if we desire to live as 
freemen and maintain our rights, that the most perfect order, account- 
ability and discipline that can possibly be maintained under the circum- 
stances should 1)0 observed. Therefore, 

1. Do not act from misguided impulse or on partial information, 
for there are statesmen and soldiers guarding your interests. 

2. While you exercise untiring energy and display eternal vigilance, 
let your actions be guarded by dignity, prudence and chivalry. 

3. All information must be sent to and received from the head- 
quarters of this district, at St. Joseph, through Maj. F. M. Smith, 
commanding 1st battalion, except when otherwise ordered from the 
quartermaster at Jefterson City, Mo. By these means system, effici- 
ency and safety, so much to be desired, can be obtained. 

4. It is requested that your colors be for the present a plain white 
flag, with the coat of arms of Missouri emblazoned thereon, and we 
can hereafter paint as many stripes as we please with the blood of our 
invaders. [ !] 

5. All in my district who desire to outer into the legally constituted 
military organization of Missouri will find me ever at their call night 
and day to muster them into the service of the State, and no other 
organization should be encouniged. 

6. It is particularly desired that infantry and rifle companies should 
be formed. 

M. Jeff. Thompson, 
Colonel and Inspector of the Fourth Mil. Dist, of Mo. 


In the latter part of April a company of Secessionists was formed in 
the county and called the " Caldwell Minute Men," S. T. Bassett 
was captain and A. A. Rial orderly sergeant. The members were 


IVom difteietit portions of the county, but only a few were from the 
western or southwestern part. In a few days the following notice in 
writing was posted in Kingston and elsewhere, and published in the 
Beacon: — 


The Caldwell Minute Men are hereby ordered to rendezvous at King- 
ston on Saturday, the 4th day of May, 1861, at 1 o'clock, for the 
purpose of completing the organization of said company, and to trans- 
act other important business. Every one being requested to bring 
whatever arms they have. 

A. A. KiAL, O. S. 

Done by order of the Captain. 

This company numbered about 75 men, and met frequently in King- 
ston for drill. Hon. Chas. J. Hughes was an active promoter of the 
interests of the company, and frequently addressed it and his fellow- 
citizens generally in aid of the Secession cause. The company eventu- 
ally became the Caldwell Light Infantry, and rendered efficient service 
in Gen. Price's army. 

The first officers of the company were : Dr. Samuel T. Bassett, 
captain ; G. W. Withers, John Burroughs and Wilbur F. Boggs, 
lieutenants. After its muster-in in the State service it became Co. D 
of Col. John T. Hughes' regiment, and though belonging in Gen. 
Stein's division was attached to and did service in Gen. Slack's.^ 
Mr. Harpold was orderly sergeant at the time. Near the middle 
of June the company, about 65 strong, left the county, obedient to the 
orders of Gov. Jackson, and marched to Lexington, where it was 
regularly organized and mustered into the Missouri State Guards. 
Leaving Lexington the command proceeded to Southwest Missouri 
under Gen. Price. The Caldwell company took part in the battles of 
Carthage, Wilson's Creek and Lexington. At Wilson's Creek it had 
five men severely wounded. A few days before the Carthage fight 
Capt. Bassett was promoted to be surgeon of the regiment, and David 
Thompson, who had hitherto been a private in the ranks, was chosen 
to the captaincy. After the capture of Mulligan at Lexington Lieuts. 
Burroughs and Boggs left the army and came home. The lieutenants 
then were George W. Withers and John George. 

Upon the expiration of their six months' term of service in the 
Missouri State Guard, nearly all the members of the Caldwell com- 

1 Johnson's Atlas sketch says there were two companies from this county in the 
Confederate service ; but this is a mistake. "Thompson's and Witliers' companies," 
referred to by Johnson, were one and the same. 


pany re-cnlisted, this time in the Confederate service. Some Daviess 
and Livingston county men joined the company, which was Co. 
H, 2d Missouri infantr}^ C. S. A. Capt. David Thompson was 
contiuucd as company commander, and Withers and George were the 
lieutenants. Ben H. Rives, of Ray county, was colonel of the regi- 
ment, and was killed at Pea Ridge, where fell also Lieut. John George, 
of the Caldwell company. The company went east of the Mississippi 
with Gen. Price and was at the siege and battle of Corinth, Miss., 
and in the Vicksburg campaign. It was captured with Pemberton's 
army at the fall of Vicksburg, and all but a few of its members were 
sent to a parole camp at Demopolis, Ala., until they were exchanged. 
John Whitcneck was killed in the siege of Vicksburg. Capt. Thomp- 
son left his company at Tupelo, Miss., in the summer of 1862, came 
back to Caldwell on recruiting service, was captured by the militia, 
and never was in active service agaiu. The company continued until 
the close of the war, in Gens. Johnson's and Hood's department, 
east of the Mississippi. 

The Union men of the county organized a little after their Seces- 
sion neighbors. On the 15th of June there was a large Union meet- 
ing held in Kingston. The stars and stripes were raised and 
heartily cheered, and Hon. James H. Birch delivered a spirited and 
earnest Union speech. While the Union men were organizing a com- 
pany of Home Guards, Capt. Bassett's Secession company was drilling 
in the eastern part of the town. 

The next day there was quite a scare among the Secessionists at 
Kingston and in the vicinity. A report was brought to the county 
seat that the Federal troops had landed from the cars at Hamilton, 
and were marching southward, making prisoners or killing all the 
'•secesh" citizens they encountered. The secession headquarters 
were at the store of Woodson & Ardinger, on the southwest corner of 
the square, and to this point ex-Sheriff John C. Myers, a leading 
Secessionist suddenly dashed up from the northwest and warned his 
friends to 1\y from the dreadful foe, who, he said, to the number of 
1,500 were marching rapidh^ on Kingston. Capt. Bassett, Lieut. W. 
F. Boggs, and other members of the " Caldwell Light Infantry," in- 
continently fled, as did Hon. C. J. Hughes, Rev. Hughes and other 
citizens of Secession proclivities. Mr. Hawkins Green was stationed on 
top of the court-house as a lookout or watchman, and discovering a cloud 
of dust to the northward he thought it denoted the Federal advance, 
and ac<;ordingly gave an alarm, *' they are coming," when some very 
ludicrous and ungraceful scenes were enacted by the anti-Unionists. 


Afterward it was learned that the alarm was oecasioned by the pas- 
sage through the county of a company of Secession troops from 
Daviess county on their way to join Gen. Price's and Gov. Jackson's 
army at Lexington. The company crossed the railroad west of Ham- 
ilton and passed through west of Kingston. 

The fugitives did not return until the next day. Capt. Bassett's 
company, or a portion of it, rendezvoused at Berry Diddle's still- 
house, on Shoal creek, a few miles southeast of Kingston, and soon 
after set out to join Gov. Jackson's nrmy at Lexington. Of course 
the alarm was false and the stampede unnecessary, but perhaps the 
Caldwell Light Infantry did as well to leave then as any other time, 
since the county was now under complete control of the Unionists, 
and Federal troops had appeared at Breckinridge, Hamilton and 


In June, 1861, contemporaneous with the organization of the '* Cald- 
well Light Infantry," two companies of Union Home Guards were 
formed in this county. Although they were called "home guards," 
it was not expected that their services would all be rendered at home, 
or in guarding their own homes literally ; they were willing to go 
where they would do the most good. Both of these companies were 
organized in the vicinity of Mirabile, but their members were from 
various sections of the county. These companies were commanded by 
E. D. Johnson and Moses Lee James. The former was an infantry 
company and was armed by the government with good Springfield 
muskets. The two companies were among the very earliest to enroll 
themselves on the side of the Union in Northwest Missouri. 

Capt. James' company was organized by authority of Col. Pea- 
body, then of the 13th Missouri infantry (afterward the 25th Mis- 
souri), and the authority and organization were afterward recognized 
by Gen. Pope and Hurlbut. It was mounted and did duty as cav- 
Iry. Reporting at Cameron in July, the Home Guards were assigned 
to duty along the line of the H. & St. Jo. Railroad. 

James' company numbered 56 men. Its officers were M. L. James, 
captain : John G. Quinn and Isaac N. Henry, lieutenants, and M. R. 
Streeter, orderly sergeant. It remained in the Home Guard service 
until September 24, 1861, when it was regularly mustered into what 
Avas known as James' battalion of Missouri militia — six months' men. 



The most important incident in the experience of the Caldwell 
County Home Guards was their participation in the battle of Blue 
Mills Landing, on the Missouri river in Clay county, September 17. 
A brief description of the part taken in that engagement by the troops 
from this county may be of interest. 

About the 1st of September Gen. Price, at the head of his army of 
10,000 men, set out from Springfield for the Missouri river, in order 
that certain bodies of recruits in the northern part of the State might 
be able to join him. Tii Northeast Missouri were 2,500 men of Gen. 
Harris' division, under Gen. Harris himself, and in Northwest Mis- 
souri were 4,000 belonging to Gen. Stein's aud Gen. Slack's divisons, 
under Col. J. P. Saunders and others. On the 12th of September, 
Gen. Price reached the Missouri at Lexington, where was a Federal 
garrison of 2,800 men under Col. James A. Mulligan, and immediately 
sent out messengers to hurry forward his recruits from the north side 
of the river. This was September 12, and on the 15th the Secession 
troops in Northwest Missouri united near St. Joseph and set out at 
once for Lexington. 

All told the Northwest Missourians numbered auout 3,500, as fol- 
lows : From the Fifth Military District (Gen. Stein's) there were five 
regiments of infantry, under Col, J. P. Saunders, one regiment of 
cavalry, under Col. Wilfley, andCapt. E. V. Kelly's battery, of three 
six-pounder guns ; from the Fourth District (Gen. Slack's) there were 
five regiments of infantry, under Col. Jeff, Patton, anil one battalion 
of cavalry, under Col. Childs. 

At this time Federal troops were stationed at Cameron and at the 
railroad bridge across Platte river. At Cameron were the 3d Iowa 
infantry, Lieut. Col. John Scott, and four companies of Missouri 
Home Guards, one from Adair county, one from Macon, and two 
from Caldwell county — Capt. James' and Capt. Johnson's. All the 
troops at Cameron were infantry, except Capt. James' company, 
which was mounted and used as advance iruard and for scoutini;. At 
Platte river bridge were the 16th Illinois infantr}', some companies of 
the 39th Ohio, and some Home Guards. 

Learning of the movement of the Northwest Missourians towards 
Gen. Price's army. Gen. Pope, then in command of all the Federal 
troops in North Missouri, determined to intercept them if possible. 
Pursuant to his orders, therefore, Col. Smith set out from Platte 


river bridge, and Col. Scott from Cameron, with instructions to unite 
at Liberty in advance of the Secession troops and stop their further 
progress toward Lexington. 

Col. Scott took with him, besides his own regiment, the four home 
guard companies, including the two from Caldwell and one piece of 
artillery. Capt. Johnson's company marched on foot, but Capt. 
James', being well mounted, had the advance, and did the scouting 
and courier duty. The march was a swift one, and withal very fati- 
guing. The last ten miles were accomplished between midnight and 
daybreak. Arriving at Liberty it was learned that the rebel troops 
had passed through the town the evening before, and that they were 
then engaged in crossing the river at Blue Mills Landing, some four 
miles distant. 

Col. Smith had not reached Liberty and Col. Scott was in some- 
thing of a quandary. His force was very inferior to that of the 
rebels, and he feared the result of an attack with the force under his 
immediate command. Scott was a Kentuckian and had seen service 
in the Mexican war. He sent off one after another, a dozen messen- 
gers to Smith to hurry him up, for the rebels were fast escaping to 
the south side of the river. 

At last, however. Col. Scott sent down about twenty men of Capt. 
James' company, under Lieut. James Call, of the 3d Iowa, to " feel 
the enemy." The rebel commander. Col. Saunders, had posted on 
the road from the river to Liberty Col. Childs' battalion of 300 men, 
to protect and guard his rear, while the rest of his command were 
crossing, and these were in ambush. Nearing the rebel position Lieut. 
Call was warned by at least one citizen of his danger, but he con- 
tinued to press on. The road was narrow and there were heavy tim- 
ber and dense thickets on both sides. Suddenly about 100 shots were 
poured into the company by the rebels, some of whom were concealed 
under a bridge. Five Caldwell county men were shot clean out of 
their saddles, four of them being killed instantly and the other desper- 
ately wounded. The remainder of the squad, under Lieut. Call, 
hastily retreated. The four men killed were Linus Miller, Daniel 
Strope, John Smith and James Bogan ; the wounded man was Wm. O. 
Dodge, who is still a partial cripple, and the present driver and pro- 
prietor of the Hamilton and Kingston hack line. 

Col. Scott now marched the remainder of his command down to 
deliver battle to the rebels, hoping that in the meantime Col. Smith 
would come up. Johnson's company of Caldwell Home Guards was 
present, led by its captain. The Federals attacked the rebels in am- 


bush and c(»nce:ilmont, and after a spirited little tight were repulsed 
with a loss of 10 killed outrij^ht ' and 75 or more wounded. Amonof 
the latter were Capt. E. D. Johnson and a member of his company 
named Whitfield Early. The rebels lost 3 killed and 18 wounded. 
The odds were greatly in favor of the rel)els, -as they were well and 
strongly posted behind a deep ditch, fallen trees, standing trees, and 
other obstacles, and while they had a good view of their enemies they 
themselves could not be seen. 

The Federals fell back to Liberty where they met Col. Smith, who 
had just come up. The next day Col. Scott with his command re- 
turned to Cameron, where the Caldwell Home Guards were a week 
later mustered out, a number re-entering the service in James' bat- 
talion of six months' men. The four men killed at Blue Mills Landing 
wereburiedat Liberty in the cemetery north of William Jewell College 


The date of the enlistment of all the members of this company is 
June 18, 1861, and the place of enrollment Mirabile. 


Captain, E. D. Johnson, disch. 

Oct. 12; 

1st Lieut., Wm. Crawford, left Lee Ballenger, dis. Oct. 12 ; 

serv. Sept. 13; Martin Brooks, dis. Oct. 12; 

2d Lieut., Wm. Partin, left serv. Thos. Brown, dis. Oct. 12; 

Aug. 20 ; John Brown, quit serv. Sept. 1 ; 

1st Sergt., Thos. K. Smith, left James H. Browning, quit serv. 

serv. Sept. 3; Sept. 12; 

2d Sergt., Dempsev B. Wyatt, Wm. H. Cross, quit serv. Sept. 12 ; 

disch. Oct. 12 : ' David E. Cross, dis. Oct. 12 ; 

3d Sergt., Rol)t. F. Johnson, John A. Cross, dis. Oct. 12; 

disch. Oct. 12; James Church, dis. Oct. 12; 

4th Sergt., Whitfield Early, Albert J. Clampitt, dis. Oct. 12; 

disch. Oct. 12 ;'* Alonzo Carr, quit serv. Sept. 1 ; 

1st Corpl., eT. Q. A. Kemper, quit James A. Cochran, dis. Oct. 12; 

service July 18 ; Wm. B. Cochran, quit serv. Sept. 
2d Corpl., Robt. Grant, disch. 12; 

Oct. 12 ; Anderson Creason,serv'd 1 month : 

3d Corpl., Ashley W. Holland, Joshua A. Carver, served 1 month ; 

disch. Oct. 12; Wm. Crouse, served 1 month; 

4th Corpl., Wm. Clifton, disch. Matthias Crouse, qt. ser. Sept. 12 

Oct. 12 ; Theodore Dudley, qt. ser. Sept. 12 

Musicians, Wm. Shurtz, quit serv. Patrick Denneen, serv'd 1 month 

Sept. 12; Noah Frederick, John N. Early, dis. Oct. 12 ; 

quit serv. Sept. 1 ; Wm. M. Early, dis. Oct. 12; 

1 Besides the 4 of Capt. James' company killed previously. 

2 Wounded at Blue Mills, and finally died from the effect of his wounds. 


John T. Green, quit serv. Sei)t. 1 ; John P. Reynolds, 

Wm. H. Green, qt. serv. Sept. 13 ; John Renfrew, 

Van Henry Grove, dis. Oct. 12 ; Wm. Spivey, Jr., 

Wm. L. Grunt, quit serv. Sept. 1 ; Reuh. M. Spivey, 

Geo. W. Gnint, dis. Oct. 12; Geo. F. Suckman, 

John C.HolUind, left ser. Sept. 12 ; Andrew J. Seeley, 

A. F. Hatchings, left ser. Aug. 1 ; Aaron H. Sloan, 

Geo. Henderson, left ser. Sept. 13; James G. Sloan, 

Wm. S. Henry, left ser. July 18; John Smith, 

Jas.Hockenberry, s'rv'd 1 month; Warren A. Smith, 

John Lockhart, dis. Oct. 12; Geo. Smith, Jr., 

Aurelius S. Love, serv'd 1 month ; Martin Shriver, 

Geo. W. Latimer, left ser. Aug. 1 ; Stephen D. Sloan, 

John Miller, dis. Oct. 12 ; Samuel H. Sturgis, 

Stewart B. McCord, dis. Oct. 12; Seymour R. Scovil, 

Joel McLaughlin, serv'd 2m'ths; Franklin Swigart, 

Martin W. Moore, dis. Oct. 12 ; James M. Vaughn, 

Daniel Martin, John S. Wyatt'', 

Samuel Montgomery, Greenup B. Wilhoit, 

Nathan Middaugh, Thos. Ward, 

John P. Piatt, James Ward, 

John Pollard, Daniel Strope, dis. Aug. 30; 

John Robinson, Henry, Hippie, Sr., 

Henry H. Robinson, left serv. John C. Spencer, 

Sept. 1 ; Henry Swigart, Sr., 

Reuben Rice, Henry Swigart, Jr., trans, to 
Joseph T.Rice, James' Co.; 

Jesse D. Ross, trans, to James' Jasper Jones. 


Quite a number of this company was transferred to Capt. M. L. 
James' company of mounted men. 

mulligan's men. 

When word was brought that Gen. Price had the little army of 
Col. Mulligan surrounded at Lexington, a few Secessionists from this 
county went down, each man on his own responsibility, and took part 
in the fight against the cooped-up Federals. Some remained with the 
army, but the majority returned home and there came with them some 
who had joined Thompson's company and had become tired of war. 
After the surrender of Mulligan, a large number of his men passed 
through this county on their way to take the cars at Hamilton for 
their homes in Illinois. These men belonged to the 28th Illinois 
infantry ,1 and 1st Illinois cavahy. Quite a number were brought 

^ Composed of Irishmen and called the " Irish Brigade." 



from Richmond to Hamilton in Avagons and carriages. Old David 
Whitmer, the noted Mormon, who was then running a livery stable in 
Kichmond, furnished free transportation for all his teams were capa- 
ble of hauling. The prisoners all, or nearly all, passed through Kings- 
ton and boarded the cars at Hamilton. 


In the fall of 1861, immediately after the fall of Lexington, Capt. 
Moses L. James began the organization of a battalion of Union 
militia, to serve for six months in this quarter of the State. The 
oro-anization was perfected and the three companies composing the 
battalion were mustered into service October 2, 1861. The field oflS- 
cers were W. L. James, major ; Isaac W. Henry, adjutant ; Hiram J. 
Chapman, commissary; G. G. Hildreth, quartermaster, and G. G. 
Hildreth, surgeon, all from this county. 

Only two companies, A and C, were wholly from this county. 
Their officers were as follows : — 

Co. A — Captain, M. E. Streeter; lieutenants, Samuel E. Turner, 
Wm. Plumb. 

Co. C — Captain, Geo. W. Murphy; lieutenants, Arch. Groom, 
Samuel J. Finch. 

The officers of Co. B, Capt. Joseph H. Clark and Lieuts. H. M. 
Walker and O. C. Sinclair, were from DeKalb and Clinton. 

James' battalion was mustered into service at Cameron, October 
2, 1861. Its term of service was taken up with guarding the rail- 
road, scouting through this county and Clinton, DeKalb, and Daviess, 
frequently encountering scattering detachments of rebels. It was 
mustered out at Cameron, March 13, 1862. 


On the 17th of October, 1861, occurred an engagement in the 
southern part of this county — or, properly speaking, in the northern 
part of Ray — which came to be known as the cornstalk fight. A 
force of Confederate recruits had gone into a camp on Goodin Crea- 
son's land, in the brush, along a small branch of the East fork of 
Crooked river. From day to day they received re-enforcements, and 
their friends in the neighborhood fed them. 

Word of the existence of this camp was conveyed to Maj. M. L. 
James, of the 5th battalion, then at Cameron, and he resolved to 
break it up. Taking with him about 150 men of his battalion, all 


mounted, he set out and the same night encamped on the premises of 
David George, who was considered to be a '< Southern sympathizer," 
and who lived in what is now Lincohi township, near the headwaters 
of Crab Apple creek. It is said that Mr. George, who was an old 
gentleman, fled upon the approach of the Federals and did not return 
until after they had left, and that the exposure he endured in his 
absence, sleeping in the open air, brought on illness which caused his 

The next morning Maj. James set out to surround the rebel camp — 
which was located a few hundred yards south of the southwest corner 
of Lincoln township, and less than three miles from George's — and 
:i possible capture its inmates. Sending forward as an advance scuard 
or scouting party about 20 men, under Lieut. Wm. Plumb, of Co. A, 
Capt. Streeter's company, the major followed a mile in the rear with 
the main part of his command, ready to dispose it to the best advan- 
tage when the enemy should be met. It was Maj. James' intention 
to get to the south of the rebel camp and make the attack from that 
direction, so as to drive the rebels out on the prairies. 

As Lieut. Plumb was marching along a road which liad a corn field 
on one side and a thicket on the other, he was suddenly fired on by 
a considerable party of rebels in ambush. In the fight that resulted 
the lieutenant and 3 of his men were severely wounded, and 5 of the 
Federal horses were killed, and the rebels had 1 man wounded. Lieut. 
Plumb charged through the rebel line and back again, both times 
under sharp fire. He fought the fight unaided, although Maj. James 
stood ready to support him and came up as soon as it was evident that 
he needed support. 

The rebels retreated, scattering and breaking up into small parties. 
It was difficult to pursue them, and after beating up the country for 
some hours, Maj. James returned with his command to Cameron. 
The rebels soon passed across the Missouri and went south to the 
army of Gen. Price. 


About the 20th of November, a band of rebels, 15 or 20 men, under 
the leadership of John Hurst, of Ray county, made a raid on the 
premises of Maj. M. L. James, who then resided 4 miles west of 
Kingston. At this time the major was in command of his 5th bat- 
talion of Missouri militia^ and was in St. Louis on military business. 
The 5th battalion, or "James' Jayhawkers," as the rebel people 



culled them, were heartily detested in certain parts of Ray, and Hurst 
and his band determined to capture their commander, or retaliate 
upon him for certain real or imaginar}' injuries. The raiders took 
from Maj. James 5 (rood horses and about $60 worth of clothing and 
other articles, and then, without molesting any one else, returned to 
their Ray county rendezvous. 


Late in the fall of 1861, Judge James Steele, a prominent citizen 
of the county, was killed in Rockford township by a small detach- 
ment of James' battalion. Judge Steele was a man of middle age 
and his home was in Kingston. He had been a member of the county 
court, and was a man of considerable intelligence and information. 
By nature he was brave even to rashness and determined* even to ob- 
stinacy. At the outbreak of the war he joined the rebel forces, and 
in a few months left Gen. Price's army and came back to Caldwell 
county on recruiting service. He repaired to the residence of his 
father, John Steele, southwest of Mirabile, and his presence and his 
mission being learned, a Union man of the neighborhood rode to Cam- 
eron and gave the information to Maj. James, then in command at 
that post. 

Maj. James at once sent out Lieut. O. C. Sinclair with 4 men to 
capture Steele. Lieut. Sinclair was a carpenter and had been em- 
ployed by John Steele. The men under him were residents of the 
vicinity and knew the locality well. The squad reached the house a 
little after noon. Riding rapidh' up they leaped their horses over the 
fence and partially surrounded the house. Judge Steele had previ- 
ously declared he would not be taken prisoner, and now he caught up 
a double-barreled shot-iiun, and runnino; out began to resist his would- 
be captors. He was soon shot and instantly killed. A companion 
named Robert Russell made no resistance, and was made prisoner and 
taken to Cameron and paroled. 

1862 — THE 6th cavalry, m. s. m. 

Li the early spring of 1862 the organization of the 6th regiment of 
cavalry, Missouri State Militia, Col. E. C. Catherwood commanding, 
was begun at Cameron. In this regiment many Caldwell county 
Unionists enlisted. Maj. M. L. James, on being mustered out of 
service in the six mouths militia, became a major in the 6th M. S. M., 
and eventually Capts. Wm. Plumb and Geo. \V. Murphy held the 


same rank. Three companies of the regiment were originally all, or 
nearly all, from Caldwell, viz. : — 

Company B — Captains, Wm. Plumb, promoted to major September 
25, 1863 ; then Elias Lankford, from December 25, 1863, to expiration of 
term of service, February 28, 1865. Lieutenants, Isaac Cook and Wm. 
Logan. The company was mustered in at Cameron, March 1, 1862. 

Company C — Mustered in at Mirabile, March 15, 1862. Captains, 
E. D. Johnson, dismissed August 16, 1862 ; J. G. Quinn, from Sep- 
tember 16, 1862, to December 28, 1864, when he became quartermas- 
ter of the 13th Missouri cavalry volunteers. Lieutenants, Jas. Mylar, 
resigned August 25, 1862; Daniel Campbell, mustered out July 18, 
1865; Thos. J. Shinn, entered 13th Missouri cavalry September 13, 

Company E — Mustered in at Cameron, March 28, 1862 ; Captains, 
Geo. W. Murphy, promoted to major, January 13, 1864 ; Calvin S. 
Moore, December 3, 1864. First Lieutenants, Calvin S. Moore, pro- 
moted to captain April 15, 1864 ; Lewis B. Clevenger, mustered out 
in 1865. 

There were also a number of Caldwell men , including Lieuts. Jas. 
N. Stoffel and Timothy Middaugh, in Capt. J. H. Clark's company, 
A, which was composed chiefly of men from Clinton county. 

The total number of men from this county in the 6th M. S. M., up 
to January 1, 1864, was 268. 

Catherwood's 6th M. S. M. took a prominent and active part in the 
war in Missouri. The 1st battalion, composed of Cos. A, B, C and 
D, under Maj, James, was stationed at Liberty, Clay county. May 12, 
1862. About a month later, with Cos. E and F, they were ordered to 
Sedalia, where they arrived June 15. Here they did considerable 
scoutinor and other active service during the summer. 

August 16, detachments of Cos. A, B and E, under Capt. Wm. 
Plumb, took'part in the desperate little battle of Lone Jack, in Jack- 
son county, where 800 Union troops, led by Maj. Emory S. Foster, of 
the 7th Missouri State militia, engaged 3,000 Confederates, under Cols. 
Cockerell, Coffee, Hays, Thompson, and the guerrilla chieftain, W. C. 
Quantrell. About 75 men were killed on each side, and the fight was 
11 draw, the Unionists holding the field at the conclusion, but retreat- 
ins to Lexin2;ton an hour later. 

At Lone Jack Capt. Plumb's company went into the fight with 56 
men, and lost 5 killed and 17 wounded. Capt. Plumb himself was 
severeh'- wounded in the shoulder, and Lieut. Wm. Lagan lost an eye. 
In Capt. Murphy's company (E) Jerry Hatfield and John Stennet were 


killed, the latter just as he had shot down a rebel, and immediately 
after he had called out, "Aha, I got you that time ! " Frank McCray 
lost his leg, and the old pioneer, Charley Ross, had his leg badly shat- 
tered below the knee. The brave old man refused any assistance, 
however, until the fight was over, gamely calling out to his comrades,. 
"Keep up the flag, boys ! Let me alone; I'm all right. Keep up 
the flag." Mr. Ross is a pensioner to-day, on account of his wound 
at Lone Jack. 

Maj. Foster, in his account of the action, mentions this instance: 
«♦ Aman of Capt. Plumb's company, shot through the head, mortally 
wounded, was seen half an hour afterwards, trying to load his carbine. 
He died with it in his hand." 

The regiment served in Central and Southwest Missouri, and North- 
western Arkansas, in the years 1863 and 1864, participated in the 
campaign against Gen. Price, in the fall of 1864, and was in numerous 
engagements with the enemy. But to give a minute account of its many 
spirited skirmishes, its night and day marches and scouting expeditions, 
and the fatigues and hardships it underwent, would occupy more space 
than can here be s^iven. At all times and under all circumstances the 
Caldwell county men bore their full part creditably. In November, 
1864, Col. Catherwood was commissioned colonel of the 13th Missouri 
cavalry volunteers, and a large number of the 6th M. S. M. entered 
that regiment, and did service in Missouri and on the plains till in the 
summer of 1866, when they were mustered out. 


In the latter part of the month of July, 1862, the enrolled militia 
of the State, commonly called the E. M. M., were organized. In 
Caldwell county three companies were organized, which were afterward 
designated as E, F and G of the 33d regiment, Col. W. S. Brown. 
The officers of these companies were : — 

Of Company E, John Phillips, captain, resigned October 22, 1862 ; 
then Wm. D. Fortune to March 12, 1865 ; Joshua Orem and R. S. Rob- 
inson, lieutenants. The latter was removed in August, 1864, and Wm. 
F. Wheeler was then commissioned second lieutenant, and served 
till company was dismissed. 

Company F—G. W. Noblett, captain ; W. T. Filson and E. T. 
Cox, lieutenants. 

Company G — Stephen M. Lankford, captain, killed on Crab Apple 
creek, in this county, September 11, 1862; then John T. Ross, till 


August, 1864, when his commission was vacated. Jacob H. Snider and 
•Geo. W. Grouse, lieutenants. 

Company E had 81 men, Company F, 97, and Company G, 75. 


In August, 1862, during the Poindexter raid, there were many 
alarms in the eastern portion of the county. It was reported that 
Col. Poindexter, and other Confederate leaders, were marchin^on the 
county with a very large force. But in a short time came the news 
of Gen. Guitar's defeat of Poindexter at Compton's Ferry, in Carroll 
county, and also that Gen. Loan had turned him back at Utica, and 
driven him out of the country. During the alarm the enrolled militia 
of the county were especially active, and kept watch that no raiders 
should steal in unawares. 



In the early fall of 1862, there occurred on Crab Apple creek, in 
the southern or southeastern portion of the county, a number of 
painful tragedies connected with the war, which deserve mention here. 

la what is now Lincoln township, and on Crab Apple creek about 
three miles from the Ray county line (northern part of sections 20 and 
21), lived Wm. Baker, Sr., an old citizen of the county, nearly 70 
years of age. Mr. Baker was the father of a large family of boys. 
At the beginning of the Civil War the family sided with the Confed- 
erate cause, and no less than five of the sous entered the rebel army 
of Missouri as members of Capt. Thompson's Caldsvell county com- 
pany. The Christian names of these sons were George, who was a 
teamster; William, Jr., Joseph, John, James and Henry; the last 
four were regularly enlisted soldiers. Two other sons, Daniel and 
Andrew, remained at home. The spectacle of five brothers, all en- 
listed soldiers of one military company, was one not often witnessed, 
and the fact was often remarked and commented upon. 

In the battle of Pea Ridge (or Elkhorn) James Baker was badly 
wounded, and was discharo-ed from the service. His brother Georg^e 
accompanied him home, where they arrived some time in the early fall. 
For some reason they refused to surrender themselves to the Federal 
military authorities, and contrived to keep out of the way of the 
militia for some time. One or two other young men associated with 
them. Alexander Richey, a brother of the wife of Dan Baker, joined 


them, and so did Dan Baker, who had never before taken up arms. 
All were armed. It is claimed that they did not intend to harm any 
one, unless in self-defense, but were waiting for a good opportunity 
to go out on the Plains, or across to California. 

In August, Joseph Richey, a brother of " Eck," was killed near 
Richmond by a man named Ray, and " Eck" claimed that he was 
carrying weapons for the murderer of his brother. 

Whatever purpose the Bakers and Richey had in lying out, with 
their arms and horses, it is certain that they did no injurj^ to any one. 
They claimed that on two or three occasions they could have fired into 
and killed half a dozen of the militia if they had wished to. It is also 
just as certain that their conduct in lying out was against the express 
orders of the Federal military authorities. Gen. Schofield's " order 
No. 18," issued May 29, enjoined the ♦' utmost vigilance in hunting 
down and destroying " all bushwhackers, who, the orders said, " when 
caught in arms, engaged in their unlawful warfare," were to be 
'♦ shot down on the spot." 

On the night of September 9, Daniel, George and James Baker, 
and Alex. Richev and Samuel Richev were Ivins: out, near the resi- 
dence of AVm. Baker. They had their guns and horses with them, 
and slept under some crab apple trees. Just before day on the morn- 
ing of the 10th, a rain came up, and George Baker and Alex. Richey 
went to a stable loft for shelter. The others remained in the crab 
apple grove. About dawn Lieut. John T. Ross, with a detachment 
of Capt. Langford's company of militia (Co. E, 33d E. M. M.), came 
down from Kingston, and chanced to surround the stable where Baker 
and Richey were and made then prisoners. 

Short work was made in disposing of the prisoners — and bloody 
work, too. The militia took five head of horses belonging to the 
Bakers, and made their prisoners mount two of them. The wife of 
Dan Baker, — Richey 's sister, — ran out and begged for their lives, 
but the militia took them a few hundred yards away and shot them. 
Hearing the firing Mrs. Baker ran to the spot and found her brother 
and George Baker, both dead. George Baker left a wife and three 
children. Dan and Jim Baker and Sam Richey were roused up by 
Mrs. Dan Baker, who heard the militia approaching, and they escaped. 
The next day, September 11, Capt. S. M.* Langford, at the head of 
his company, went down into the Crab Apple neighborhood to arrest 
Dan and Jim Baker if possible. While beating up the brush and 
timber along the creek in the southern portion of New York town- 
ship (hw. V4 section 27-5(;-27), Capt. Langford came upon the hiding 


place of James J3aker, who was watching the movements of his ene- 
mies. Baker waited until Lanofford approached within a few yards of 
where he hiy concealed, when he fired and killed him almost instantly. 
Baker afterward declared that he did this regretfully, but that Capt. 
Langford was riding, pistol in hand, directly toward his place of hid- 
ing, and in a few seconds would have discovered him and shot him. 

The killing of Capt. Langford created a storm of indignation among 
the militia, and out of the storm there darted the fierce lishtnings of 
vengeance. In a few days the Baker neighborhood had been visited 
with fire and sword, and all the " rebel, sympathizers " burned out 
and driven out, and one of them killed. The three militia companies 
of the county — Capt. Philips', Capt. Noblett's and Langford's com- 
pany, lead by Lieut. John Ross — repaired at once to where the 
Bakers lived. Georije Baker's house, or the house where his widow 
and children lived, was first burned, on the 11th. The wife of Daniel 
Baker writes : " They burned everything in it ; they even took a little 
sun bonnet from one of the little girls and threw it into the flames." 

The next day there was a good deal of burning among the " rebel 
houses." Clouds of black smoke rolled up in the sky all over what 
was called the " rebel nest," along Crab Apple. The house of Will- 
iam Gibson was burned. William Baker, Jr., who went through the 
war as a Confederate soldier, married Mrs. Gibson's daughter — per- 
haps that was why Capt. G. W. Withers' house was burned, but he 
was in the Southern army at the time, his wife was in Clay county, 
and the house was occupied by James Thomas, a Union man. Will- 
iam Kesterson's and Mrs. Michael's houses were purified of their rebel 
uncleanness by militia fire. Then, near sun down, old William Baker's 
house was burned, and the militia roasted chickens over the coals for 
their supper. A Union man named Cheshire, who lived on Mr. Bak- 
er's land, was allowed to save a few articles from the flames, but not 
many. The women and the other inmates were told to " hustle them- 
selves." Capt. G. W. Noblett has stated to the writer that he gave 
the orders to apply the torch to all these houses. Somebody reported 
him to Gen. Loan, then at St. Joseph, in command of this district, 
and Loan sent an order back to Noblett: " Do not burn any more 
houses, if you can get along ivithout it.'^ 

While old William Baker's house was burning something else was 
going on. The old man was accosted by some of the militia ^ and 

1 Mrs. Dan Baker, who was present, says they were Capt. Noblett and his men; but 
Capt. Noblett says they were John Ross and his men. 


ordered to tell where his sons Dan and Jim were, Init he declared if 
they were to be his last words that he had not seen them since the morn- 
ins: Georire and " Eck." Richev were killed, and did not know where 
thev were. They then accused him of beinj; a bushwhacker, but he 
said : "As true as I live, I haye not had a f]^un on my shoulder for eight 
years." But at hist they said, "Come along with us," and they started 
away with him. His daughters-in-law begged for his life, and 
Mrs. Dan Baker followed after the party, but she says they droye her 
back. The old man was taken just across the rayine from his burning 
house and shot. It was in the dusk of the evening when this was 
done. Two balls passed through his body, killing him instantly. At 
the time of his death Mr. Baker was 68 years of age. 

When George Baker was killed and his house burned, his widow 
and children took refuge at old man Baker's. Here also was Daniel 
Baker's wife. The latter writes: "The night father Baker lava 
corpse we all sat out in the woods. It was quite cold and rainy, and 
George's widow was sick. We had nothing to eat until the next day, 
although we did not feel much like eating." 

Wm. Baker, Sr., was a gentleman of good character, and, but for 
his politics, was generally esteemed. George Baker also bore a good 
reputation. But the entire family were strong Confederate sympa- 
thizers from the beginning. On the 9th of December, 1861, the 
house of W. T. Filson, in the eastern part of the county, was raided 
by some Confederate partisans, said to have been Daniel Baker, Wm. 
Baker, Jr., Joseph Baker, Wm. Kesterson, Wm. H. Kesterson, Mor- 
timer Kesterson and John H. Pemberton. Capt. Filson lost two 
saddles, an overcoat, a shot gun, revolver, bowie knife, and some 
other articles of personal property, including some papers. In 1864 
he brought suit against the parties named for $2,400 damages, ob- 
tained judgment by default, and bought in to satisfy the judgment 
certain lands belonofing; to the Bakers. Four years later the Bakers 
appeared and the former proceedings were set aside and annulled, 
and their lands restored to them. They now live in Nebraska. 

Jim Baker and Dan Baker escaped from the county and made 
their way to Kansas. Here, some time later, they were identified by 
a Caldwell county man who chanced to be in Leavenworth, and were 
arrested, and word sent back to Kingston. A squad of militia was 
sent after them. At St. Joseph Dan Baker sprang away from his 
guards and made good his escape. He said he knew it was death 
to be taken back to Caldwell county, and he preferred to die in trying 
to etfect his freedom. He is yet alive. Jim Baker was taken to 


Breckinridge, examined by the military uuthorities and discharged, 
or at least ordered to be released on oath and bond. A squad of 
Ross' company started with him to Kingston, but two miles north- 
east of town they shot him. Baker died bravely. Ordered to turn 
his back he refused, and just before he was shot called out to his execu- 
tioners, •' I want you to know that I die a true Southerner." His 
body was taken charge of and buried in the McClelland graveyard by 
Col. T. N. O. Butts, John H. Dustin and others. At the time of his 
death, November 17th, Jim Baker was but 19 years of age. He had 
in his pocket his discharge from the Confederate army, and the 
Federal bullet that wounded him at Pea Rids^e. 

The bodies of Georo;e Baker and Alex. Richev were buried in the 
Knoxville graveyard. It was proposed to bury the body of old Wm. 
Baker there. A man was sent down to have a grave dug, but 
another man named Lee Henry sent him back with the word that 
"no rebels" should be buried there, and the body was then in- 
terred in the Yoakum or Petrie burying ground. 

George Baker and Alex. Richey were killed on the morning of 
September 10th; Capt. Langford, Septeniber 11th ; Wm. Baker, Sr., 
September 12th, and James Baker on the night of November 17th, all 
in the year 1862. 


EVENTS OF 1863-1864. 

Miscellaneous Events in 1863 — Miscellaneous Events in 1864 — The Rebel Raid of 
Thrailkill and Taylor — Full Details and Particulars — The County Treasury 
Robbery — The 44th Missouri Infantry — Some Tragedies of the War— Killing of 
Certain Alleged Rebel Sympathizers, John C. Myers, Rev. Frazee, R. S. McBeath, 
Absalom Harpold, H. D. Whiteneck, and Henry Gist. 


In the spring of 1863 Capt. W. D. Fortune and Lieuts. Joshua 
Orem and Wm. H. Anderson, of the 33d E. M. M., and quite a num- 
ber of other men from this county were detailed to serve in Co. B, of 
Hall's 4th regiment of Provisional Militia. They performed service 
about six months, when they were relieved from duty. 

This year also there were a few more trao^edies in the county. Capt. 
Fortune's company was stationed at Breckinridge in the spring and 
summer, and made frequent incursions into the county. It was on 
one of these when Robt. McBeath was killed. 

A vast majority of the Union men of the county had grown to be 
Radical Republicans, and were for the immediate abolition of slavery 
throughout the Union. President Lincoln's proclamation freeing the 
slaves of those in rebellion had been well received and heartily in- 
dorsed, and now the general sentiment was in favor of universal 
abolition. A minority of t^p. Union men, those whose loyalty had 
been demonstrated and could not be doubted, were, however, opposed 
to emancipation or abolition. A few opposed abolition under any 
circumstances, but the majority of the anti-emancipationists favored 
freeing the slaves of disloyal men without compensation, but insisted 
that all loyal men should be paid for their slaves that might be eman- 
cipated by law. 

Some of the Democratic and Bell-Everett Union men were greatly 
displeased when it became evident that abolition would be the re- 
sult of the war, and indeed some of them were more mortified and 
disheartened than displeased, in the common sense of displeasure. 
They had held from the first that the object of the war was the 
restoration of the Federal Union simply, and not the destruction of 
slavery, as claimed by the Secessionists and rebels. Now that the 
predictions of the latter were about to be verified, and their own as- 


sertions disproved, these Union men were much cast down. Tliey 
had no thought of abandoning the Union cause, but they much re- 
gretted that the policy of the government toward slavery had been 
changed, not that they were such ardent admirers of the institution 
and desired its indefinite perpetuation, but they feared for the effect 
of the abolition policy upon the Conservative Union men of Missouri, 
and dreaded the charge of inconsistency and insincerity against their 
cause and its leaders. Many broke from President Lincoln at once 
because of his Emancipation Proclamation, but remained steadfast in 
their devotion to Unionism, and unchanged in their detestation of the 
rebellion and the rebels. 

The Radical Republicans were not satisfied with President Lincoln, 
because he had not made emancipation universal throughout the 
Union — in Missouri as well as in Mississippi. Doubtless a majority 
of these had for years been Abolitionists and now rejoiced at the 
prospect that they should live until their eyes had seen " the glory ! " 
They declared that even if the slaves were not naturally entitled to 
their freedom "the treason of their masters" had made them so en- 
titled ; while in the case of the loyal slaveholders it was held that if 
they were "good Union men," they ought to be willing that their 
slaves be emancipated without any compensation save the approval of 
conscience and the praise of Abolitionists. 

A controversy between the two factions of Unionists arose. The 
Republicans called the Democratic pro-slavery men " Copperheads," 
"rebel sympathizers," etc., and the feeling grew to be very intense 
and the enmity deadl}'. It is yet charged that many a pro-slavery 
citizen was murdered b\'^ the Radical members of the militia charged 
with being a rebel or a bushwhacker or something of the sort, when 
in fact it is claimed, he was only a Democrat. 


Thursday morning, June 9, Capt. Merrill Givens, of Co. A, 33d 
E. M. M., was killed in an accidental encounter with some Livings- 
ton county militia near Breckinridge. Some military prisoners had 
escaped from St. Joseph and passed near Kidder Wednesday, going 
east. Capt. Givens, who resided in Daviess county, three miles from 
Kidder, took a small party and started in pursuit. At dawn the next 
morning he reached the Weldon settlement, near Breckinridge, and 
came suddenly on the picket of some militia that had been sent out 
from Chillicothe to head off the fugitives. Each party took the other 
for an enemy, and in the fi^ht that resulted Capt. Givens was killed. 


and a man of his company named "Ward, of Kidder, was seriously 
wounded. The same niojht a party of militia went into the Weldon 
settlement, took out Humphrey Weldon and murdered him and burned 
the Widow "Weldon's barn. 

Saturda}', June 9, John D. Casey, of near Gallatin, and his son, 
John Case}', of Hamilton, were both killed in an affray at the latter 
place. The Caseys were intoxicated. The old man struck at Wm. 
Briscoe, a citizen of the vicinity, with a knife, and Briscoe knocked 
him down. The old man rose, went to Buster's saloon, where his son 
was, and in a few moments young John came out with- a revolver 
and fired at Briscoe, who was standing in a store door. Briscoe re- 
turned the fire. Other parties also opened fire on Casey, and he 
started to run, but was shot and brought to the ground. Springing 
up again he followed Briscoe into a store, where they exchanged shots 
and then clinched; while they were in this position the elder Casey 
ran in and cut Briscoe in the neck. The latter succeeded in pushing 
young Casey out of doors, when he again cocked his pistol to shoot 
Briscoe, but the weapon was caught by Henry Snyder, a returned 
veteran of Catherwood's regiment, and Briscoe then put his pistol to 
Casey's head, fired and killed him instantly. Old man Casey, seeing 
Snyder's interference, seized him, and it is said attempted to knife 
him, but Henry Singleton, a discharged soldier of the 25th Missouri 
infantry, fired at him and brought him down. He was taken to Gal- 
latin, and died next morning. Both of the Casevs were considered to 
be rebels, or " sympathizers." 

Saturday, June 11, Lieut. "W. T. Filson, of Capt. Noblett's com- 
pany (F) of the 33d E. M. M., captured two men, supposed to be of 
the St. Joseph escaped prisoners, at or near the Widow Gutiey's, 
eiirht or nine miles east of Kingston. The two men at first said their 
names were Fortney and Rhodes, but soon admitted that their true 
names were Biggs and Dr. McCamey. In a few minutes the militia 
killed Biiigs, and he was buried four miles east of Hamilton. Dr. 
McCamey was taken to Hamilton and turned over to another com- 
pany of militia, and the next day was killed near the place where 
Biggs was buried, east of Hamilton. 

The Banner of Liberty spoke jocularly ofMcCamey's death, as fol- 
lows : "He died about four miles east of Hamilton, in consequence 
of not having money enough to pay his railroad fare I As the boys 
hadn't time to hunt up his friend, the prospective Conservative can- 
didate for Lieutenant-Governor [Gen. Odon Guitar], they summoned 
a few of the secesh about Breckinridge and saw them do up the work 


neatly." Lieut. Filson, of the " Wolf Hunters," as Noblett's com- 
pany was known, miule the following report of this affair to Gen. 
Fisk : — 

Kingston, Caldwell County, Mo., June 16, 1864. 
Gen. C. B. Fish — Sir: — I have the honor to make the follow- 
ing report : On the 9th inst., I learned that several desperadoes had 
escaped from St. Joseph, and that some of them were traveling east. 
I called out a few of Co. F, 33d E. M. M., and turned out to 
search for them. On the evening of the 11th I succeeded in captur- 
ing two of them. They gave their names as Fortney and Rhodes, but 
upon further investigation it appeared to be Dr. McCamey and Biggs 
orBriggs. While questioning McCamey, Biggs or Briggs attempted 
to escape, but he soon "played out."" Capt. G. W. Noblett in- 
structed me to take Dr. McCamey to Hamilton. I done so on the 12th 
and turned him over to Lieut. Wm. Lewis, by order of Capt. E. C. 
Crandall, of Brookfield, Mo. I then continued the search until last 
evening, when I relieved the men and returned home. 

Yours truly, W. T. Filson, 

First Lieut. Co. F, 33d Regt. E. M. M. 


The most exciting incident occurring in Caldwell county during 
the year 1864, and perhaps during the Civil War, was the raid into 
and through the county in July by a body of Confederate recruits 
and guerrillas, led by two noted chieftains named John Thrailkill 
and Chas. F. Taylor. The latter was and is generally known by 
the name of Fletcher, or *'Fletch." Taylor. Perhaps a full account 
of the orioin and termination of this raid ouf>:ht here to be given, 
since it is believed this can be done fairly and accurately at this 
time. The writer has taken great pains to ascertain the facts, and has 
confidence that in the main he has done so. 

Fletch. Taylor had been in the war from the start. He was one 
of the prisoners captured at Camp Jackson by Gen. Lyon, was at the 
battle of Belmont, then in Lee's army, where he was taken prisoner, 
paroled, and sent home to Independence, Mo. Here, in the latter 
part of 1862, he was arrested by the Federal military authorities 
and ordered to work on the breastworks, but he escaped in a day 
or two and joined Quantrell. In a year he was Quantrell's first 
lieutenant, and in the latter part of June, 1864, crossed the Missouri 
into Clay county at the head of 75 guerrillas, 12 of whom were 
Quantrell's old men. John Thrailkill was from Holt county. Orig- 
inally a Secessionist in sympathy, he took no active part until late- 
in the war, when he was recruited into the regular Confederate service 


in Pliitte county by Col. J. C. C. (" Coon ") Thornton. He was a 
man of near middle aije, with a superior education and of fine ability. 

B}' some means Thrailkill and Taylor met in Clay county soon 
after the latter crossed the river. Recruits were joining Taylor's 
company very rapidly, and Taylor says he made Thrailkill captain 
,of a company. In a brief time the two had 300 men, and Clay 
county became too small to hold them. Taylor resolved to make 
a raid with his guerrillas into Iowa, and sent a courier to Bill 
Anderson, then in Chariton county, to join him. Thrailkill swore 
the men under his immediate command into the Confederate service 
and kmnounced his intention of crossing the river and joining Gen. 
Price's army in Arkansas the first opportunity. 

All of Western Missouri was ablaze at this time. The Confeder- 
ate guerrillas had been at work and the Federal troops were unusually 
active. Tajdor captured Platte City and held it long enough for 
Jesse James and others of his band to have their " tin-type" pict- 
ures taken; Col. Ford, of the 2d Colorado cavalry and 300 militia 
defeated "Coon" Thornton and 150 of his men at Camden Point, 
Platte county, and afterward burned the town and killed a number 
of its citizens, and passed on to Platte Cit}', which was also partially 
burned and some of its people put to the sword. Men were being 
killed ever}^ day b}-- each side. 

Soon after the events in Platte county noted above, Taylor and 
Thrailkill, at the head of 300 men, left Clay county and passed 
eastward into Ray. July 17, Fletch. Taylor badly defeated Capt. 
Moses and his company of the 2d Colorado cavalry at Fredericks- 
burs:, killins: 6 and woundins: others. Thrailkill's immediate com- 
mand did not take part in this fight. Plundering Gay's store, at 
Fredericksburg, the raiders passed on to Elkhorn, robbed the store 
of Maj. Allen, a prominent Unionist, and carried off even part of 
his clothing. They now threatened Richmond, l)ut Capt. Clayton 
Tiffin, of the 4th Provisional regiment of militia, succeeded in throw- 
ing his company into the town ahead of the guerrillas, and when a 
mile from the place they turned north toward Knoxville. Of course 
Thrailkill followed, or accompanied Taylor. 

Near Knoxville, on the 18th, some of Taylor's men killed Lieut. 
Jesse C. Tunnage and two other men named Shumate and Wilson, 
all of the enrolled militia. South of Knoxville, at Moses Yoacum's, 
they met and robbed the stage, destroying the mail, etc., and taking 
the stage company's horses. At that time the stage ran between Lex- 
in<;ton an<l Hamilton. 


At Knoxville nearly 100 citizens had assembled, but as they had 
less than 50 guns of any sort, and as Capt. Tiffin had sent them 
word not to make a fight, they mostly fled to the brush. A few 
under Capt. Kelso, of the 6th M. S. M., and Lieut. Stone, remained 
in town until the rebel forces were in sight. Lieut. Stouc rode out a 
mile south of town to meet them, and when he hailed them and asked 
who they were they answered, " Illinois 100-day s men," a species of 
Federal soldiery then in the service. Stone galloped back to the vil- 
lage and Thrailkill formed a line of battle across the road as if expect- 
ing an attack. Soon after the guerrillas came up into the little hamlet, 
from which Kelso and his men had retired, and held it. They fired 
at a few fleeing citizens who were just entering the brush, shot and 
killed a poor half-witted neoro belongino: as a slave to Mrs. Stone, 
plundered the stores of Jacob Wright and O. H. White, and robbed 
the few citizens of their pocket money, and left the place after an 
occupation of less than an hour. 

Following close after the rebels were nearly 400 militia and Colo- 
rado troops, under Maj. Pritchett or Prichard, of the 2d Colorado. 
These were but two miles south when Thrailkill and Taylor were 
in Knoxville, but Maj. Pritchett order a halt "to feed up," as he 
said, and remained until his enemy had departed. He then marched 
up to Knoxville, but refused to come any further north, although 
assured that his enemy was in camp only three miles away, and the 
same evening marched for Liberty, Clay county. For this singular 
conduct the major was severely censured at the time by the Unionists of 
the country. He had more men and they were better armed and 
mounted generally than those of Thrailkill and Taylor, but for some 
reason he avoided a fight. 

After leaving Knoxville Thrailkill and Taylor came up the King- 
ston road two miles and turned east to John Rainwater's, where they 
arrived about 4 p. m. Here they remained until after nightfall, when 
the greater portion of the command went to old John Switzer's on 
the Flat fork of Crooked river, where they remained until 3 a. m. 
of Tuesday, July 19th. Then they again set out and about daylight 
went into camp, or halted, in Black Oak Grove, near the present vil- 
lage of Black Oak. 

From Black Oak Grove a detachment of Taylor's company, said to 
have been under the command of Lieut. Frank James, went into the 
country to the northwest of the Grove early in the morning. Beating 
up the country for straggling militia, they came upon Joseph Cain 
and John Phillips, two residents of the locality, and members of 


Capt. Noblett's company of enrolled militia. Both Cain and Phillips 
were taken from their families, carried some distance away and killed. 
Cain was killed half a mile or more from his home, and Phillips a 
mile fnrther. This was on Tuesday, and Cain's body was not re- 
covered until the following Sunday, when it was found horribly man- 
gled and. nearly eaten up by hogs. 

It is said that Phillips was by no means a radical Union man, and 
there were those who even doubted his loyalty. It is believed that 
had the guerrillas known the real character of the men — known 
that they were practically unoffending — they would not have killed 
them. But an ex-guerrilla, now residing in Jackson county, and 
who was present, says in a communication to the writer: — 

The two men killed the day before we took Kingston belonged to 
a company of red-leg militia, that had sometime before killed an old 
man, 80 years ofa^e, burnt his house and turned his distressed family 
out of doors. This company had also murdered many other unof- 
fending Southern men in that county, and done much other injury un- 
called for. We would have killed every member of this company if 
we could have caught them. I remember that one of the men claimed 
to be a Southern man, but as soon as he told us what company he 
belonged to that settled his fate. 

Meantime the militia of the county were swarming. The night be- 
fore Capt. Noblett, with a part of his company, stayed at Widow 
Georire's, west of Black Oak Grove. Other members of the militia 
stayed near Black Oak, and Noblett sent them word to come on to 
Kingston. Twenty-six men arrived at 9 o'clock Tuesday morning at 
the residence of Daniel D. Michael, who then lived and now lives two 
miles southwest of the present site of Black Oak. Here they halted 
to organize and await orders. The majority if not all the men be- 
longed to Capt. Fortune's company (E) of the 33d Enrolled 

While these 26 men and 3 or 4 others were waiting at Michael's a 
messenger came up and said that Lieut. Joshua Orem, of Fortune's 
company, wished them to wait where they were for the arrival of 
Capt. Fortune, and accordingly they remained at Michael's for some 
time. One or two went on towards Kingston. The remainder were 
gathered in a little hollow, just west of Michael's house, on the road, 
when a column of men were seen approaching across the prairie 
from the northeast. Some of the militia called out, "There comes 
Fortune;" but others, who had seen more service, said, •• It looks like 
d d had forfwie for us — for they arc the bushwhackers sure." 


The pun and the profanity were bad, but the statement was true, 
'* They " t^ere the bushwhackers. Uniting in the Black Oak Grove 
Thrailkill and Taylor started southwest towards Michael's, having 
heard of the presence of the militia and citizens there and deter- 
mining to bag them. Taylor with his company made a detour around 
to the east and south intending to come up on them from the south- 
west, while Thrailkill marched straight forward. Nearing the little 
hollow, where the militia were huddled, alarmed and flustered, 
Thrailkill's column spread out like a fan and swooped on and around 
them, calling out '* Surrender ! " and capturing the entire outfit with- 
out the snapping of a cap. 

Not all of the militia were armed, and there were only 26 of them 
all told, a few having broken away on the first appearance of the rebels. 
There was no ofiicer in command, and, of course, no organization. 
Not all had ever seen service in the militia, or were regular members. 
There was, of course, great trepidation among them when they found 
they were prisoners, believing that they were all about to be put to 
the sword. But Thrailkill bade them be of good cheer, and assured 
them that their lives were not in dano;er. •' You are fortunate that I 
captured you, and not Capt. Taylor's company," said he. '* Taylor's 
men are guerrillas," he explained, "and it is very seldom that they 
receive or give quarter." 

Very soon Taylor's company arrived, coming up from the south. 
The men were disappointed that they had not reached the militia first, 
but, as it was, they made sundry threats and demonstrations against the 
prisoners, and were only restrained by Thrailkill and the strong guard 
he placed about them. Some of the guerrillas succeeded in obtaining 
a few pocket-books, but Thrailkill forced them to restore all booty of 
this kind to its owners. All the prisoners were residents of the locality, 
and expected nothing else than that their property would be taken or 
destroyed, as it was well known that that section contained but few 
"Southern men." Consequently they permitted themselves to be 
robbed without much protest, quite content if they could get off so 

Thrailkill informed the prisoners that they would all be released and 
not harmed if they would give their paroles not to take up arms against 
the Confederate forces until regularly exchanged. Thrailkill himself 
claimed to be (and doubtless was) a regular Confederate officer, and 
had sworn his men into that service. He assured the prisoners that 
he wished to carry on his operations in true military style, and did not 
want to kill a single prisoner. " Your officers murder my men with- 



out mercy when tliey capture them," said he, " but I have never 
yfet killed a prisouer. I hope, however, that whenever in the future 
any of my men are taken b}'^ yours, you will remember how you 
have been treated this day, and use your influence to prevent their 
l)eingshot down like dogs." To this day the prisoners speak admiringly 
of Maj. Thrailkill, and comnieiid him for his humanity and gener- 
osity . 

Thrailkill bore himself throughout with coolness and dignity. He 
listened calmly to the oft expressed desire of Taylor's men to " shoot 

the d d heads ofl:"' the jjrisoners, but saw to it that not a hair 

of one of their heads was harmed. They were marched up to Michael's 
house, where pen and ink were procured, and each man furnished 
Avith a written parole. Thrailkill wrote the Hrst parole, and Wm. 
Wheeler, a recently discharged Federal soldier, one of the prisoners, 
wrote asuflficient number of copies. The paroles were signed, " John 
Thrailkill, Capt. C. S. A., commanding." The prisoners had their 
arms and horses taken from them, and all of either that were service- 
able were taken off. 

The rebel force remained at Michael's from 8 to 11 a. m. A 
majority cooked and ate their breakfasts, and fed their horses. 
Michael was a Union man, and had left early that morning to join the 
militia at Kingston. His barn and kitchen were thoroujj-hlv " cleaned 
out," as thoroughly as 250 hungry horses and 250 hungry raiders 
could dc it. A good horse was also taken. At about 11 o'clock the 
whole force left Michael's, goinj; south at first, and then turning east 
towards Mandeville, in Carroll county. 

While at Michael's, Daniel Toomey, an Irishman, and a Union 
resident of the vicinity, came riding up from the south with his gun 
on his shoulder, on his way to join the militia. Believing the force 
he saw at Michael's to be Federals, he rode fairly into Taylor's com- 
pany before he discovered his mistake. The guerrillas gave him a 
rough reception. Half a dozen fired at him. One shot took off the 
end of a finger, another passed through the back of his neck, and he 
fell from his horse apparently dead. One of the raiders examined the 
body, and announced that "the whole back part of his head is shot off." 
Picking up his hat he threw it down again, declaring he did not want 
it because it was so bloody. Toomey " played 'possum " until the 
raiders left, when he crawled and limped a mile or more away, and 
was found and taken care off. He was not seriously hurt, and soon 

Thrailkill and Taylor moved their forces to the vicinity of Man- 


deville, frightened Carroll county thoroughly, caiising a concentration 
of the militia at Carrollton, then suddenly turned back and moved^ 
rapidly to the westward, going into camp the same night in this 
county, in the Elk Grove, or a little east and northeast of Black 
Oak. That night Maj. M, L. James, James Ray, John Esteb, and 
two or three others, who had come down from from Kingston to 
observe the movements of the enemy, slept within Thrailkill's lines, 
and the next morning breakfjisted within 300 or 400 yards of his 

The rebels remained in the vicinity of their camps, resting them- 
selves and their horses and procuring food and feed, when they started 
for Kingston, Fletch. Taylor's company, as usual, in the advance. At 
Jesse Butts' residence nearly all of them took dinner and then came 
on, avoiding the prairies and keeping under cover of the ravines ns 
much as possible until they struck the Shoal creek or Long creek 
timber, and coming into the Richmond road two miles south of 

In the meanwhile there was great activity among the militia and 
Union citizens of the county. At 9 o'clock on Monday night, the 
18th — the evening of the day the raiders were at Knoxville, a mes- 
senger bearing the news arrived at Kingston. The greatest excitement 
resulted. Runners were sent out through the county to rouse up the 
people, and during the night a number of citizens came in to defend 
the town. There was a great scarcity of arms, and only 25 shot-guns 
and rifles and a few revolvers could be gathered up. 

Early on Tuesday morning Capt. Noblett, with some 25 men of the 
Enrolled Militia, came in. Others arrived and about noon a couple of 
scouting parties started out, leaving but few arms in the town. In 
the afternoon Lieut. Filson, with a party of militia called "the 
Wolf Hunters," came upon three straggling raiders seven miles east 
of Kingston, and firing upon them drove them into the brush, captur- 
ing their horses and some of their clothins:. 

About noon on Wednesday, the 20th, a dispatch was received from 
Maj. S. P. Cox, of Daviess county, stating that he was moving with 
400 militia down towards Black Oak Grove, and requesting that all 
the militia that could be raised meet him at Breckinridge. Lieut. J. 
H. Snyder immediately started with about 30 men, all he could arm, 
for Breckinridge, leaving Kingston entirely defenseless. 

Between 4 and 5 o'clock in the afternoon John McBride, then the 
county treasurer, was overtaken on the Richmond road, a mile or more 
south of Kingston, by the entire force of Thrailkill and Taylor, some 


300 strong. The leader, supposed to be Thriiilkill, inquired if there 
were any soldiers in town. McBride replied that they had all gone to 
join the force under Maj. Cox to operate against the bushwhackers. 
He then said, "You belong to Capt. Tiffin's company, do you not, 
and you are coming to protect the town, I suppose?" The leader 
answered, "No, we are Capt. Taylor's company, but we are coming 
to protect the town all the same." After crossing Log creek, Mr. Mc- 
Bride turned eastward to his home, then in the country, having been 
unharmed and unmolested, while the raiders dashed forward up into 

As the head of the rebel column appeared over the hill a mile south 
of town, it was discovered by a lookout in the cupola of the court- 
house, and a general stampede among the able-bodied male citizens of 
the town began. Those who had horses mounted them and galloped 
rapidly away, while the footmen took to their heels. The thermom- 
eterstoodat 105 degrees, but many a fat, well-fed gentleman made ad- 
mirable fast time in reaching the goal whither all steps were directed — 
the thick shade and foliage that then bordered along Shoal creek and 
fringed the northern boundary of the town. One gentleman sought 
safety in the cupola of the court-house. 

The raiders rode leisurely into town, the head of the column halt- 
ing in front of the court-house. Pickets were thrown out on all the 
roads and perhaps two dozen men dismounted. Two men mounted 
the cupola of the court-house to take down the flag, the stars and 
stripes, gaily waving in the breeze. Miss Olivia George, a young 
lady of the place, ordered them not to touch the flag, but they paid 
no attention to her, except to compliment her on her spunk, and tore 
it down and bore it away. Another flag was taken from the Ray 
Bros.' grocery, and all the whisky in the grocery was drank up by the 
jTuerrillas, who were thirstv as Sahara camels and thought the bever- 
age all the better because it came from an establishment that had a 
Union flag over it. 

Some of the band then went to the court-house and broke open the 
doors of the offices. The vaults were found locked, and two sledge- 
hammers were brought from a l)lacksmith shop. With these the 
vaults in the offices of the circuit and county clerks, as well as the 
sheriff 's safe, were broken open, and then plundered. A few men 
went into the printing office of the Calihoell Banner of Liberty, broke 
up some old guns that chanced to be there, carried off the subscription 
book, but did no damage to the material of the office. The editor, 
Judge Geo. W. Buckingham, was at the time hiding in a hazel thicket 


north of town. None of the public records were destroyed except 
some enrollment lists and papers relating to the organization of 
the militia, which were taken out in front of the court-house and 

From the court-house the marauders went to the stores. Northup 
& Lewis' establishment was robbed of $200 worth of cigars, four 
boxes of ladies' shoes, four dozen cans of oysters, linen, calicoes* 
dress goods, etc. Woodward's store was entered and was being 
rapidly emptied, when Thrailkill rode up and ordered the goods re- 
turned, and forced the robbers to leave the premises. It is said this 
was done because Thrailkill believed the owner of the store to be John 
H. Ardinger, a " Southern sympathizer." ^ Only one or two private 
houses were entered, and from them nothing was taken. 

Many of the citizens were made prisoners, and robbed of what 
money they had in their pockets. Prior to the entrance of the 
raiders into town, on the same day, one of their number had been 
taken prisoner by the militia, brought in and confined in the court- 
hourse. He was of course released. He proved to be a member of 
Capt. Taylor's company of guerrillas, and Taylor swore that he would 

"burn the d d court-house," since the Federals were using it 

only for a pi'ison. Thrailkill protested and declared the building 
should not be harmed. There was something of a discussion between 
the two, but finally it was concluded to spare the court-house, as Gen. 
Price was expected to recapture and permanently hold Missouri, <* and 
we will need it to hold court in ourselves," said Thrailkill. 

The stay of the raiders in Kingston did not exceed an hour. They 
left about 4 p. m., in the direction of Mirabile, taking a circuitous 
route, however, toward the southwest, by way of the Widow Brown 
farm. On the way they stopped at houses by the wayside and pro- 
cured something to eat. Some had procured lunches in Kingston. 

Thrailkill and Taylor entered Mirabile from the east about 11 o'clock 
at night. Capt. E. D. Johnson had alarmed the citizens and nearly 
all of them had left town for Cameron. Immediately Taylor's com- 
pany began work. Dr. W. H. Crawford's store, on the north side of 
Main street, towards the west end, was the first object of attack. 
The goods were nearly all taken or destroyed, and the safe broken 
open and its contents appropriated. The stores of Robt. Walker and 

' The losses reported were: Northup & Lewis, $860 in goods and money; John and 
James Ray, $200 in liquors and groceries; L. C. Woodward, $160 in goods; J. C. 
Lillard, $500 in notes and revenue stamps; S. M. Davis, $100 in clothing; Sergt. John 
Green, $75 in clothing. The losses from the court-house were in addition. 


W. A. Myers were iilso plundered, but the grocery of Mr. McKinnis 
was not disturbed. Some citizens were also robbed. From Mrs. Dr. 
Browning, whose husband was in the Federal army, the guerrillas took 
$25 and her husband's clothing; from Judge Jones they took the 
clothing of his two sons, Avho were in the Federal service; from 
Aaron Pfost they took $32 in money and a revolver. 

The day previous two of Thrailkill's men had been captured a few 
miles west or northwest of Mirabile l)y a squad of neighborhood 
militia belonging to Capt. Grouse's company. These men were named 
♦• Stump " Breckinridge and Richard Lancaster, and their homes Avere 
in Platte county. They admitted that they had I)een with Thrailkill, 
but declared that they had enlisted in the regular Confederate service 
and had deserted their command when it turned back in Carroll county 
after finding it impossible to cross the Missouri river. They said they 
intended returning home and surrendering to their home militia, with 
whom they were well acquainted, and by whom they would be well 
treated. It is said that the prisoners had an overcoat and some other 
articles taken from Capt. Abraham Allen, of Elkhorn, Ray county. 

The prisoners were guarded in Mirabile till the following night when 
Capt. Crouse and 15 men started Avith them ostensibly for Kingston. 
But two miles from Mirabile, on Capt. E. D. Johnson's farm, near 
the Plattsburg road, and 200 yards southwest of the Morris graveyard, 
the prisoners were shot. A current report that they were tied to 
trees and executed is doubtless untrue. The writer is assured that 
they were killed on a small bit of prairie near the timber. It is said 
that Breckinridge, when he saw the preparations that were being made 
to kill him, said to the militia, " If I had known you intended killing 
me you never would have taken me alive." It required several shots 
to finish the prisoners, owing to the darkness. As soon as they were 
dead the militia returned to Mirabile leaving the bodies lying on the 
ground. The next day they were buried by Capt. Johnson, Ben 
Mumpower, Chris. Kerr, and perhaps others, in the Morris graveyard, 
four miles west of Kingston, where they still lie. 

When Taylor and Thiailkill reached Mirabile they learned of the 
killing of Breckinridge and Lancaster, and some of the raiders who 
were from Platte couuty were especially indignant. About a dozen 
prisoners were gathered up, among whom were J. D. Cox, Aaron 
Pfost, James Ray, Rev. Tunnage and his two sons, and Mr. Cates, 
and Fletch Taylor swore he would kill old man Pfost and another 
prisoner who it is saitl were present and aided in the killing of the 
two Confederates the night before. Thrailkill himself was at first not 


inclined to interfere. '* Only yesterday morning," said he, "I cap- 
tured 2fi of the militia of this county and released them without harm- 
ing one of them, and last night their comrades brutally murdered two 
of my men without any cause whatever. It does not seem right that 
I should do all the releasing and the Federal militia all the killingr." 

Matters were looking serious for Mr. Pfost, when J. D. Cox suc- 
ceeded in getting Thrailkill to recognize the sign of Freemasonry, 
and taking him apart told him that if Pfost was killed 10 or 20 
citizens of the county accused of being rebel sympathizers would be 
murdered in retaliation, and advised him to prevent the killing of anv 
one. Whereupon Thrailkill ordered all the prisoners released, and 
gave orders that none of them should be hurt. Many of his men 
were not satisfied at this, and rode sullenly away mattering and mur- 

After taking or ''swapping for" all the good horses they could 
find, and remaining in town two or three hours, the raiders left. The 
amount of booty secured was very respectable. It is alleged that the 
following sums were taken from Dr. Crawford's safe, where they had 
been deposited for safe keeping by the individuals named : From Dr. 
Crawford himself, $2,700; from Solomon Musser, $1,000; Andrew 
Adams, $500; Patrick Denean, $300; William A. Myers, $100; 
James Douglas, $45 in gold and $40 in notes; James Battle, $80. 
Total, $4,765. Besides the $2,700 in cash. Dr. Crawford lost $2,300 
in goods and $42.60 in postage stamps. Robert Walker lost in money 
and goods $1,500 ; W. A. Myers lost $250 in groceries, chiefly canned 

Taking; the Plattsburij road the raiders went three miles west of 
Mirabile and lay down and slept till daylight, when they resumed their 
march to the westward. Eisfht miles west of Mirabile, in the edore of 
Clinton, the advance, Taylor's company, killed a militiaman named 
Eli Christopher. He was standing in his door yard when they rode 
up, and he asked them who they were. They replied, " Militia, out 
after bushwhackers." Christopher rejoined, "That's right; clean 
them out; don't leave one to tell the tale. I am a militiaman, too." 
A dozen pistols were at once pointed at him, to his great consterna- 
tion, and informing him he was the man they wanted the guerrillas 
forced him to accompany them some distance from the house, when 
they shot him dead and then rode their horses over him. 

At 11 o'clock Thrailkill reached Plattsburg, threatened it, but did not 
attack. Capt. Turney, of the Clinton militia, held the town, and when 
the rebels were leavino^ came out at the head of 20 men to attack the 


rear miard, and was shot from his saddle. Thrailkill and Taylor 
passed southward to Gosneyville, in Clay county, when they turned 
and went northwest towards Union mills, in Platte county. Near the 
mills the command breakfasted on Friday morning, July 22d, two 
days after leaving Kingston. 

Meanwhile Maj. Cox's command, numbering about 400 militia, 
from Daviess, Livingston and Caldwell, moved from Breckinridge to- 
wards Black Oak, on Wednesday morning, but learning that the raid- 
ers had marched on Kingston they turned and hastened toward that 
place, where they arrived at sunrise on Thursday morning. As the 
command marched through the county it was continually re-enforced. 
The 26 men captured and paroled by Thrailkill at Michael's paid no 
regard to their parols, but joined in the pursuit of the rebels very 
readily. At Kingston a number of citizens joined, and Maj. Cox 
hastened on to Plattsburg, which place he reached at 4 in the after- 
noon. Here Capt. Crouse's and Capt. Jones' companies of militia 
from this county and Clinton came up, and in a short time the force 
was joined by a company of militia from Stewartsville and a company 
of 50 citizens from this county, under Capt. E. D. Johnson, Lieuts. 
J. L. Mylar and James Kay. Lieut. J. H. Snyder, when he left 
Kingston for Breckinridge to join Maj. Cox, w^nt to Hamilton first 
for ammunition. There he learned of the raid on Kingston, and 
hurried forward to Cameron to join the force at that place. 

Maj. Cox's entire force, 640 strong* camped at Plattsburg Tuesday 
night, and next morning took the trail towards Gosneyville, Clay 
county, and pushed forward as rapidly as possible. Some twelve 
miles to the southwest fresh jjuerrilla siijns were discovered, and the 
command closed up rapidly and pressed forward. 

At the Union mills it was learned that the rebels were camped near 
a large white house, two and a half miles out on the road to Camden 
Point. A halt was ordered; the Stewartsville company was sent for- 
ward as flankers and skirmishers, and the command again hurried on. 
Arriving at the white house it was found that the rebels had left, but 
a cloud of dust in advance showed that they were not far off. Two 
miles further on, as the main body was passing through a lane, the 
advance was fired on. It immediately threw down a pasture fence at 
the right, rode into the field and was ordered to dismount; but be- 
fore the order could be executed it was countermanded, and the 
advance re-entered the road and passed on. The road ran down 
into a kind of hollow and then angled to the right. On the left 
was a field, between it and the road a ridge whose side was bare 


to the top, but whose crest bore a thick growth of small trees and 
underbrush. In this thicket the rebels were concealed. 

Capt. Noblett's Caldwell county company (Co, F, 33d E. M. M.), 
and one or two other companies which were in front, immediately 
formed in line, charged the hill and fired into the brush. The fire was 
returned with spirit and the militia checked. The brush was so dense 
that only an occasional glimpse of a man could be seen, and Noblett's 
men were guided in their aim only by the smoke of the rebel fire. At 
one time while the men were on their knees loading, a guerrilla rode 
bravely from the brush and called out "Who are you?^ Are you 
Federals? " Capt. Noblett replied, " Yes, we are Federals, and if you 
will all come out of the brush we will whip h — 1 out of you ! " 

Other militia companies now dismounted and formed as rapidly as 
possible, and Cox deployed a force into the field to the left for the 
purpose of flanking the rebel position, but it was found that the latter 
movement could not be executed without danger of firing into fellow- 
comrades. Although Maj. Cox had 650 men, while Thrailkill and 
Taylor united had at the time not more than 200, the nature of the 
ground in front was such that not more than 150 Federals could oper- 
ate at a time, and therefore a large portion of Cox's force remained 
in the rear inactive and unemployed. 

A second charge was made on the rebel position and checked. 
Many of the militia ran back from the hill towards their horses. The 
latter became frightened at the firinor and numbers of them broke 
away to the rear. A most ridiculous scene resulted ! There 
was a general stampede of frightened horses and panicky militia. 
In a moment the narrow lane was full of horseless riders, rider- 
less horses, and mounted men, the latter shouting and calling, and 
each man and everything struggling to get to the rear out of the 
way of the pistol balls of the bushwhackers ! Some were crying 
" halt," but it was only after considerable distance had been placed 
between the battle field and the fugitives that the grreat mass halted 
and order was restored. 

But just about the time the stampede took place the fighting was 
terminated by a charge from the militia who remained at the front, 
and who plunged into the brush only to find it empty, and that while 
the greater portion of the Federals were running one way, the 

1 The challenge of the Confederate and Federal soldiers was " Halt! " but that of 
the Missouri guerrillas was invariably "Who are you?" They never called out 
"Halt," unless purposely to deceive an enemy. 


rebels were running the other ! The brush was thoroughly scoured 
for ji mile or so, but no enemy found, and no good evidences that a 
single rebel had been killed. It became evident that only a handful 
of Thrailkill's command, placed to hold the rear so that the main 
command might escape, had caused all the trouble. They had 
fought on horseback, or with their horses near them, and when they 
concluded that their comrades were safe, galloped away themselves. 

Of the militia forces, one man of the Stewartsville company was 
killed. Two men of the Daviess county militia were severely and 
some three or four slightly wounded. Maj. Cox had his horse shot. 
Of the Caldwell county men, Edward Johnson, of Capt. Nol)lett'8 
company, was shot through the side of the neck; Capt. E. D. 
Johnson and Lieut. W. T. Filson each had a cheek grazed by a 
bullet; Hon. George Smith, then the Radical candidate for Lieu- 
tenant-Governor, was in the front of the tight when the stock of his 
gun was shivered by a bullet. He stood his ground, however, until 
the skirmish was over. Lieut. I. N. Hemry, who was at the head of 
the advance when it charged into the brush, was fired upon at close 
range by three of the rebels, :ind narrowly escaped being killed. If 
a single rebel was killed or mortally wounded, it was not certainly 
known to the Federals. 

After the fight was over, and the stragglers and panic stricken had 
been collected, Maj. Cox moved his force on to Camden Point and 
camped for the night. The next morning the pursuit was taken up 
by the 2d Colorado. Thrailkill got his men together again about 
three miles from the scene of the fight, and moving southeast crossed 
the Platte river at Skinner's mill ; two miles above he camped and dis- 
banded his men for a time. Fletcli. Taylor with all or nearly all of 
his company had left at Gosneyville and gone down into the Fishing 
river country, in Clay county, to await the arrival of Bill Anderson, 
whom he had sent for, and to organize for a raid into Iowa. Leaving 
his company in charge of his first lieutenant, Frank James, who knew 
all the country well, Taylor crossed over into Jackson county to secure 
the co-operation of George Todd and his men in the proposed raid into 

When they were in Kingston Taylor's company seemed to number 
about 60 men, all splendidly mounted and well armed with revolvers, 
carbines, shot-guns, etc. According to written statements made to the 
writer by Capt. Taylor himself, Frank James, afterward the noted 
bandit, was first lieutenant of this company, John Hope, of Inde- 
pendence, Mo., orderly sergeant, while there was no second lieu- 


tenant, " for," says Capt. Taylor, *' we didn't believe in many 
officers." Jesse James was a member of the company, having joined 
it a few weeks previously, it being his first experience in the guerrilla 
service. Many of Taylor's men wore the Federal uniform, and 
there was a Federal flag in the company, which was used when- 
ever occasion required it. 

Maj. Cox's command started back home on Saturday, July 23, and 
soon reached Caldwell, when the men from this county were given a 
hearty reception. Not far from Camden Point one of Thrailkill's men 
was taken prisoner. He made a written confession or statement 
under oath, from which the following extracts are made: — 

My name is Andrew E. Smith. I am 26 years old and live in Platte 
county, two miles west of Platte City. I was a member of Capt. 
Johnson's compan}' of Paw-paw militia, and served about six months. 
* * * I joined Thrailkill last Sunday, July 17, and was with him 
at Kingston, Mirabile and Plattsburg. Capt. Taylor took the goods 
which we stole at Mirabile and Kingston. After the tight yes- 
terday I left Thrailkill. We had only 180 men. * ♦ * Out 
of our militia company of 30 men, 25 joined Thrailkill. * * • 
Thrailkill promised to take us South as soon as possible. Five men 
have deserted from him since I was with him — Richard Lancaster, 
Stump Breckinridge, of Platte county, and three brothers, whose 
names I do not remember. We turned back in Carroll county, be- 
cause we could not get south of the Missouri river. 

On his way back to his company, " Fletch " Taylor Avas ambushed 
one night by a party of Federals in Rush Bottom, Jackson county, 
and had his left arm shot away. Of this incident Capt. Taylor says : 
" I had started back to cross the river with Thrailkill, Allen Palmer 
and others, when I run against a chain stretched across the road, and 
instantly the Federals opened tire on us. One pistol was shot from 
my side, another from my hand, my horse was mortally wounded, and 
my left arm shattered just above the elbow. My horse went fifty 
feet and fell. With the assistance of Allen Palmer I mounted behind 
Thrailkill just as he received a ball in the back of his neck. Three 
days afterward my arm was amputated by Dr. Radsden, of W^elling- 

Thrailkill recrossed the river, reorganized his command, passed 
down the river with George Todd and Anderson, who had taken charge 
of Taylor's companjs was in the Centralia fight, crossed the river to 
the south side, joined Gen. Price's invading army, was made major of 
a newly formed regiment in Shelby's brigade, went to Mexico at the 
close of the .war, and is yet there, a well known railroad contractor 


and superintendent. After many narrow escapes Taylor survived the 
war, and is now one of the wealthiest and most respected citizens of 
Joplin, Mo., largely interested in banking and lead mining. 


As stated elsewhere, upon the capture of Kingston the rebel raiders 
broke into and robbed the county treasury. By whom this was done 
and what was the exact amount of money taken can not here be stated. 
All accounts agree that some of Taylor's company did the robbing. 
Edwards' *' Noted Guerrillas," a work of some authority as to perfor- 
mances of the Missouri oruerrillas, although usually exaggerating and 
distorting everything, says (p. 351) of this incident: — 

Resuming his march Taylor passed through Knoxville into Caldwell 
county. * * * At Kingston, James Commons, Theo. Castle, Nat 
Tigue and Gooly Robertson took from the county treasurer $6,000 in 
greenbacks and divided it among the guerrillas per capita — a sort of 
prize money scarcely legitimate and certainly of but little account so 
generally apportioned. 

In a letter to the compiler Capt. Taylor says he knows personally 
nothing about the matter. He says he is certain that no such amount 
as $8,000 was taken or he would have known all about it. ^ 

In December, 1864, County Treasurer John McBride made the 
following affidavit, which is still on file in the office of the clerk of the 
county court (see Record " A," p. 177) : — 

State of Missouri, County of Caldwell — ss. 

John McBride, late treasurer of the county of Caldwell, makes oath 
and says on or about the 20th day of July, 1864, a band of guerrillas 
and robbers, said to be under the command of one John Thrailkill, 
entered the town of Kingston, forced open the doors of the court-house 
and offices in same, also the doors of vaults in said offices, also broke 
open a safe belonging to the county, situate in the vault of the circuit 
clerk's office, and took therefrom a large amount of money, viz., 
$9,74^.37, money belonging to the county revenue fund, school fund 
and school money. The above statement is true to the best of my 
knowledire and belief. 

[Signed] John McBride. 


Singularly enough, the records themselves do not agree as to the 
amount lost. Treasurer McBride' s sworn statement, given above. 

' Taylor further says: " After we had left Kingstou some of the boys told rue that 
Jim Cummings and others had got a lot of money. I asked them about it and they 
denied it." 



says the sum was $9,745.37. But his books show, upon his own en- 
tries and statements, that a sum nearly $3,000 in excess of this was 
lost. That is to say, he has credited himself in various places in his 
ledger " to amount taken by one John Thrailkill and his band," etc., 
and the various sums so credited aggregate $12,734.87. The princi- 
pal portion of the money alleged to have been lost belonged to the 
school fund, or interest on the same, and the loss was apportioned by 
the treasurer as per the following : — 

|ing to Sc 

hool Town 

ship No. 1 
" 2 

" 3 

" 4 

" 5 

" 6 

" 7 

" 8 

" 9 

'< 10 

" 11 

" 12 


As shown on the treasurer's ledsre 

Interest on 

School Fund 

School Fund. 


«1,291 67 

$1,300 00 

33 13 

892 72 

366 70 

32 08 

489 92 

21 00 

927 91 

316 00 

343 76 

64 95 

186 68 

331 86 

268 89 

89 40 

116 47 

190 83 

331 65 

31 02 

547 47 

287 25 

$5,130 98 

$3,320 88 

the amounts alleged to have 

been taken from the different funds were as follows : — 

From the school fund interest ' . . $5,130 98 

" " proper 3,320 38 

" county school fund 717 73 

" " road money 10 95 

" State school money 2 27 

" county " 64 22 

" " revenue fund 3,488 34 

Total ♦12,734 87 

The amount of the county revenue fund which the treasurer's ledger 
shows was taken, $3,488.34, is found (within 1 cent) on the county 
court record (Record A, p. 176), where, in a statement by the 
treasurer, the item " stoled by bushwhackers, $3,488.35," is given. 
The statement of the amount of road money taken, $10.95, is also 
corroborated ; but no other verification of the statements of the 
treasurer's ledger has been found by the writer. Mr. McBride, now 
very old and infirm, can not remember the exact amount taken or ex- 
plain the discrepancies after the lapse of so many years. 

The same evening of and the next morning after the raid the county 
clerk, Mr. John C. Lillard, picked up, in the clerk's office, about 
$3,000 in money which the robbers had overlooked. This was con- 
tained in an envelope and between the leaves of a pamphlet or book. 


This amount is variously estiraatetl. The county court record 
(Record A, p, 168) says there was "saved from the robbers, 
$3,089," but the first number of the Banner of Liberty after the 
raid said that the " sum of $3,200 was found among the rubbish 
around the safe that evenino; and the next morning, leaving the 
total loss to the county a little over $8,000," while in his evidence 
in the case of Sheriff Sackman Mr. Lillard swears that the amount 
he found was $2,600, of which $1,200 was in the pamphlet which 
he picked up the evening of the raid, and $1,400 in the envelope 
which he found next morning.^ 

In addition to the money of the county in the safe at the time 
of the robbery there were the following amounts belonging to the 
individuals named: To John H. Ardinger, $800; to G. W. Ralev, 
$270; to H. J. Chapman, $105; to Charles Ross, $175; to George 
AV. Buckingham, $142. A portion of these sums, especially Ar- 
dinger's, was in the custody of the sheritf, Jonathan Sackman. 
Treasurer McBride had a considerable sum belonffine: to the countv 
at his house in the country. 

Soon after the rebel raid insinuations were made that the gruerrillas 
did not take the amount of money alleged from the court-house, but that 
the greater portion of the public money was taken by some of the citi- 
zens of the county before the raiders came, and the act charged to the 
bushwhackers. It was argued that an ordinarily prudent man would 
not have kept so large a sum as $12,000 in so unsafe a place as 
the court-house under the circumstances ; that the presence of the 
raiders in the country, and their numbers had been known to all 
the people of Kingston for some days, and that nearly all having 
money had hid it or removed it ; that there was no adequate force 
to defend the town, and that it Avas well known that the town must 
be given up to the rebels when they should demand it ; that the court- 
house, in the event of capture, would certainly be plundered, and prob- 
ably burned, by its captors and its contents taken and destroyed, and 
therefore those having charge of the money, if they did not remove it 
from the court-house, were grossly negligent, to say the least. On 
the other hand, the officials swore that the loss occurred as they 
stated, and, as they were men of high character, their statements were 
generally believed, and no attempt was ever made to controvert them. 

The county court refused to settle with Treasurer McBride (who. 

' See papers on file in the circuit clerk's office in case of Jonathan Sackman v. Cald- 
well County, for relief from liabilities for money taken by bushwhackers. 


as previously stated, was not in Kingston when the raid occurred) 
and to discharge him from liability for the funds lost. Afterwards 
Judge George W. Dunn, of the circuit court, came up and had an 
examination of the matter, and fully exonerated and released Mr. 
McBride. Tn April, 1866, Sheriff Sackman instituted proceedings to 
be released from responsibility and liability for the money lost 
which was in his care and custody. A number of witnesses were 
sworn, among them John C. Lillard, Capt. H. J. Chapman, M. R. 
Streeter, Circuit Clerk Lemuel Dunn (a brother of Judge George W. 
Dunn), some ladies, and Maj. M. L. James. Sheriff Sackman 
claimed that he had left the funds with which he was charged in the 
vault in the circuit clerk's office, to which Lemuel Dunn, the circuit 
clerk, had the keys ; that the evening previous to the raid Dunn 
went to St. Joseph to procure arms and assistance, and when the 
rebels came they broke into the vault and took therefrom a tin 
box in which he (Sackman) had his funds, mashed it open and left 
it lying on the floor. But certain witnesses swore that on the day of 
the raid, and a few minutes before the rebels entered Kingston, Sack- 
man left town on a gallop, bearing his tin box in front of him, and 
that there was no battered or mashed tin box in the plundered office 
until next morning. 

The court found against Mr. Sackman generally — that he had 
timely knowledge of the approach of the raiders, and of the defense- 
less condition of Kingston; that the tin box, called the "change 
box," contained, according to the statements made immediately after 
the occurrence by the sheriff and his deputy, Capt. Streeter, only 
about $65 or $75; "that the tin box alleged to have been broken 
open containing said revenue was in the possession (jf the petitioner 
that day and in his office, and was taken away by him from the said 
town when he fled just before the said force entered ;" that the court 
house and its vaults were insecure places for the deposit of money at 
the time, and that the collector should have removed the funds belong- 
ing to his office before the said raid came, and that he did so remove 
his oivn funds. 


In August and September, 1864, there was begun the organization 
of the 44th Missouri infantry volunteers, of which regiment R. C. 
Bradshaw, of St. Joseph, was colonel; A. J. Barr, of Richmond, 
lieutenant-colonel; and R. A. DeBolt, of Trenton, major. Into this 


regiment manv Caldwell county men enlisted. Company H was almost 
exclusively from this county. Its officers were: — 

Captain, Wm. D. Fortune ; first lieutenant, James D. McBride, who 
died at Nashville, Tcnn., December 15, 1864; second lieutenant, 
Jacob H. Snyder; sergeants, Wm. Brant, John H. Williams (pro- 
moted to first lieutenant, January 24, 1865, but never mustered), C. 
H. Staas, Josiah Owens and L. C. Devinney ; corporals, J. P. Piatt, 
W. N. Shaffer, John Kayser, W. H. McCoUum, W. A. Smith, James 
Streeter, Henry C. Dennison and W. N. Waters. 

Some of our citizens were members of Co. C, Capt. Frank Hopkins, 
and Co. F, Capt. Isaac N. Hemry, the latter a Caldwell man. 

The 44th Missouri rendezvoused at St. Joseph, which place they 
left for Rolla, September 14, 1864 ; was ordered south and arrived 
at Paducah, Ky., November 16; on the 27th arrived at Nashville 
and was immediately pushed to the front to help repel the Con- 
federate invasion under Gen. Hood. Arrivinor at Columbia on the 
29th, the regiment was attached to the 23d Army Corps, and took 
part in the action at Spring Hill. At the desperate battle of Frank- 
lin, November 30, 1864, the 44th Missouri bore a prominent and 
most gallant part. The official report of Lieut. -Col. Barr concern- 
ins its conduct contains the following: — 

We arrived at Franklin about 1 o'clock, and got into position be- 
hind some temporary works, which we hurriedly threw up while the 
rest of the army was getting into position. Our left wing rested on 
the pike, extending down the right of the right center, which position 
we gallantly held against the determined efforts of the enemy through- 
out the entire fight. The battle opened about 3 o'clock a. m., and 
raged with great fury and desperation until 11 o'clock p. m. It may 
not be out of i)lace to remark here that, at the commencement of the 
battle, several old regiments were sent out to receive the enemy, and 
gradually fall back as the force of the enemy made it necessary ; but 
instead of this, they received one volley of musketry and then re- 
treated in great disorder and confusion, literally running over the 
44th, who, notwithstantling the shock, stood firm and received the 
enemy with undaunted coolness and courage, and with steady aim and 
rapid firing suddenly stopi)ed the enemy, who seemed at this moment 
determined to break our lines, and thus at once divide our army. 
After having thus repidsed the enemy so gallantly in their desperate 
efforts to break our lines, about sunset we received orders to charge 
over the works and retake the lower ditch, out of which the enerav 
had driven several of our regiments in their first charge. In making 
this charge the whole regiment was exposed to a most galling fire, and 


opposed by five times their numbers. Here Col. Brudshaw fell, 
pierced with seven balls, but fortunately not killed.^ Lieut. Dunlap, 
Lieut. Warren, Lieut. Kirgan and 35 privates were killed. We were 
forced back to our old position, without being able to carry off our 
dead and wounded. This gave the enemy new courage, and like 
demons, they came rushing upon us two or three columns deep, 
making the very heavens reverberate with their yells, and the earth 
shake with their tread — but again they are repulsed, with te^Tible 
slaughter. The enemy made three more efforts during the night to 
break our lines, but were repulsed. At 12 o'clock we received orders 
to quietly withdraw, and, with the balance of the army, retreated to 
Nashville, at which place we arrived on the 1st of December, 1864, 
ranch fatigued, having been three nights without sleep, and fighting 
continually since the 29th of November. During the last two days 
fighting we lost, in killed, wounded and missing, about 300 men, 
amons: whom were the best of our officers. 


Among the Caldwell men wounded at Franklin wereThos. J. Butts 
and Aloana Mumpower of Co. C, both in the arm. Butts severely. 
In Co. H, John Kayser, John A. Hays, Reuben Smith, Josiah Swisher, 
George C. Swigart, Adam Swigart, Samuel Hooker and Jacob Cox 
were wounded, and Wm. H. McCoUum, David Toomey, Matthias 
Lynch, Thos. Clark, John Martin, Henry S. Phillips, Henry C. Den- 
nison and Seth Stubblefield were reported missing. 

A few days after the fight Lieut. J. D. McBride accidentally fell 
into a railroad cut sustaining injuries that resulted in his death. 

Of the part taken by the 44th in the battle of Nashville, Tenn., 
December 15-17, 1864, and subsequent movements of the regiment, 
Col. Barr says: — 

On the 15th we were ordered to take position on the right of the 
Charlotte pike, and engaged the enemy, participated in the battle on 
the 15th, 16tli and 17th insts., and then followed in the pursuit of 
Hood's demoralized and conquered army. On the 27th we reached 
Columbia, where we first met the enemy. On the 28th we reached 
Pulaski, with two-thirds of the command barefooted. In this condi- 
tion the regiment was compelled to march on the ice and snow to 
Clifton, 60 miles, where we arrived on the 2d of January, 1865 — 
men worn out and feet terribly mangled. On the 9th of January we 
embarked on steamer Clara Poe and arrived at Eastport, Miss., on the 
11th. Here we were ordered into camp, where we remained until the 
6th of February, 1865, with the exception of one short campaign to 
Corinth, with a small cavalry force. From Eastport the regiment 
proceeded by transport to New Orleans, at which point it arrived on 

1 Col. Bradshaw's body fell into the hands of the enemy, and for some time it was 
believed, and so published, that he had been killed. 



the 21st. Left New Orleans on the 11th of March, and arrived at 
Dauphin Ishmd on the 14th. Remained at this point three days ; 
thence proceeded to Cedar Point, where it remained until the 22d, 
when orders were received to re-embark and go to Fish river, at which 
place we arrived on the 23d, when the regiment was ordered to imme- 
diately proceed to Spanish Fort, Ala., where it participated in the 
siege and capture of that fort. After the reduction of Spanish Fort 
it was ordered to Montgomery, Ala., at which place it arrived on the 
25th of April ; thence to Tnskegee, where it remained until the 19th 
of July. From here they were ordered to Vicksburg, at which point 
they arrived on the 28th of July, and remained there until the 30th, 
when orders were received to proceed to St. Louis, at which place they 
arrived on the 4th of August. Here the entire regiment was mustered 
out of service on the 15th day of August. 


During the Civil War in Caldwell two Union men, belonging to the 
militia, were murdered by the rebel guerrillas under Fletcher Taylor, 
during the raid in July, 1864 ; these are believed to have been all of 
the Union men killed in the county by the Confederates or those act- 
ing with them. No Union citizen, not in the Federal service, was 

On the other hand the following Confederate sympathizers were 
killed by the Unionists : Judge James Steeley, John C. Myers, James 
Baker, George Baker, William Baker, Sr., Alex. Richey, H. D. White- 
neck, Rev. Frazee, R. S. McBeath, Absalom Harpold and Henry 
Gist, all of whom were citizens of the county. Following are the 
particulars in some of the cases ; the others are elsewhere mentioned : — 


In November, 1862, on the evening following election day, John C. 
Myers was killed by some Federal militia at the house of H. D. 
Whiteneck, in Rockford township, two miles south of Mirabile. Mr. 
Myers was an early settler and a well known resident of the county. 
He had been sheriff of the county, and held other positions of trust 
and responsibility. 

When the Civil War came on, Mr. Myers sympathized with the 
Confederate cause, and went South. It is believed he took service 
with the Confederate army, but in what capticity can not here be stated. 
He returned to the county in the fall of 1862, and announced to cer- 
tain of his friends that he would never surrender to the Federal mil- 
itia then in the county. By his thorough knowledge of the country 
and the people, Mr. Myers managed to escape capture for some time. 


On the evening of his death Mr. Myers went to the house of Mr. 
Whiteneck to pass the night. His former home was in Rockford 
township, near the house of Whiteneck, whom he regarded as a neigh- 
bor and friend. After supper Mr. Whiteneck tried to dissuade Mr. 
Myers from remaining where he was that night, saying, "You may 
get us both into trouble," but Myers laughed at the fears of his friend 
and assured him there was no danger. To Whiteneck's expressed 
opinion that he would better surrender himself, Myers replied, 
" Never." 

A little after nightfall Miss Sue Whiteneck, hearing the footsteps 
of a number of men in the dry leaves of a grove near by, ran into 
the house and told Mr. Myers that the militia were coining. He ran 
forth, but was discovered, and ordered to halt ; but he refused to and 
continued to run and try to escape through the field in which were 
some shocks of corn. The militia fired after him, and near one of 
these corn shocks he was shot down and killed. His death was largely 
due to his own rashness and self-will. 


In either 1862 or 1863 a man named Frazee, a Baptist preacher, 
who lived in Rockford township, about 4 miles northeast of Lisbon- 
ville, was taken from his home one night and killed by the militia. 
Mr. Frazee had been for a short time in the Confederate service, but 
had come home, taken the oath, and allowed to go to his home and 

He had been at home for some time, when one night some militia 
came to his house, took him out of bed from his wife and carried him 
away. A mile or two from his house, as they were riding and he was 
on foot, and the entire party was in a narrow lane, they opened fire on 
him, and gave him three mortal wounds. He did not die until the next 
day, and gave the names of those who killed him, saying, however, 
that he forgave them, "for surely," he said, ♦' they did not know 
what they were doing." He contrived to crawl into a fence corner, 
where he lay until he was found. The killing was done by some of 
the members of Ross' company, who told the same old story, of an 
attempt to escape. 

No specific violation of his parole was ever proved against Mr. Fra- 
zee, and indeed none was alleged. He is said to have remained quietly 
at home, never going away except to preach. He was about 32 years 
of age. 



On the night of April 2, 1863, Robt. S. McBeath, who lived in the 
eastern portion of" Minibile township, 4 miles west of Kingston, was 
shot by a squad of Enrolled Militia under Capt, John T. Ross. Mc- 
Beath was regarded as a Southern sympathizer, and although he had 
never enlisted in the rebel army or fired a gun during the war, he vis- 
ited Lexington the day following the surrender of Col. Mulligan and 
spent a day or two with Price's army, returning home when the army 
moved South. He never thereafter gave any substantial aid to the 
Confederate cause, but avowed himself in its favor and never con- 
cealed his opinions when asked for them. 

Mr. McBeath was enrolled ** disloyal," and was ordered to surren- 
der to the militarv authorities what fire-arms he might have. He 
owned a spendid shot-gun, but this he refused to deliver though asked 
repeatedly to do so. At last he denied owning it. Certain friends 
advised him to comply with the order but he refused, saying, "The 
gun belongs to me, not to them ; they have no right to it, and they 
shall not have it if I can prevent it." 

Capt. Ross was stationed with the militia at Breckinridge. Word 
was brought that the situation in Rockford township needed inspection 
and taking 3 men with him he rode into the southwestern part of the 
county and scouted about for a day or so. On the evening of April 
2, on the return to Breckinridge, the squad stopped at McBeath's house 
and the captain made another imperative demand for the shot-gun. 
McBeath again denied that he had it or an}'^ other kind of fire-arms 
about his premises, but two of the militia ran upstairs and brought 
down the barrels which had been removed from the stock and the two 
parts of the weapon hidden away in different places. 

Upon this Capt. Ross was very indignant, cursed McBeath violently 
and putting a rope about his neck swore he would hang him to a tree 
in the door-yard. But Mrs. McBeath interfered and then the oflScer 
said he would take McBeath to Breckinridge and turn him over to the 
commander there. McBeath asked that his brother-in-law, Mr. S. 
W. Allen, might be permitted to accom])any him, and Capt. Ross 
readily granted the request. Before starting off the captain promised 
Mrs. McBeath that her husband should not be killed. The party 
started off and after securing Mr. Allen set out for Breckinridge, 
Capt. Ross and Allen riding some distance in advance of the 3 militia- 
men and the prisoner. The night was rather dark. 


A little more than half a mile west of Kintjjston, suddenly Allen 
and Ross heard pistol shots in their rear, and in a few seconds Mc- 
Beath came galloping np, followed by the militia. Reaching Capt. 
Ross he halted, spoke some words that were not clearly understood, 
and then either fell or dismounted from his horse. The shooting con- 
tinued and McBeath called out, " O, boys, you have given me enough." 
In a few seconds he was dead. 

The party rode on to Kingston, taking the dead man's horse. Here 
Allen was released and ordered to take the dead man's body and horse 
back to his widow. The body was taken up the same night, carried 
to the porch of a residence not far away, and buried the next day. 
Mr. McBeath was 40 years of age. 

The militia reported that McBeath was shot while attempting to 
escape ; that as they were riding along he suddenly wheeled his horse 
and attempted to gallop away in the darkness when they fired on him. 
McBeath's friends, however, deny this and assert that the killing must 
have been unjustifiable murder, and that the claim of " Shot while 
trying to escape," was too often made to cover up the deliberate and 
willful shooting of a prisoner. One of the militia party, a reliable 
gentleman and now a business man of Kingston, declares, however, 
that the prisoner did try to escape as stated. 

Mr. Allen writes that the shooting was against the positive orders 
of Capt. Ross, who seemed displeased that it was done, and rode on 
to Kingston for a doctor to help the wounded man. He says 
further : — 

When they came up with us Capt. Ross asked them what they had 
been shooting for; they replied that McBeath had tried to run and 
they had shot him, but McBeath said it was false, for he would neither 
run nor beg. John Nosier then asked Ross to give him his pistol and 

he would finish the " d d ; " they then stepped 

behind Ross' horse and changed pistols and Nosier stepped back and 
shot McBeath and broke his leg and he fell to the ground. » » * 
Before we got to Kingston we heard more pistol shots where we had 
left McBeath. * * * When I got to him he was dying, with a 
bullet hole through his head, and his brains running into his cap. 


On the night of June 27th, 1864, Absalom Harpold, a citizen of 
this county, was hung by the militia at Cameron. A week before he 
had returned to his home, west of Kingston, from three years of serv- 
ice in the Confederate army, having gone out with the Caldwell 
county company. Finding that it was dangerous even to surrender 


liimself to the militia, Mr. Harpold determined' to leave the country 
and go to California and remain until the war was over. 

Accordingly after a stay of one week with his family, Mr. Harpold 
boarded the cars at Kidder one night and set out for the West. But 
a man who knew him saw him at Kidder, and learning m some way 
that he would be on the night train for the West, galloped on a 
swift horse to Cameron and informed the militia. When the train 
arrived it was searched and Mr. Harpold discovered and taken oflf. 
Without any investigation of his case, he was taken to an old build- 
ins: in the town and hung: to one of the beams. Word of his death 
was sent to the family and they sent for and buried his body. Mr. 
Harpold was 43 years of age, and left a wife and several children. 


July 1st, 1864, James Crowley, a young man, and a nephew of 
Mrs. Mary Stephenson, of Rockford town.ship, was killed by a party 
of militia from Mirabile. It is alleged that four of the party were 
James Sickles, Harvey Grove, Van Grove and James Mylar. No 
particulars of this tragedy can be given save that the militiamen first 
went to Mr. Stephenson's house and inquired for James Stephenson, 
and succeeded in taking young Crowley unawares. 


On the night of August 15, 1864, Henry D. Whiteneck, who lived 
in Rockford township, two miles south of Mirabile, was murdered at 
his home by a squad of militia. Mr. Whiteneck was 60 years of age ; 
he was born in Kentucky, but had resided in this county for some 
time. Although a '• Southern sympathizer," he had never taken up 
arms or given any substantial aid to the Confederate cause. His son, 
John, had enlisted in the Confederate army, in the Caldwell county 
company, and had been killed at Vicksburg. It was at Whiteneck's 
house where John C Myers was killed, two years before. 

On the night of the murder Mr. Whiteneck and his family, consist- 
ing of his wife and daughter, were awakened about midnight by a 
young man who came to the door, and said that a party of Iowa 
troops were up in the road, a quarter of a mile distant, and wanted 
Mr. Whiteneck to guide them to Kingston. After some parleying 
Mr. Whiteneck started off with the young man and two other men in 
uniform who had suddenly come into view, A hundred yards from 
the house these men shot him dead and left him weltering in his blood. 
Soon after the noise of a dozen horsemen cantering away was heard. 


Mrs. Whiteneck had for some time been partially deranged. Her 
daughter, Miss Susan, who now resides in Kingston, heard the pistol 
shots that killed her father, knew their fearful meaning and feared 
their effect on her mother. The latter, however, was for more com- 
posed than will be deemed jjossible. Miss Susan visited the place 
where the dead body of her father lay, composed it as well as she 
could and then with her own hands piled Sf)me rails about it to pro- 
tect it from some hogs known to be running at large. The two 
women then made their way in the darkness to the house of a neigh- 
bor, half a mile distant, fearing to remain at home. Friends cared 
for the body when daylight came, and it was buried that day. It is 
not known — save possibly to the merest few — who did the killing, 
or why it was done. 


Henry Gist was killed on Monday evening, October 2, 1864, on 
Long creek, two miles south of Kingston. Court was in session at 
the time, and he had come in from Breckinridge, where he lived, to 
attend to some legal business. Kingston was full of Federal militia, 
and Gist fearing injury at their hands if he remained in town, started 
to the country to stay all night with a Mr. Mumpower. Some of the 
militia followed him and killed him before he reached his destination. 
It is said he was both shot and hung. The body was hauled to Kings- 
ton and thrown into the grand jury room of the court-house, where 
it lay without attention until the family sent for it and removed it 
to Breckinridge, where it was buried. 

Mr. Gist was born in East Tennessee in 1797, and was therefore 
67 years of age when he was murdered. He came to Kentucky in 
1809, to Clay county. Mo., in 1821, and to Caldwell county, in Dec- 
ember, 1841, locating near Breckinridge, of which town, as noted 
elsewhere, he was one of the founders. His enemies did not hesitate 
to charge him with certain offenses, but he was never convicted of any. 
When the first Confederate troops went south he accompanied them, 
but was only absent about two months. When he returned he had a 
horse which he claimed was captured from Gen. Sigel at the battle 
of Wilson's Creek; but he was certainly joking, for Gen. Sigel had 
no horse captured, and some ex-Confederate soldiers who claim to 
know say that Mr. Gist took no part in the battle of Wilson's Creek. 

A citizen of the county, ex-raember of the militia, who knows who 
killed Mr. Gist, says he was put to death " because he was a d -d 
old rebel rascal who ought to have been killed long before." 

CHAPTER yill. 


The New Couuty Seat Scheme — Railroad Subscriptions to the Chicago and Southwest- 
ern and to the Nortliwestern Branch of the Teboand Neosho Railroad — Opinion of 
Hon. Willard P. Hall as to the Valid it)' of the Latter — The Grangers — Notable 
Tragedies in the County since 18G5 — Killing of Robert Bradley, Lou Marley, James 
R. Rogers, Pete Lewis, Sam Rogers, George Bohannan, Nathan B. Middaugh, Peter 
L. Boulton, John Q. Gray and Isaac N. Henry. 


In the summer and fall of 1867 a scheme was organized by certain 
shrewd individuals interested in the welfare of Hamilton to make that 
town the county seat. Being the metropolis of the county, and having 
railroad communication, its advantages are numerous and important, 
and nothing but the fact of its location so near the northern boundary 
has prevented its becoming, years ago, the county capital. But now 
the authors of the project referred to determined to remove this 
weighty objection by the removal of the town farther fvom the north- 
ern boundary of the county ; and this was to be accomplished without 
the displacement of a single stone or the disturbing of a single article 
of personal property in the town. 

Not to be enigmatic, it may be plainly stated that it was proposed 
to take six miles of territory, or a row of Congressional townships, 
from the southern portion of Harrison county and attach the same to 
Daviess ; then six miles was to be taken from the southern part of 
Daviess and added to Caldwell, thus removing our county's northern 
boundary line six miles north of its present location and placing 
Hamilton in an excellent location to secure the county seat. 

The scheme was well received in many quarters, but met with much 
spirited opposition in the southern portion of this county and else- 
Avhere. Meetinj^s for and ajjainst it were held in this and other couu- 
ties. One against the project at Kingston, October 12th, was presided 
over by John Noslor and addressed by Hon. S. A. Richardson, of 
Gallatin, Col. James McFerran, of Chillicothe, and others. The fol- 
lowing preamble and resolution were unanimously adopted: — 

Whereas, The citizens of Hamilton have given notice throughthe pub- 
lic press that they will present to the General Assembly at its next session 


a petition, the avowed purpose of which is simply to change the county 
lines of Caldwell, Daviess and Harrison, but the real object is, after 
such change is made, to remove the county seat of Caldwell county to 
Hamilton, and build up that town at the sacrifice and to the detriment 
of Kingston, and the growth, prosperity and improvement of our 
county generally ; therefore, Resolved, That we regard the said move 
on the part of our neighbors of Hamilton as very unkind, ungrateful 
and unjust ; and that, if they persist in their course, we shall feel 
forced to pledge ourselves to the use of all honorable , means to turn 
from Hamilton trade, commerce and travel. / 

A county committee, consisting of three members from each town- 
ship, was appointed to circulate remonstrances, obtain funds, etc.-, for 
the purpose of opposing the scheme to change the county lines. The 
representative of the county, Hon. J. M. Hoskinson, declined to com- 
mit himself upon the question until the wishes of a majority of his 
constituents could be learned, when he would act accordingly. But 
the scheme utterly failed in the Legislature, and its projectors 
abandoned it. 


In the spring and summer of 1869 the people of the county became 
greatly interested in the proposed building of the Chicago and South- 
western Railroad through the county. This railroad, virtually a branch 
of the Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific, and now a part of the main 
line of that road, was contemplated to run from Wilson, Iowa, to 
Kansas City. A proposition was made to build a portion of the line 
through Caldwell county in a general direction from northeast to 
southwest, coming into the county from Trenton through Livingston 
and Daviess. 

Meetings in favor of the road were held at different points in the 
county, and in response to a largely signed petition, the county coui't, 
at a special term held June 26, 1869, agreed to subscribe in the name 
of the county $200,000 to the stock of the said Chicago and South- 
western, provided the assent of the majority of the voters of the 
county could be obtained at a special election to be held July 27 fol- 
lowing. This order of subscription was amended July 17, ten days 
prior to the election. 

There were various conditions to the subscription, among which 
were that depots were to be established at Breckinridge, Kingston, 
Mirabile, and at some point in Davis township ; that the road should 


be completed through the county before January 1, 1871, and that 
only $5,000 of the bonds of the county per mile should be issued 
while the road was being completed through the county, the remaider 
of the bonds to be delivered when the western or southwestern bound- 
ary of the county should be passed. (See Record " A," p. 524.) 

The election resulted in favor of the subscription, as follows : For 
the subscription, 636; against, 461. There was talk of contesting 
Hhe election, and of enjoining the county court from making the sub- 
scription, but Presiding Justice John H. Nosier hastened to Weston, 
where the subscription books of the company were, and made the 
subscription. (See Record "A," p. 549.) There was great indig- 
nation in certain parts of the county over Judge Nosler's action, 
which was denounced as unjust, illegal and underhanded. The sub- 
scription remained, however, and, had the road been built through 
the county in accordance with its terms, doubtless would have become 
valid and binding. 

But the road was not built through the county. The adroit mana- 
gers who were working up the subscriptions through this part of the 
State paltered with our people in a douhle sense, and while they kept 
the word of promise to their ears that the road should be theirs, they 
broke it to their hopes. Notwithstanding the co.unty, township and 
individual aid guaranteed them — all, in fact, that they demanded — the 
road was in time located and finally built, in the spring of 1871, where 
it now is. It then became apparent that after all it was never in- 
tended tbUl the road should run through Caldwell, and that all of the 
subscriptions made by this county had been used to secure larger 
ones from Daviess and Clinton and induce the people of those 
counties to give every cent possible in order to secure the road for 


In the fall of 1870 an effort was made to secure a branch of the 
Tebo and Neosho Railroad through this county. The Tebo and Neosho 
Railroad Company is of decidedly unsavory memory among the peo- 
ple of certain counties south of the Missouri, and has long been ex- 
tinct, the Missouri, Kansas and Texas and the Missouri Pacific acquiring 
its assets, with the exception of its bad fame. It was contemplated 
to build a branch of the Tebo and Neosho from Sedalia to or towards 
Nebraska City, Neb., through (among the other counties) Carroll and 
Caldwell. This was called the •' Northwestern Branch " of said road. 


and the part thereof in which our people were interested was the 
division from the north bank of the Missouri to Cameron. 

In September, 1870, Dr. N. M. Smith and others petitioned the 
county court to transfer the $200,000 subscription made to the stock 
of the C/hicao^o and Southwestern Raih'oad Company in July, 1869, to 
the aforesaid " Northwestern Branch." Before this petition was acted 
upon it was withdrawn, and October 4, Presiding Justice Isaac Mer- 
chant made an alleged — or what was afterward called *' a pretended " — 
subscription of the county court of $200,000 " to the capital stock 
of the Northwestern Branch of the Tebo and Neosho Railroad," upon 
certain conditions, viz. : That the road should be built through the 
county by January 1, 1872, that there should be deijots established in 
Davis township, at Kingston, Far West and elsewhere, etc. The 
order was made by Judge Merchant alone, his associate, Judge Austin, 
dissenting, alleging that the proposition ought to be submitted to a 
vote of the people. The other justice. Judge Dodge, was not present. 
This order recited that the proposed road was to run from Carrollton 
to Cameron, and the subscription was an original, independent one, 
having no connection with or reference to the Chicago and Southwest- 
ern subscription, or any other. (Record " B," p. 51.) 

November 7, less than a month after Judge Merchant's subscrip- 
tion, the county court convened, all the judges being present, and 
the order of subscription was annulled, revoked, and declared to have 
been made without any warrant or authority of law. Justices Dodge 
and Austin voting for the revocation, and Justice Merchant opposing. 
(Record *'B," p. 55.) Whether this revocation was proper and 
legal, under the circumstances, is questionable, but was never authori- 
tatively passed upon. 

Certain parties, however, contended that Merchant's subscription 
was still binding upon the county, and in the summer of 1871, the 
county court asked for and obtained the opinion of Ex-Gov. Willard 
P. Hall, of St. Joseph, as to the legality of the said subscription.^ 
The learned jurist answered that in his opinion the subscription was 
** entirely null and void," because it was made to an association or 
corporation which had no legal existence, viz.: the ^' Nor'thioetitern 
Branch " of the Tebo and Neosho. The inference is that had the sub- 
scription been made to the Tebo and Neosho proper, it would have been 

1 The county court issued a warrant for $300 to Gov. Hall, in payment for his 
opinion, but afterward upon petition of H. J. Chapman and others, withdrew it and 
ordered it cancelled. It is understood that Judge Dodge himself paid the Governor's 


valid, as that corporation was regularly chartered and possessed cor- 
porate powers, features which did not characterize the "Northwest- 
ern Branch." 

Sinirularly enouirh this opinion of Gov. Hall's is incorrectly under- 
stood hy very many of the people of the county to-day. A recent 
newspaper publication was made that the opinion not only maintained 
the validity of the subscription, but held that it was yet in force and 
could be collected by any otiier railroad company which should at 
any time build a road over substantially the same line proposed by 
the old " Northwestern Branch ! " The editor was doubtless misled 
by current opinion, but how this opinion came to be current in the 
face of the facts i^inexplicable. While Gov. Hall did not pass upon 
the question of the power of Judge Merchant, by himself, to make 
the subscription, or of the full court to revoke it, he did decide that 
the subscription itself was " utterly null and void " for the reason 
before stated. Following is the opinion in full, the original manu- 
script of which, in the distinguished counselor's peculiarly bad hand- 
writing, is still on file in the office of the county clerk : — 

To the Honorable Justices of the County Court of Caldwell County ^ 
Mo. : 

Gentlemen — In accordance with your request I have examined 
into the legality of the pretended subscription of Caldwell county to 
the capital stock of the Northwestern Branch of the Tebo and Neosho 
Railroad Company, and I have no hesitation in saying that in my 
opinion said subscription is utterly null and void. 

The charter of the Tebo and Neosho Railroad Company authorizes 
the construction of a railroad from any point on the Pacific Railroad 
between the west bank of the Lamine river and Muddy creek, in 
Pettis county, in a southerly or southwesterly direction, and the con- 
struction of branch railroads into or through any counties the direc- 
tors may deem advisable. Under this clause of the charter the 
company has made the city of Sedalia the terminus of its railroad in 
Pettis county, and it has also authorized the construction of a branch 
road from Sedalia in a northwesterly direction to Nebraska City, in 
the State of Nebraska. I find no power in the charter of the Tebo and 
Neosho Railroad Company to build any such branch. A railroad from 
Sedalia to Nebraska City is not a branch, but it is an extension of 
the Tol)0 and Neosho Railroad. The extension of a railroad, as has been 
decided by the courts, docs not authorize a departure from the main 
line at the middle or any other part except from its terminus. And 
so a branch road can not start from the terminus of the main line, but 
it must take its departure from some point between the termini. It 
is no answer to this to Bay that the Northwest Branch Road is not 
made to start from Sedalia absolutely, but it is to leave the main line 


at or near Sedalia. I apprehend that a road which takes its depart- 
ure from the main line at or near its terminus, does, within tlie 
meaning of the law, depart from the terminus. The terminus in such 
cases IS substantially the place of departure, and the law considers the 
substance and not the shadow, and neither corporations nor individuals 
can avoid the law by a resort to pretexts. 

The subscription of your county is for $200,000 of the capital stock 
of the Northwestern Branch of the Telio and Neosho Railroad Company. 
What is the capital stock of that branch? What is its amount? Of 
how many shares does it exist, and what is the price of each share? 
The fact is the Northwestern Branch of the Tebo and Neosho Railroad 
Company is not a corporation at all. It has no capital stock; it has 
no shares of stock. The corporation is the Tebo and Neosho Railroad 
Company. Its capital is fixed by its charter. But the branchr^rail- 
road has no capital, and a subscription to its capital stock seems^o me 
an absurdity. It may be said that the act of March 21, 1868, en- 
titled '* An act to aid the building; of branch railroads in the State of 
Missouri " authorizes subscriptions to the capital stock of branch 
railroads. This, in my opinion, is simply a mistake. There is noth- 
ing in that act which gives branch railroads a separate corporate 
existence, which authorizes them to sue or be sued, to contract or to 
be contracted with, to receive subscriptions of stock, or which gives 
them any capital stock, or which authorizes them to have a board of 
directors. On the contrary, it is the corporation which first de- 
cides whether the branch railroad shall be built or not, and after 
it is determined to build the branch, it is the railroad company, 
and not the branch, which is to receive the subscriptions ; it is the 
railroad company, and not the branch, which is to issue ceitifi- 
cates of stock ; it is the railroad company, and not the branch, which 
is to borrow money and execute mortgages ; it is the directors of 
the railroad company which control, manage and operate the branch, 
subject only to the control of " the holders of stock in the rail- 
road company, which was subscribed in aid of the branch railroad." 
The fourth section of the act of 1868 moreover expressly provides that, 
" The holder of stocks in any railroad company, which was sub- 
scribed in aid of the construction of branch roads, according to the 
provisions of this act, shall have the same right as other stockholders 
in the company in the choice of officers." 

If I am right in the construction of the act of 1868, there is still 
another fatal objection to the subscription under consideration. The 
directors of the Tebo and Neosho Railroad Company having never 
authorized subscriptions to the Northwestern Branch according to 
the terms of that act. The only resolution I have been able to find 
on that suliject was adopted on the 30th of August, 1870. That 
resolution expressly provides that " The stock subscribed in the 
name of and to aid in building said branch shall not be voted in 
the election of directors of the said Tebo and Neosho Railroad Com- 
pan^s but the stockholders in said branch railroad shall control the 


same as a septirate and distinct property through the appropriate 
committee." Where the power to pass such a resolution is to he found 
1 am not [able] to say. Certain it is that no such power is given 
by law. So far from it the law expressly declares, as already 
stated, that the holders of the stock subscribed to aid in the con- 
struction of a branch shall [have] the same right as other stock- 
holders in the choice of officers, and that the directors of the railroad 
company shall manage the affairs of the l)ranch subject to the in- 
structions of the stockholders in such branch. Now, before the 
subscription of a county to a railroad can be valid, its terms must 
be in accordance with the law, and it must be accepted by the com- 
pany. The Tebo and Neosho Railroad Company, as has been shown, 
has never authorized a subscription to the Northwestern Branch in 
accovdance with law, but it has imposed upon such subscriptions 
conditions which are in the very teeth of the law. This difficulty 
it has been attempted to escape by the adoption of a resolution on 
the 28th of October, 1870, on the part of what is termed " the com- 
mittee " of the Northwestern Branch of the Tebo and Neosho Railroad 
Company, accepting the subscrii)tion of Caldwell county. But that 
committee had no power to accept or reject subscriptions. That is 
a duty belonging to the directors of the Tebo and Neosho Railroad 
Company, and can not be delegated to a committee, no matter how 
respectable that committee may be. 

The subscription of Caldwell county is not at all strengthened, even 
if [it is] to be admitted that the act of 1868 formed l)ranch railroads 
into separate and distinct corporations. That act having been passed 
since the adoption of the new constitution is of course subject to the 
provisions of that instrument. Hence any county subscription made 
to the capital stock of a branch railroad under that act will not be 
valid unless made by the assent of two-thirds of the qualified voters of 
the county, as ascertained by an election held for that purpose. So 
that, under no view that I have been able to take of the subject, do I 
believe your county subscription to the capital stock of the North- 
western Branch of the Tebo and Neosho Railroad Company to be valid. 

It is proper here to call your attention to the fact that in October, 
1876, the Tebo and Neosho Railroad Company transferred all its fran- 
chises to the Missouri, Kansas and Texas Railroad Company, and all its 
privileges, powers, real estate and other property, excei)ting only 
such as belong to the extension of the Tebo and Neosho line north 
from Sedalia via Boonville, Fayette and Moberly to the railroad 
l)ridge at West Quincy. I send with this a certified copy of the reso- 
lutions of the Tebo and Neosho Railroad Company relating to said 
transfer. I also send von co|)ies of sundry resolutions with rejrard 
to the Northwestern Branch. 

In conclusion, permit me to say that Col. Hale, the attorney of 
said branch, has been ready to give me all the information in his 
possession relating to the subject of this communication. 

If the subscription in question is valid the courts ought to decide it 


at once. If the subscription is invalid there is equal need of prompt 
action. I would therefore advise you to assent to any arrangement 
which can bring the subject before the courts for a speedy action. 

Yours truly, 

WiLLARD P. Hall. 


In the year 1873, what came to be known as the Grange move- 
ment, was begun in this county. Granges were established in every 
township, and a majority of the farmers of the county became at one 
time or another members of the order of Patrons of Husbandry. 
This order, a secret one, promised at one time much benefit to the 
farmers of the country. It contemplated their union for purposes of 
co-operation and protection, and was designed to be perpetual. While 
it existed here — or rather while it flourished, for it still exists — it 
accomplished much good in cheapening prices of many articles which 
the farmers were compelled to purchase, in stimulating investigation 
into the causes of the non-prosperity among farmers generally, and 
in various otheV ways. 

But in time political demaafogues came to control the Patrons or 
*' Grangers," to a large degree; dissensions among themselves arose ; 
indifference to the interests of the order prevailed, and finally the 
order dwindled away, until now the once powerful organization, which 
numbered millions of members, comprises but a few thousand zealous 
individuals who have held out faithful. 

In this county the first important meeting of the " Grangers," or 
as it was then termed, the Farmers' Association, was a mass meeting 
held at Henkin's Grove, in New York township, August 21. From 
time to time other meetings were held at different points in the county, 
and the order was strong and effective. There are now very few, if 
any, working granges or lodges in the county. 


Caldwell county has one page in its criminal calendar which it might 
well wish were blotted out. The record of homicides perpetrated in 
the county since the war is indeed not an enviable one, although it is 
insignificant and commendable when compared with that of some of 
the adjoining counties. In most instances the homicides in Caldwell 
have been at least partially justified ; in many cases they have been 
decided by the juries and laws of the country to be entirely so. 
While there has never been a legal execution under the civil law in 
this county, there have been but i'ew willful murders. Following are 
the leading homicides in the county since the war. 



February 24, 1869, John Martin shot and killed his step-father, 
Robert Bradley, at the residence of the latter in Fairview township. 
It is claimed that Mr. Bradley, on the morning of his death, roughly 
demanded that his step-son, who was in bed, should get up. A quar- 
rel arose and Martin showed a revolver. Very soon Mr. Bradley 
walked away from the bed and sat down. Martin was sitting on the 
bed with the revolver in his hand, when he claimed it was discharged 
accidentally and the ball struck Mr. Bradley in'the back part of the 
head, killing him instantly. Martin was indicted for murder in the 
first degree. In August, 1870, he was tried and acquitted, the jury 
not believing that the killing was intentional. 


In a quarrel at a dance at the residence of William McDonald, in 
Rockford township, January 2, 1873, John C. Fuller shot and killed 
another young man named Lou Marley. It was sworn to that Marley 
was the asr^ressor, and that at the time he was killed he had knocked 
Fuller down and was upon him when Fuller contrived to tire his pis- 
tol and lodge the fatal bullet. Fuller was indicted, but in February, 
1875, he was tried and acquitted. Afterward he removed to the vicin- 
ity of Missouri City, Clay county, where he was assassinated by some 
unknown enemy, who called him to his door one night and shot him. 



No tragic incident ever created more of a sensation in the county 
than did the shooting of James B. Rogers by Daniel M. Weist, at 
Breckinridge, on the night of May 14, 1875. Mr. Rogers was a 
young unmarried man, and at the time was a clerk and salesman in a 
dry goods store. Daniel M. Weist was an old man, 62 years of 
age, and lived and owned a brewery about three-fourths of a mile 
north of town. He had come from Pennsylvania to this county some 
years before. His wife, Emma, bore a bad reputation for chastity, of 
which Weist seemed to be aware. Living in Weist's household was 
another man, a German, named E. Wilhelm. 

On the night of the tragedy, at about 11 p. m., Mr. Rogers and 
another man, whose name was never disclosed, started out to Weist's 
house for purposes best known to themselves. It is said that they 


went on an invitation. As the}' neurecl the house they were fired on 
by some one, presumably Weist, who was in ambush, and Rogers was 
mortally wounded. He was shot in both wrists (or one hand and one 
wrist), through the knee and in the abdomen. He died in 48 hours. 
Before he died he gave the following particulars relating to the 
shooting: — 

I was shot about 20 steps south of Weist's house, near a gap that 
goes into the yard. Weist was lying in ambush. I did not see Weist 
until after he shot me. After I was shot he (Weist) walked around 
me. I suppose he was about 30 feet from me. As he passed around 
me I told him that he had shot me, and he must come and help me 
up, but'he did not speak to me. I think he had his gun by his side, 
I crawled up to the house to get some water, and tried to get some 
one to go for a doctor, but they would not let me in. I then crawled 
about one-fourth of a mile and got to the fence not fur from Mr. 
Gallagher's. I know that Weist shot me. 

(Signed) J. B. Rogers. 

BY J. B. Plumb. 

May 15, 1885. 

Weist was arrested the same night and had a preliminary examina- 
tion before Esq. J. A. Halstead, who committed him to jail. He was 
afterward indicted and tried October 28, 1875, when he was convicted 
of murder in the second degree. A new trial was granted because 
while they were deliberating certain members of the jury had and used 
whisky in the jury-room. At the February term, 1876, of the circuit 
court he was again tried, and the jury returned a verdict of " not 
guilty." Soon afterwards Weist returned to Pennsylvania. 

Pending the trial of Weist the German, Wilhelm, committed suicide 
by hanging himself. 

The identity of the man who was with Mr. Rogers the night of the 
murder has, as before stated, never been determined. Rogers kept 
the secret to the last. He said that no good could come of revealing 
it, but much harm might result, and so it was buried with him. 


July 24, 1880, W. M. Van Bibber shot and killed a negro named 
Peter Lewis, in Baker's saloon, in Breckinridge. The negro was 
drunk and entered the saloon to get more whisky. Baker, the pro- 
prietor, told him to stay out, but the negro rejoined, "I won't do it; 
I'll go where I please," and knocking or pushing Baker to the floor 
he strode into the room. Van Bibber, who was the barkeeper of the 
saloon, ran out from behind the bar and ordered the negro to go out 



of the room. About this time he drew a revolver, when he was 
caught by a negro named Mose Trosper. Van Bibber jerked away, 
however, and again ordered Lewis to go out, adding, "I'll shoot you 
if you don't." Lewis returned, "Well, shoot." There was testi- 
mony that the negro was backing the barkeeper across the room, when 
the latter fired. The ball of the revolver struck the nejjro in the 
bowels. He walked out of doors, fell and expired. Van Bibber was 
never tried or even indicted. 


On the night of the 15th of August, 1881, a young man named 
Edward F. Gwynn shot and killed a negro man named Samuel Rogers, 
in front of Tanner's saloon, in Hamilton. The shooting was done at 
about 10 o'clock at night. Young Gwynn was intoxicated. Passing 
in front of Tanner's saloon at least twice he accosted rather roughly 
a group of negroes, of whom Rogers was one, whereupon Rogers 
asked on the second occasion if the reference was to him, saying, 
" Who are you hinting at?" Gwynn began cursing Rogers, and the 
negro said : " Ed, what's the matter with you to-night? I never seen a 
man go on so. You are either drunk or a fool. If you don't stop 
cussing and abusing me, I'll kick you." Gwynn rejoined, "You 
will, will you?" and drawing his revolver he shot Rogers through the 
body. Rogers fell and died within an hour. There was some evi- 
dence that Gwynn, a short time before the shooting, had burned an- 
other negro in the face with a cigar, and had said, "I intend to kill a 
d — n nigofer to-night." 

Gw^'nn was arrested, jailed and indicted for murder in the first de- 
gree. In October following the killinof he took a chan£:e of venue in 
his case to Livingston county, and was there tried and acquitted. 
Public sentiment in this county was largely against him, and the 
change of venue was granted upon the prisoner's allegation that 
justice would not be done him here, owing to the existing pre- 


For killing a negro named Geo. Boliannan, one mile southwest of 
Kingston, on the IGth of August, 1881, was tried in the circuit court 
of this county at the February term, 1882, and resulted in the acquit- 
tal of the accused. Roshong, who still lives near Kingston, is a white 
man of near middle age, a married man, of considerable information 
upon certain subjects, but of a very eccentric disposition. Some 


parties had informed him of certain conduct of the negro Bohannan 
which made him very indignant. The negro was known as a " hard 
case," and Roshong was warned to look out for him. 

On the day of the homicide, Bohannan and some other negroes went 
to the woods west or southwest of Kingston for wild plums. This 
was in the direction where Roshong lived, and he warned them not to 
gather any plumbs on the land he occupied. Returning, the party 
encountered Roshong in the road and Bohannan called out to him, 
"You had better come and get these plums." Roshong answered, 
«♦ I would if they came off my land." Bohannan then said in a men- 
acing tone that Roshong ought to " try to take them anyhow and see 
how he would come out." A quarrel resulted, and Roshong stated 
that the necrro assaulted him with a stone. The neirro woman who 
was walking with Bohannan when the altercation began passed on, 
and in a few seconds Bohannan came running past her with a huge 
knife sticking in his back. He ran but a few rods further when he 
fell and died. His brother picked up the knife, but Roshong forced 
him to drop it and took charge of it himself. 

It seemed that Roshong had " fixed " himself for the meeting. 
He had ground down acorn-knife into a weapon of fearful proportions, 
with a resemblance to a mammoth bowie-knife or an Arkansas " tooth- 
pick." He carried this weapon habitually, and when he displayed it 
to the negro, the latter took to his heels. 


On the 4th of June, 1884, Nathan B. Middaugh, a respectable 
farmer of Kidder township, living two miles east of Cameron, was 
murdered by John W. DeHart. The latter had rented some land 
from Middaugh, and lived near him. Some difficulty had arisen 
between them regarding their business, and it is said that Do Hart 
bore a serious grudge against Middaugh for another reason. 

DeHart was a young married man, of a respectable family and 
possessing a more than ordinary education. But when roused he had 
a fiery temper and was a dangerous man to encounter. He was 
accustomed to haul his milk every morning to the factory, and in 
order to reach the main road he drove through Middaugh's dooryard. 
After the quarrel between him and Middaugh had progressed to some 
extent, Middaugh put a light fence around his dooryard to prevent 
DeHart from passing through. 

On the morning of the tragedy DeHart came along with his wagon 
and drove through and over Middaugh's yard fence, breaking it down. 


As he was passing through the yard Middangh called to him, and when 
he stopped told him he must not pass through his dooryard any more. 
At once DeHart sprang up in his wagon, pulled off his coat, threw it 
upon the seat, and jumping out of the wagon swore that the quarrel 
between them should be settled then and there. And it was. Within 
a few seconds DeHart had knocked down Middaugh with an ax, crush- 
ing his skull in four places and giving him mortal wounds from which 
he died in a few hours. 

The following testimony relating to the particulars of the murder 
was sworn to by the widow and son of the murdered man : — 

Mrs. Middaugli's lestimony. — When DeHart drove up my hus- 
band said, " 1 want to speak to him," He said to him not to 
drive across the yard. DeHart drew his coat and jumped out of 
the wagon and made a strike at my husband, but he knocked the 
lick off. Then I ran out and told them not to have an}^ fuss. 
My husband said he did not want any fuss, and 'for DeHart not to 
hit him again. I told DeHart to ijet off the vard and settle the 
business right without having any fuss. Nathan said, " Susan, vou 
have a perfect right to order him off the yard." He then told De 
Hart to let him alone, for he did not want any trouble with him. 
I told them then they must not fuss and stood between them, but 
DeHart would not move. I said, " DeHart, what harm have I ever 
done you that you should act in this way in my yard?" He an- 
swered and said, *' Mrs. Middaugh, 3^ou never did me any harm, 

but this d d rascal has," meaning my husband. My husband 

says, "Why, have you not done harm? You have struck me, and 
she has ordered you off; and now you get out of this yard." Then 

DeHart said, " You have meddled with me long enough, and, d n 

you, I allow to kill you." DeHart then struck at him with a piece of 
board and broke it. Then my husband threw a spring of a spring 
seat at DeHart and missed him. DeHart ran and o-ot the ax, and 

said, " D n you, I will kill yon." As he came with the ax he 

jumped over a plank, one end of which was in the wagon wheel, and 
struck my husband with the ax. Nathan, my husband, said, " (^h ! 
my (jod ! " DeHart struck him again, and that brought him to his 
knees. I then turned my back. I heard him strike two more licks; 
then I went into the house. DeHart threw the ax down in the yard 
and got in his wagon and drove off. 

Benjamin Mkldatig/i's Testimony. — When DeHart drove up to 
the yard I was looking out of the window. Pa said, " I want to ask 
yon one word," and DeHart said, "What is it?" Pa said, "I 
don't want yon to drive through this yard any more," and DeHart 
said " I have this ground rented, and 1 will drive wherever I please." 
Pa said, " I have the boards and wagon setting there. I want you to 
drive around," and DeHart jumped up, pulled his coat off, threw it 
in the seat and jumped out of the wagon and grabbed a board and 


struck lit pa, but pa knocked the lick off, and DeHart said, " I will 
kill you," and grabbed a board and broke it over pa's shoulder, and 
pa throwed a spring at him and missed him, and DeHart said, 

*♦ D n you, I will kill you," and ran to the chopping block and 

got the ax and came running out and struck pa on the forehead, and 
I think it glanced and struck him on the arm ; and DeHart struck him 
again and pa went down on his knees, and he struck him again and 
pa fell on his side. It was about about half past eight a. m. 

Benj. Middaugh. 
Subscribed and sworn to before me this the 5th day of June, 1884. 

, Elias Brown, J. P. 

DeHart was arrested and confined in Kingston jail awaiting his 
trial. Before he was tried he escaped from jail one evening, but was 
caught by Sheriff Clevenger just as he was climbing the fence enclosing 
the public square. A prisoner who had escaped a few nights previously 
had kindly sawed the iron gratings of the jail, so that DeHart could 
snap them off in a twinkling, and this advantage he was swift to 

At the February term of the circuit court, 1885, DeHart was tried 
at Kingston, and February 28 was convicted of murder in the second 
degree, and sentenced to the penitentiary for ten years. He is still in 
the penitentiary. \ 


November 11, 1883, Peter L. Boulton, an aged citizen of Mirabile 
township, living just west of Old Far West, was beaten to death by 
his demented son, Homer L. Boulton. The murder occurred early in 
the morning. The father tried to take a shot-oun from his son, when 
the latter became infuriated, knocked his father down, and also his 
sister, and followed his fleeing father into the house, where he crushed 
his skull in a shockins; manner. He then tried to kill the other mem- 
bers of the family. He was indicted and tried for murder, but 
acquitted on the ground of insanity, and is now an inmate of the St. 
Joseph Asylum. The testimony of his 'mother and sisters convicted 
him, and at the same time established his irresponsibility. 


On the 6th of July, 1885, in Lisbonville, Ray county, John Q. Gray 
was shot and killed by Wm. W. McDonald, a young man about 21 
years of age. The homicide occurred within 500 feet of the Caldwell 
line — indeed, within 100 feet — and both men were citizens of Rock- 
ford township, in this county, living near Lisbonville. Mr. Gray was 


past 50 yc'iir.-, of ago, and left a wife and children. He was a man of 
good character, and his death was universally regretted. 

A year or more previous to the tragedy a wagon laden with goods 
for a merchant in Polo, and coming from Lawson, was mired near 
Lisl)onville, and remained in the road over night unguarded. Some 
of the contents, including some pairs of boots, were stolen, and the 
owner swore out a search warrant, and proceeded to search certain 
houses in the neiizhborhood. Amono; others searched was that of AVm. 
G. McDonald, an old resident and a respected citizen of the county, 
one of the wealthiest and best farmers ftf Rockford township. None 
of the stolen goods were found at the McDonald residence, and nothing 
implicating any member of the family in the theft was brought to 
light ; and Mr. McDonald and his household were greatly indignant 
tbat anything like suspicion should attach itself to any one of them, 
and considered the search a gross and inexcusable outrage. For 
some reason the family believed that Mr. Gray had caused the war- 
rant to be issued and directed against them ; but this Mr. Gray 

On the day of the tragedy Mr. McDonald and his son William had 
rode into Lisbonville, and Mr. Gray was also there. The two 
McDonalds were in front of a store when Gray appeared, walking 
from the mill with a sack of floui- on his shoulder. Young McDonald 
said to his father, "There is old Gray; I am going to tackle him 
about them boots." Mr. McDonald replied, " Oh, let him alone." 
Young McDonald approached Gray and accosted him with an epiihet 
too vile to be printed. A wordy altercation resulted, and finally Gray 
put down his sack and walked toward McDonald. The latter drew a 
revolver, and Gray picked up a stone, but whether McDonald dis- 
played the revolver before Gray seized the stone is a matter of 
controversy. As Gray walked toward McDonald the latter said, 
** John Gray, you are walking into your grave, if you only knew it." 
McDonald at last shot Gray twice, both balls takiiig effect in his left 
breast. Wm. McDonald, Sr.', ran up and struck Gray twice with his 
fist, after he had been shot. Gray walked into the store, in front of 
which the McDonalds had been sitting, and after a few w^ords fell ;ind 
died in a few minutes. A dozen men, pro])ably, saw the whole alfair 
from first to last, and never ofiered to interfere. 

The McDonalds mounted their horses and left the village unmo- 
lested. Young McDonald fled the country, and was absent a few 
weeks when he returned and voluntarily surrendered himself to the 
authorities of Ray county. His preliminary examination resulted in 


his coiiimitineat to jail at Ricliniond, where lie now is, having been 
indicted bj the Ray county grand jury, at the fall term of the circuit 

The grand jury of Ray county refused to indict Wm. McDonald, 
Sr., but the Caldwell count}^ grand jury, at its October term, found 
a true bill against him as principal in the second degree. Some days 
afterward he surrendered himself into the custody of Sheriff Clevenger 
and by his attorneys made application to the Court of Appeals at 
Kansas Cit}' for a writ of habeas corpus. The petition was argued 
before Judges Phillips and Ellison, resulting in the granting of the 
writ and discharge of McDonald on tiie ground that section 1697 of 
the Revised Statutes of 1879 is unconstitutional. That section pro- 
vides that either county may have jurisdiction where an offense has 
been committed within 500 yards of the boundary line, etc. Judge 
Phillips delivered a lengthy opinion in the matter, defining an indict- 
ment, where and by whom found, and by whom a man should be 
tried. That running the gauntlet in one county and then being taken 
in hand by another, is a dual proceeding without any common-law 
precedent. The county where the crime is committed fixes the venue, 
and there he must be tried, except removed for cause — the Legisla- 
ture having no more rig-ht to fix a limit of 500 vards than five 
miles, etc. 

A suit for damages in the sum of $5,000, for assisting in the murder 
of her husband, was begun by Mrs. Gray against Mr. McDonald, and 
this suit is still pending. 


On Sunday morning, August 30, 1885, Capt. Isaac N. Hemry was 
assassinated on what is known as the Kenney farm, about one mile and 
a half west of Kidder. At the time of his death Capt. Hemry was in 
charo^e of the farm as the ao;ent of a banking firm in Gallatin. The 
farm, a large and valuable one, consisting of several hundred acres, 
had formerly been in possession and ownership of Hon. P. S. Kenney, 
but after a long process of litigation had been sold by a decree of 
court to the bank, the judgment creditor of Mr. Kenney. (It is 
proper to say that Judge Kenney and his wife yet claim the property, 
or a considerable portion of it, and that the matter is in process of 
legal adjudication.) 

Upon obtaining the farm the bank dispossessd Judge Kenney and 
placed Capt. Hemry in charge. In March, 1885, a body composed of 
two brothers of Judge Kenney, his wife and some other persons made a 


descent on the fine residence, almost baronial in appearance, which 
Judge Kenney had built on the farm, and where Hemry was living at 
the time, forcibly ejected him and his family and removed them and 
their etiects away. Soon after, however, the authorities placed Hemry 
again in possession. 

On the morning of the assassination Capt. Hemry rose at about 6 
o'clock and mounting a horse rode to the back of the farm, half a mile 
west, to salt some cattle which he was pasturing. His son. Grant 
Hemry, a lad 16 years of age, was engaged near the house in attend- 
ing to some cows. His wife was about her domestic duties. 

Suddenly Grant Hemry and his mother heard a gun-shot, apparently 
made near the place where they knew Capt. Hemry had gone. In a few 
seconds another report was heard. Suspicioning what had happened, 
young Hemry mounted a horse and gaUo[)e(l rapidly to the spot. Ar- 
riving at the pasture the first object that attracted his attention was a 
man walking in the direction of the timber near by, carrying a gun 
leading his father's horse. Riding nearer, the man turned and 
stopped, presenting his gun in a threatening manner. The lad halted, 
dismounted, placed the horse between himself and the assassin, and 
remained a few seconds. The man walked to the edge of the timber, 
fastened the horse, and disappeared into the woods. 

Young Hemry then retraced his route to look for his father, and after 
a little search found him. He was yet alive, but died in a few 
moments. The boy raised the head of his dying father and asked 
him, " O, father ! Will you die?" The father answered feebly, 
"Yes." " Who shot you? " asked the boy. Capt. Hemry made a 
motion with liis hand in the direction which the assassin had gone, 
and almost immediately afterward expired. The boy then mounted 
his horse and rode rapidly to Kidder and gave the alarm. In a few 
hours scores of men were at the scene, and there was great excitement. 

The coroner's inquest held that day had before it a large number 
of persons, all living near by, but found only that the assassin had 
fired from behind a hedge fence ; that he had evidently used a double- 
barreled shot-gun loaded heavily with ])uckshot ; that he had fired 
both barrels; that nine shots had struck the body, one above the left 
temple; that Capt. Hemry was unaware of his murderer's presence un- 
til after the first shot; and further, upon the testimony of young 
Hcniry that the assassin was closely masked, and was a stout heavily 
built man. The body was buried the following day in the Hamilton 
cemetery, by the Grand Army of the Republic, of which organization 
the deceased had been a meml)ei". 


At the time of his death Capt, Hemry was about 54 years of age. 
He was a native of Ohio, but came to this county some years before 
the war. He entered the Federal army in the early summer of 1861, 
as a lieutenant in James' company of Home Guards, and was con- 
nected with the Union service in one capacity or other until the close 
of the war. A portion of the time he was an officer in the militia, 
an<^l while servino^ in that capacity was somewhat noted for his un- 
compromising hostility toward the rebels, and his harsh treatment of 
them at times. While operating in Eay county at one time he caused 
two of his prisoners to be shot, and the present sheriff of Ray county 
barely escaped execution at his hands. During the war, however, 
many of Confederate sympathies allege that they received numerous 
favors at the hands of Capt. Hemry ; he married a daughter of Capt. 
Thompson, who had led the Caldwell county Confederate company. 

After the war Capt. Hemry settled in Grant township, near the 
county line. While here he received anonymous letters warning him 
to leave the country or he would be killed in retaliation for certain 
injuries he had inflicted during his military experience. He soon re- 
moved to Orecjon, but here he was confronted bv enemies who held 
to old grudges and warned to leave that State. After a time he 
located in California, where he resided several years and then returned 
to Caldwell. It is said by one who says his information came from 
the Captain himself, that while in California the Confederate avengers 
were on his track, and that he was warned to leave tltat State. 

Within a few weeks after the murder two self-constituted '* detec- 
tives," who had been in the county for some time, stimulated by the 
offer of $1,200 reward, caused the arrest of young Grant Hemry, son 
of the murdered man, on the dreadful charge of having assassinated 
his father. After a long and very elaborate investigation before 
Judge James McMillan, of Kingston, a justice of the peace, the boy 
was discharged. The preliminary examination took the widest pos- 
sible range, lasting more than a week, and scores of witnesses living 
near the scene or having or being supposed to have any knowledge of 
the circumstances, were thoroughly examined, but not one jot or 
title of inculpating evidence was given against the boy, who at the 
conclusion of the examination was at once discharged. No one 
claimed that anything damaging to the young boy had been developed. 
Indeed after the investigation had progressed two or three days, it 
was claimed by the detectives that his arrest was a sham, and that 
the investigation was only for the purpose of bringing out the facts, 
so that the real guilty parly might be discovered. 



Pendiiif^ the examinution :i Mr. D. K. Ross swore out ;i warrant for 
the arrest of Edmund Kenney, charging him with the murder. He is 
a brother of Judge P. S. Kenney, and resides about a mile west of 
where Hemry was killed. The case against him was dismissed, how- 
ever, and not even an examination was had. Not the least particle 
of evidence was even offered to be produced that would in any man- 
ner connect him with the crime. On young Hemry's examination 
Mr. Kenney's wife,^ who was on the witness stand for the first time in 
her life, was subjected to a severe cross-examination, and became 
somewhat embarrassed and confused. This circumstance was the 
principal cause of her husband's arrest. 

Up to the present there have been no further proceedings or devel- 
opments in the case. Whether the old saying that '* murder will out" 
will ever verified in this instance remains to be seen. 

^ Since the foregoing was written Mrs. Kenney was the victim of a railroad accident 
which caused her death. She and her husband were returning home from Cameron, 
and while crossing the track three miles or more east of Cameron, the engine of a 
train struck their carriage, throwing it from the track, severely injuring Mr. K. and 
causing the death of Mrs. Kenney in a few hours. 



Elections since 1865 — Census Statistics of the County — Property Assessments Since 
1865 — Abstract of County Expenditures for 1884 — Assessed Valuation of the 
County in 1884 for the Taxes of 1885 — The Public Property of the County — Court 
Houses, Jail and Poor Earm. 


The vote on the adoption of the Drake Constitution, June 6, 18(35, 
was as follows : — 


Grand River 
Kingston . 
Mirabile . 
Hamilton . 



















A vote of nearly eight to one in favor of an organic law disfran- 
chising all rebels and their sympathizers, indicates the Radical char- 
acter of the people at that time. * 

In 1868 the Republicans carried the county by a majority of nearly 
500, as follows: Grant, Rep., 843; Seymour, Dem., 379. Gov- 
ernor — J. M. McClurg, Rep., 831; John S.Phelps, Dem., 395. 
Congressman — R. T. Van Horn, Rep., 825; Gen. J. H. Shields 
Dem., 398. Gen. Shields received a considerable majority at the 
polls, but by throwing out the votes of three or more counties, on the 
ground of disloyalty. Van Horn was declared elected, and on a con- 
test in Congress, by nearly a party vote, retained his seat. The vote 
for negro suffrage in this county was 687 to 482 against. 

At the November election, 1870, closing the famous *' Liberal " 
campaign, Caldwell county remained true to the Radical Republican 
party. Following was the vote : — 

Governor — J. M. McClurg, Radical, 917; B. Gratz Brown, Lib- 
eral, 582. 



Congress — Geo. Smith, Rad., 900; Abnim Comingo, Lib., 544. 

State Senate — R. H. Vandervort, 954, no opposition. 

Representative — S. F. Martin, , 877; Danl. Proctor, 


Sheriff — D. P. Stubblefield, 1,084, no opposition. 

Circuit Clerk — John A. Williams, Rad., 966 ; Thos. J. Reid, Lib. 

County Clerk — Walker Miller, 1,446, no opposition. 

The amendments to the Constitution carried, though not without 
opposition. The second amendment, which abolished the test oath 
for jurors, received 1,088 to 240 against; the fourth, abolishing the 
test oath for voters, received 1,012 to 321 against ; the fifth, abolish- 
ing certain distinctions on account of " race, color, previous condi- 
tion of servitude, and former acts of disloyalty," received 985 to 324 


President — Grant, Rep., 1,330; Greeley, Dem. and Lib. Rep. 
875; Chas. O'Conor, Straight Dem., 5. 

Governor — John B. Henderson, Rep., 1,340; Silas Woodson, 
Dem., 912. 

Congressman — Ira B. Hyde, Rep., 1,338; Charles H. Mansur, 
Dem., 904. 

Representative — D. P. Stubblefield, Rep., 1,289; Joseph S. Hal- 
stead, Dem., 929. 

Sheriff — J. W. Harper, Rep., 1,230: W. M. Esteb, Dem., 1,000. 

Prosecuting Attorney — Crosby Johnson, Rep., 1,211; C. S. 
McLaughlin, Dem., 924. 

While in many localities the Democrats refused to support Horace 
Greele}^ their life-long bitter enemy, in Missouri, generally, and in 
this county especially, they voted for him very readily, the motto of 
the party being, " anything to beat Grant." 


Governor— William Gentry, " Tadpole," 1,195 ; Charles H. Har- 
din, Dem., 820. 

Congressman — Ira B. Hyde, Rep., 1,087 ; Rezin A. DeBolt, Dem., 

State Senator — AVilliam W. Mosby, Dem., of Rav, 969; L. C. 
Cantwell, of Ray, ♦' Tad," 1,065; D. L. Kost, Rep., of Daviess, 37. 

Representative — EzraMunson, Dem., 1,134; J. W. Harper, Rep., 

Sheriff — L. B. Clevenger, ''Peoples," 1,185; H. A.Welch, 
Rep., 839. 


Circuit Clerk — Joseph Williams, "Peoples," 1,052; W. C. 
Adams, Rep., 966. 

Coimtv Clerk— Samuel Russell, Dem.-«« Peoples," 1,221; W. V. 

Prosecuting Attorney — Crosby Johnson, Rep., 1,006; John A. 
Cross, Dera.-" Peoples," 962. 

The campaign of 1874 was known in Missouri as the " Tadpole," 
campaign, so-called because the opposition to the Democratic party 
that year was composed of the Republicans and certain disaffected 
Democrats, united into what was named the <* People's party," which 
organization, the Democrats said, would in time become the Republi- 
can party, as a tadpole eventually becomes a frog. William Gentry, 
of Pettis county, the " Tadpole" nominee for Governor, was an old 

In this county political bed-fellows were considerably mixed. On 
the State ticket the Republicans were fused with certain Democrats, 
against the regular Democratic nominees ; on the county ticket, the 
Democrats were fused with certain Republicans, as against the regular 
Republican condidates. The " fusion " county ticket was generally 
elected, and the result was that an old-fashioned Democrat represented 
the Republican county of Caldwell that winter in the Legislature. 


President — R. B. Hayes, Rep., 1,384; Samuel J. Tilden, Dem., 
1,058; Peter Cooper, Greenback, 115; Walker, Prohibitionist, 3. 

Governor — G. A. Finkelnburg, Rep., 1,395; John S. Phelps, 
Dem., 1,066; Alexander, Greenback, 101. 

Congressman — H. M. Pollard, Rep., 1,390; R. A. DeBolt, Dem., 
1,129 ;'F. A. Smith, Greenback, 28. 

Representative — Daniel Proctor, Rep., 1,313; Austin R. Wolcott, 
Fusion, 1,231. 

Sheriff — L. B. Clevenger, Rep., 1,313; James W. Thompson, 
Dem. -Fusion, 1,213. 

Prosecuting Attorney — William McAfee, Rep., 1,299; T. J. 
Owen, Fusion, 1,247. 


Judoje Supreme Court — E. H. Norton, Dem., 954; A. F. Denny, 
Rep., 1,096 ; A. L. Gilstrap, Greenback, 499. 

Congressman — Nicholas Ford, Gr. and Rep., 1,311; David Rea, 
Dem., 926. 

State Senator — D. J. Heaston, Dem., of Harrison, 943; D. L. 
Kost, Gr., 1,266. 

Representative — B. M. Dilley, Dem., 958 ; Saml. E. Turner, Rep., 
902; W. H. Gaunt, Gr., 674. 



Circuit Clerk —Winfield Miller, Rep., 1,092; Henry Murphy, Dem., 
1,008 ; Sterling W. Baker, Gr., 431. 

County Clerk — Thos. Johnston, Rep., 900; Sanil. Russell, Dem., 
1,304; Joel McGlothlin, Gr., 328. 

Collector — Chas. W. M. Love, Rep., 1,191; T. D. George, Dena., 

Sheriff— W. W. Clevenger, Rep., 1,149 ; B. F. Brown, Dem., 978 ; 
W. H. Lay ton, Gr., 396. 

Treasurer — Geo. Kautz, Rep., 1,104; W. D. Patterson, Dem., 
957 : Isaac Sackman, Gr., 466. 

Probate Judge — John Wright, Rep., 1,136; Geo. H. Treat, ^56; 
Thos. J. Reid, Gr., 549. 

Prosecuting Attorney — Wm. McAfee, Rep., 1,002; O.J. Chapman, 
Dem., 796; J. D. Ross, Gr., 723. 

Assessor — Thos. Laidlaw, Rep., 1,094; J. H. Tucker, Dem., 995 ; 
W. T. Filson, Gr., 434. 

Presiding Justice — S. W. Orr, Rep., 1,090; P. S. Kenney, Dem., 
951 ; W. A. O. Munsell, Gr., 485. 

County Judges — Eastern District: E. H. Craig, Dem., 496; Alf. 
Cowley, Rep., 383 ; W. A. Michael, Gr., 294. Western District : A. 
W. Bishop, Rep., 729; Michael Gridley, Dem., 256. 

















■ * 































































Gomer . . 


































Kidder. . 




97: 128 












Mirabile . 




67, 125 
















123 168 












New York 




43 91 
















39! 108 












Davis . . 




781 88 












Lincoln . 




83 j 65 












Grant . . 1 




110 71 
















75 86 













Total . 
















A star (♦) denotes the Democratic, a dagger (t) the Republican, and a double dag- 
ger (J) the Greenback candidates. 


The assreofiite vote on other county officers at this election was as 
follows : — 

Collector — Joseph Orr, Rep., 1,300; D. G. McDonald, Dem., 1,211 ; 
S. R. Guffey, 360. 

Treasurer — James A. Rathbun, Rep., 1,366; A. Wingate, Dem., 
1,147; A. R. Wolcott, Gr., 367. 

Prosecuting Attorney — Crosby Johnson, Rep., 1,478; John A. 
Cross, Dem., 1,233. 

Assessor — Thos. Laidlaw, Rep., 1,383; N. Scarlett, Dem., 1,120; 
Geo. W. Nesbitt, Gr., 379. 

Public Administrator — Augustus Mack, Rep., 1,374; John W. 
Brown, Dem., 1,303. 

Surveyor— Wm. J. Boyd, Rep., 1,502; W. C. Adams, 501. 

County Judges — Eastern District: D. Braymer, Rep., 554 ; E. H. 
Craig, Dem., 534; D. U. Hutchinson, Gr., 221. Western District: 

A. W. Bishop, Rep., 679 ; J. R. McDaniel, Gr., 336. 
Restraining Swine from Running at Large — For, 1,545 ; against, 


Township Organization — For, 1,866; against, 588. 


Judge Supreme Court — David Wagner, Rep., 1,307; T. A. Sher- 
wood, Dem., 1,094; T. M. Rice, Gr., 272. 

Congress — A. M. Dockery, Dem., 1,372; J. H. Thomas, Rep., 
1,259;" J. H. Burrows, Gr., 14. 

Sheriff — D. A. Glenn, Rep., 1,468; Sol. Edwards, Gr., 1,107. 

State Senator — B. M. Dilley, Dem., 1,450; L. C. Bohanan, Rep., 

Representative — Jeff. Van Note, Rep., 1,324 ; J. H. Hendrickson, 
Dem., 1,317. 

Circuit Clerk — Winfield Miller, 1,390; Geo. T. Thompson, Gr., 
1,121. • 

Recorder — C. W. M. Love, Rep., 1,455; I. J. C. Guy, Gr., 1,042. 

County Clerk— W. H. B. Carter, Dem., 1,372 ; D. P. Stubblefield, 
Rep., 1,259. 

Prosecuting Attorney — F. H. Braden, 1,321 ; Jesse D. Ross, Gr,, 

Presiding Justice — James Cowgill, Dem., 1,493; Wm. Plumb, 
Rep., 1,122. 

County Judges — Eastern District : E. H. Craig, Dem., 670; J. 

B. Luellen, 434. Western District: Jacob Buck, Rep., 745; Geo. 
H. Treat, Dem., 556. 

--.Probate Judge — James McMillan, Rep., 1,317; John W. Brown, 
Dem., 1,316. 

Treasurer — J. A. Rathbun, Rep., 1,360; C. R. Parker, Dem., 



























































Gomer . 
Kidder . 
New York 
Davis . 
Grant . 



















































































































Total . . . 











A * denotes the Democratic, a f the Republican, and a J the Greenback candi- 

The vote on other county officers was as follows : — 

Prosecuting Attorney — Stephen C. Rogers, Rep., 1,529: J. T. 
Bottom, Deni., 1,391 ;'^T. J. Reid, Gr., 243. 

Treasurer — D. C. Hicks, Rep., 1,508; Jacob Houghton, Dem., 
1,472; I. J. C. Guy, Gr . 209. 

Surveyor — Wm. J. Boyd, Rep., 1,665; M. L. James, Dem., 269. 

Public Administrator — Anirustn.s Mack, Rep., 1,539; John W. 
Brown, Dem., 1,403; J. R. McDaniel, Gr., 253. 

Count)/ Judges — Western District: Jacob Buck, Rep., 894; Wm. 
A. Wood, Dem., 766; Geo. Gurley, Gr., 88. Eastern District: E. 
H. Craig, Dem., 728; Elmer Waters, Rep., 455; J. A. Hawk, Gr., 

Township Organization — For, 2,005; against, 794. 


The population of Caldwell county, in 1838, during the Mormon 
occupation, is said to have been al)out 5,000, hut in 1840, a year 
after the Mormons had been expelled, it was but 1,458. In 1850 it 
was 2,316. 



In 1860 the aggregate population was 5,034, as follows: White 
males, 2,563; females, 2,247; total whites, 4,810. Male slaves, 
106; females, 116; total slave population, 222. Free colored, one 
male and one female ; total free colored, 2. 


Total population, 8,001, as follows: White males, 4,090; females, 
3,622; total whites, 7,712; colored males, 134; females, 155; total 
colored, 289. The population of Hamilton this year was 585, viz. : 
white males, 313; females, 241; colored males, 17; females, 14. 

The number of horses in the county was 4,161 ; mules, 675 ; jacks 
and jennets, 45; cattle, 9,380; sheep, 16,437; hogs, 12,434. The 
number of bushels of corn raised in 1867 was 582,367 ; oats, 136,- 
119; wheat, 83,527. 


In 1870 the population was 11,390, more than double that of 1860, 
all or nearly all of the increase having been after the close of the 
Civil War, in 1865. Following was the population by townships, as 
well as by nativity and race : — 



Davis . . 

Fairview . . 

Gomer . . 

Grant . . . 

Kidder . . 

Kingston . . 

Lincoln . . 

Mirabile . . 

New York . 






























The population of the towns was: Breckinridge, white, 512; col- 
ored, 3; total, 515. Proctorville, whites, 60. Hamilton, whites, 
925; colored, 50; total, 975. Kidder, whites, 195. Kingston, 
whites, 357 ; colored, 57 ; total, 414. Mirabile, whites, 138 ; col- 
ored, 2 ; total, 140. 

In 1876 the population of the county was 12,200. 




Totonships. Population. 

Breckinridge, including town of Breckinridge 1,704 

Davia, including Black Oak 932 

Fairview 890 

Gomer 881 

Grant 1,044 

Hamilton, including town of Hamilton 2,004 

Kidder 1,119 

Kingston, including town of Kingston 1,509 

Lincoln 896 

Mirabile 900 

New York 988 

Rockford 779 

Total 13,646 

The male population was 7,053 : female, 6,593. 

Towns — Only a portion of the towns in the count}' were enumer- 
ated in 1880, as follows: Breckinridge, 777 ; Black Oak, 82 ; Hamil- 
ton, 1,200; Kingston, 470. 

The colored population of the county in 1880 was 413. 

As to the nativity of the total population of the county 6,721 were 
born in the State, 862 in Illinois, 619 in Kentucky, 1,278 in Ohio, 
266 in Tennessee, 660 in Indiana, 355 in Virginia, 499 in Pennsyl- 
vania, 621 in New York, 281 in Iowa. There were 652 foreigners, of 
whom 151 were born in British America, 171 in England and Wales, 
156 in Ireland, 23 in Scotland, 94 in the German empire, 5 in France, 
5 in Sweden and Norway, and 39 in Switzerland. 

The total number of militia was 2,703 ; of voters, 3,276. 


The following exhibits the assessments of the count}' for some of 
the years past, beginning with 1866 : — 

Years. Real Estate. Personal Property. Total. 

1866 .^1,211,654 $489,313 $1,700,967 

1867 1,526,773 505,091 2,031,864 

1868 , 2,073,596 637,192 2,710,788 

1870 2,305,295 1,049, 1J90 3,354,485 

1872 . . . . . . . 2,492,726 1,270,955 3,763,681 

1873 . . . . ^ . . 2,493,522 1,305,651 3,799,173 

1875 2,293,394 1,157,736 3,451,130 

1880 2,289,095 1,583,183 3,872,278 

1884 2,716,866 1,995,229 4,712,085 

It will be observed that the assessed value of the real estate in the 
county in 1870 was greater than that of 1880 ; the valuation in 1872 
and in 1873 was greater by $200,000 in each year ; but in the four 



yeurs from 1880 to 1884 it increased nearly $500,000. From 186(5 to 
1873 lands rose rai)idly in value, and in the latter year $40 and $50 
per acre were common enough prices for improved farms. After the 
panic of 1873, and the dry senson of 1874, improved lands depreciated 
in value until about 1881, when they began to rise. Every one under- 
stands that the assessed value of property does not at all represent 
its real value, and it is perhaps the truth that the fair valuation of all 
the property in Caldwell county is not far from $9,000,000. 



Salary of the county clerk and deputy . 

" " road and bridge commissioner 
county school commissioner . 
commissioner of public buildings 
prosecuting attorney 
county treasurer 
superintendent of the poor farm 
county judges .... 


circuit clerk .... 


Supplies and Repairs. 

Books, blanks and stationery 

Printing for the county 

Contingent expenses and minor repairs on court-house and jail 
Wood for court-house and jail 






















t,287 64 

$470 06 







L,128 25 

Paupers and Poor Farm. 

Bull for poor farm . ' 

Medical attendance for paupers at the poor farm 
Other expenses of the poor farm . 

Burial of paupers 

Medical attendance of paupers not at poor farm 
Other expenses of paupers not at poor farm 


Circuit Court Expenses . 

Grand and petit jurors and witnesses before grand jury, C. C. 
Costs in criminal cases 

$133 00 





37 00 





$832 05 

$1,093 95 
388 92 


$1,482 87 



Permanent Improvements. 

Repairing and construction of bridges . 
Completing vault addition to court-house 
Expenses of sidewalli in front of court-liou^e 
Expenses of building coal liouse . 

Improving county road 

Insurance on court-house and poor farm buildings 



Assessment of 1884 

Assessment of 1883 

General election, 1884 

School election, district No. 7, township 57, range 
Expenses for the insane ..... 
Expenses of prisoners in jail .... 
Wolf bounty 



Salaries .... 
Supplies and repairs 
Paupers and poor farm . 
Circuit Court . 
Permaueut improvements 
Miscellaneous . 

5 years 


Total expenses of the county government for 1884 













$10,191 86 

.$243 28 













$1,434 09 

f4,287 64 

1,128 25 

832 05 

1,482 87 

10,191 86 
1,434 09 

$19,356 76 















M F. 





















Davis . . 

113 8 










123 6 












91 8 











Goraer . 

83 10 











New York 

147| 5 











Lincoln . 

111 6 












102 ... 












112, 4 























Kidder . 

115 9 











Mirabile . 

105j 2 












92 7 
1349 71 











Totals . 










There were 26 jacks and jennets, valued at .$1,890; and 204 head of "other live 
stock," valued at $3,592. 



ASSESSED VALUATION OF 1884 — Continued. 




i2 « 

All ot] 









2 c 







Davis .... 








Fairview . 
















Gomer . . 








New York . 








Lincoln . . 






■ • • 


Grant . . 






• ■ ■ 


Kingston . 








Hamilton . 








Kidder . . 








Mirabile . 








Rockford . 






• • • 











Total valuation of land, exclusive of town lots, $2,350,764; of town lots, $366,092; 
total real estate, not including realty belonging to the railroad company, $2,716,856. 
Total valuation of personal property, $1,995,229. Grand total valuation, $4,712,085. 


The first court-house in Kingston was put up in 1843, upon the 
establishment of the county seat. It was a log building, two stories, 
or one story and a half, high, and stood on the south sicfe of Main 
street, opposite the center of the square. In point of architectural 
beauty it was not very attractive. 

The second court-house was built in 1854-5. It was a two story 
brick, and stood on the south side of the square (on the north side of 
Main street), about midway from east to west, and the greater portion 
being south of the present structure. The upper story of this build- 
ing was never entirely finished and occupied. The building fronted to 
the south, and the two front rooms on the first floor were occupied by 
the clerks. The court-room was on the first floor, in the rear of the 
clerks' offices. 

On the night of April 19, 1860, this court-house was burned. The 
fire l)roke out in the county clerk's office, which was on the first floor, 
in the southwest corner of the building, about 11 p. m. When dis- 
covered the entire interior of the office was in flames, and it was not 
possible to rescue any of the books and records. The fire swept 


rapidly across the south end of the building, swiftly mounted the 
stairways and flashed the inside of the upper story suddenly into 
flame. Very soon the roof caught, and the entire structure was soon 
a huge bontire. 

Not a single thinsr of value, not a book, or record, or paper was 
saved. There were no means at hand for extinguishing such a fire as 
it was after it had gotten under headway, and it had got well started 
when the alarm was given. The few citizens that had gathered 
too-ether stood about with water buckets in their hands, and a few 
gallons were aimlessly and uselessly thrown into the fire. The lower 
rooms, where the original records were — priceless in value, because 
they formed the most interesting part of our county's history and can 
never be replaced — took fire first, and when the crowd had gathered 
they could not be entered. Only one record book of the probate 
court, which happened to be in the residence of the probate judge, 
Hon. W. F. Boggs, was saved. As the probate court had been estal)- 
lished a little more than three years previously it may be imagined 
that its records were not very voluminous. But all other books and 
papers pertaining to the public business of the county were con- 
sumed — the county and circuit court records, the treasurer's and the 
sherifl''s papers, the records of the deeds and mortgages, everything 
of the kind. 

Everything went to show that the l)uilding was set on fire, but the 
incendiary was never discovered. Some believed he was some party 
indicted f^r crime, who hoped to destroy the indictment and evidence 
against him and escape punishment. Others had various improbable 
theories. But whatever the motive, the results were very disastrous. 
Lucky indeed was he who had in possession the deeds to his lands. 
All those who had not were forced to have their titles quieted by the 
courts, and even to this day there is occasionally a controversy that 
might be avoided but for the burning of the court-house and records 
in April, 1860. 

A week after the second court-house was destroyed the county 
court convened to take action in the premises. Sheriff John C. 
Myers was appointed commissioner of public buildings, but was suc- 
ceeded in a few months by Hon. Chas. J. Hughes. The first thing 
to do was to provide temporary oflBces for the use of the officials and 
to provide for new books and records. The upper room in the north 
end of ♦' the brick store," on the east side of the square, and " the 
old post-office building," were rented of Tilton Davis for the circuit 


and county clerks, the school commissioner, the treasurer' and the 
probate judge. The latter official occupied the post-office. Circuit 
court was held in the Southern Methodist Church building, in the 
eastern part of town. June 19, 1860, the contract for building the 
present court-house was let to J. A. Crump and Geo, A. Kice, of 
Lexington, for $20,000, the contractors to furnish all the materials, 
and the building to be completed by September 1, 1861. The work 
was completed by Geo. A. Kice, to whom Crump assigned his part of 
the contract. The work was finished according to the stipulations, 
and crave general satisfaction. 


The present jail building was built in the year 1869. The county 
court first took action in February. In May it appropriated $8,000 
to build the structure and appointed J. D. Cox commissioner. In 
June the contract was let to Burton Edwards and Morgan Sullivan, 
and was completed in November. The total cost of the jail was $10,- 
148, as follows: Paid Edwards & Sullivan, the contractors, $9,884 ; 
paid J. D. Cox, for services as commissioner, $216 ; paid for ad- 
vertising, etc., $48. Although the structure is very substantial, built 
of heavy stone and iron-lined, the nearly universal opinion is that its 
cost was excessive, and that more expense was incurred in its con- 
struction than was necessary. 


The Caldwell county poor farm is partly in Kingston and partly in 
Mirabile township. It comprises portions of sections 13 and 24 in 
Mirabile, and portions of sections 18 and 19 in Kingston, and contains 
218.02 acres. It was purchased April 22,1873, at a cost of $18.83 
per acre, its area being computed at 220 acres. Since its purchase 
the county has greatly improved the buildings and farm. The farm 
was occupied in the month of March, 1874. The superintendents 
who have remained in charge of this eleemosynary institution have 
been Valentine Eckelberry, Ephraim Cooper, Eldert Fort and John 


The following are the principal bridges in the county, with their 
location, lencrth, cost and date of construction, and the material. 



The infoi'mation has been received from W. J. Boyd, the present 
county surveyor : — 










Otter Creek .... 



Shoal Creek 
Otter Creek 
Cottonwood Cr. 
Cottonwood Cr. 










190 1 





Gardner Ford . . . 
Stoner Ford .... 
Goose Creek .... 

Shoal Creek 
Shoal Creek 
Goose Creek 













No name 

Turkey Creek . . . 

Panther Creek 
Turkey Creek 









Brush Creek .... 
Steer Creek .... 

Brushy Creek 
Steer Creek 











Long Creek .... 
Log Creek ... 

Shoal Creek 
Long Creek 
Log Creek 












Crooked River . . . 
Brush Cre^k .... 

Cr. River Branch 
Brush Creek 










Tom Creek .... 
Mill Creek 

Tom Creek 
Mill Creek 











Mud Creek No. 1 . . 
Mud Creek No. 2 . . 
Mud Creek No. 3 . . 

Mud Creek 
N. Mud Creek 
N. Mud Creek 











Position and Description — Streams — Stone — Coal — Early History — First Land 
Entries — Organization — General History of the Town of Kingston — Incorpora- 
tion — Present Situation — Churches — Secret Orders — Biographical. 

Kingston township comprises township 56, range 28, and occupies 
a central position in the county. The general surface of the township 
is hilly and broken, owing to the numerous streams which flow through 
all parts, and there is perhaps more timber than in any other town- 
ship in the county. 

Shoal creek traverses the township from northwest to southeast, 
and there flow into it in this township from the north Jim creek and 
Tom creek, and from the south Log creek and Long creek. The two 
latter unite in the southern part, a mile southeast of Kingston town, 
and thence two miles to the mouth the stream is called Log 

There is an abundance of fine building stone in this township. 
Along Shoal creek, on both sides, and in the hills overlooking Long 
and Log creeks there are exposures of a very superior quality of 
limestone of the variety kndwn to geologists as encrinital limestone. 
No extensive quarries have been opened, the stone being so abun- 
dant that it may be obtained on nearly every section. Li the blufi^, 
near the junction of Log and Shoal creeks, is an inexhaustible sup- 
ply of sandstone, admirably suited for building purposes. 


Coal is reasonably abundant in Kingston township. In the sum- 
mer of 1885 a company composed of some gentlemen of Kingston 
town sunk an exploring shaft a little south of the town (northeast 
corner se. Vi of ne. V4, sec. 28) on Log creek, and at a depth of 194 
feet struck a 28-inch vein of coal, similar in character and quality and 
of the same formation as that of the Hamilton Coal Company, men- 
tioned in the history of Hamilton township. Nothing was done after 
the coal was discovered, and the company is awaiting developments 
before proceeding further. A previous experiment in the neighbor- 



hood had proved a failure, owing to the fact that somebody dropped 
a section drill into the shaft, and this constantly interfered with the 
movements of the aujjer. 

The followino; is a section of the borinsf at Kinsrston, which is of 
interest, as showing the earth forraatipn at this point, and which hks 
been kindly fnrnished by J. F. Heiser, Esq., of Kingston : — 

1. 12 ft. 10 in. dark soil, yellow clay and gravel. 

2. 2 ft. yellow shell rock [shales]. 

3. 2 ft. 5 in. gray '* sponge rock." 

4. 4 ft. 4 in. white sandstone. 

5. 8 ft. 3 in. in light blue limestone. 
6- 1 ft. blue soapstone. 

7. 3 ft. black slate. 

8. 4 ft. 2 in. gray limestone [glass flint]. 

9. 3 ft. brown flint. 

10. 4 ft. blue limestone, with "cloth" mixed. 

11. 8 ft. blue clay. 

12. 5 ft. blue clay, mixed with gravel. 

13. 36 ft. blue soaj)stone. 

14. 8 ft. gray "cloth." 

15. 13 ft. fire clay. 

16. 9 ft. blue clay. 

17. 8 ft. blue conjjlomerate limestone. 

18. 9 ft. blue soapstone. 

19. 5 ft. blue soapstone, mixed with gravel. 

20. 19 ft. blue soapstone. 

21. 4 ft. brown flint. 

22. 8 ft. blue limestone. • 

23. 3 ft. gray sandstone. 

24. 2 ft. white " cloth." 

25. 8 ft. white sandstone. 

26. 1 ft. 6 in. white " cloth." 

27. 5 ft. black slate. 

28. 2 ft. 4 in. coal. 

29. Fire clay. 

Total depth of boring, 194 ft. 3 in. 

The coal company of Kingston, which has leased about 10,000 acres 
of supposed coal land in this county, is satisfied that coal can be 
reached at a reasonable distance elsewhere in this township. 


The first settlements in Caldwell county were made within what are 
now the boundaries of Kingston township by Jesse Mann, John Raglan, 
Ben Lovcll, and Jesse Mann, Jr., in the spring and summer of 1831. 



But these are so fully ineutioned in Chapter II. of this volume that a 
further mention of them here would be entirely superfluous. Follow- 
ing are the land entries made in the township prior to 1840 : — 


Ransom Beecher 

John Anderson 

F. G. Williams 

John M. Burk 

David Whitmer 

Calvin Beebee 

Jacob A. S. Yanti 

Abijah Bradley 

Daniel Kenyon 

Elkanah Timmons 

Henry Lee , . 

Henry Hill . . 

Joel Shearer 

James Daley 

Milo- Andrews . 

John Whitmer . 

Hiram Pa^e . . 

Newel Knight . 

Frazier Eaton . 

William Wightman 

Charles Wifxhtraan 

Charles Hunt . . 

Adam C. Hubbard 

Noah Hubbard . 

Roswell Stevens 

Amos Sumner . 

Abraham Couts 

Henry Hill . . 

Jesse M. Mann . 

Henry McHenry 

Benjamine Stone 

Erastus Dodge 

Burr Riggs . . 

Rensselaer Miller 

Samuel Hill . . 

Gilbert V. Miller 

Eleazer Miller . 

Asa Rockhold . 

Aaron C. Lyon . 

Carlos W. Lyon 

Wm. Turnidge . 

Wm. Murray 

Wm. Turnidge . 

Jesse Fletcher . 

John Raglan 

John Raglan 

Solomon Cox .. 

John P. Barnard 

Wallace McAfee (or McFe 

John Wheeler . 

Stephen Tarwater 

Nahum Benjamin 

Chas. W. Porter 

Windsor P. Lyon 

Samuel Massengai 

Abraham Miller 

Timothy N. Benjamin 

Wm. Givens 

Chas. H. French 

John Rowland . 


ne. sec 


w. ^ ne. sec. 2 . . 

s. 4 nw. sec. 7 . . 

nw. swi sec. 7 . 

sw. sw. sec. 7 . . 

se. sw. sec. 7 . . 

se. se. sec. 7 and e. | 

nw. ne. nw. se. se. sec 

ne. se. sec. 11 . . 

w. ^ se. sec. 13 . . 

nw. sw. sec. 13 . . 

sw. se. sec. 15 . . 

sw. se. sec. 15 . . 

nw. ne. sec. 22 and e 

nw. se. and nw. sec. 17 
. se. nw. sec. 17 > . 

sw. nw. sec. 17 . 

sw. ne. ne. nw. sec. 1 

sw. se. sec. 18 . . 

se. sw. sec. 19 . . 

se. ne. sec. 30 and sw 

se. se. sec. 19 . 

ne. nw. sec. 21 . 

sw. ne. sec. 21 . . 

e. I ne. sec. 21 and w 

se. ne. sec. 27 and e 

nw. se. sec. 21 . 

w. \ sw. sec. 22 . 

e. \ sw. sec. 22 . 

w. \ se. sec. 22 . 

ne. se. sec. 22 . 

ne. ne. sec. 27 and se. se 

ne. nw. sec. 22 . 

se. nw. sec. 22 . 

ne. ne. sec. 22 . 

sw. ne. sec. 22 . 

nw. sw. sec. 23 . 

RW. sw. sec. 23 . 

w. \ ne. sec. 23 . 
, sw. sw. sec. 2+ . 

nw. sw. sec. 24 . 

sw. se. and se. sw. sec. 

nw. se. sec. 24 . 

w. ^ ne. sec. 25 . 

e. \ sw., w. \ se. and nw 

w. ^ nw 

. sec. 25 

e. ^nw 


e. ^ ne. 


sw. sw. 


se. ne. 

sec. 26 

w. \ ne. 


nw. se. 


se. se. 


n. \ sw. 


sw. sw. 


ne. nw. 


se. nw. 


ne. se. 

sec. 27 . 

nw. se. 

and nw. sw 

e. 1 nw. 

and sw. nv 

w. i ne 

sec. 27 . 




\ se 








sec. 22 
sec. 21 








Aug. 16, 1838 
Jan. 12, 1837 
Dec. 26, 1S37 
Oct. 27, 1837 
Nov. 9, 1837 
Feb. 6, 1837 
July 10, 1839 
July 10, 1839 
June 19, 1837 
Nov. 20, 1839 
Nov. 3, 1835 
Nov. 19, 1839 
July 13, 1837 
June 3, 1837 
Sept. 17, 1837 
Nov. 14, 1836 
Jan. 13, 1837 
Dec. 12, 1836 
Nov. 24, 1837 
July 3, 1837 
Oct. 21, 1837 
Oct. 27, 1837 
May 12, 1837 
Nov. 1, 1836 
June 8, 1837 
Jan. 23, 1837 
Sept. 24, 1835 
June 17,1835 
June 17, 1837 
May 23, 1837 
Sept. 29, 1837 
July 12, 1837 
Aug. 23, 1837 
Oct. 18, 1837 
Nov. 2, 1835 
July 12, 1837 
Nov. 8, 1836 
Feb. 10, 1836 
Aug. 17, 1836 
Jan. 13, 1837 
July 4, 1835 
June 25, 1837 
July 4, 1835 
July 16, 1835 
July 24, 18.^3 
June 8, 1835 
April 6, 1839 
Sept. 23, 1836 
Oct. 1, 1835 
July 18, 1837 
Mar. 30, 1838 
Sept. 23, 1836 
Aus. 21, 1837 
Nov. 25, 1836 
Oct. 12, 1839 
Julv 13,1839 
Jan. 25, 1837 
Sept. 9, 1839 
May 9, 1836 
Aug. 11, 1836 



John M. Davis . . . 
Andrew Rose . . . 
James M. Ramsay . . 
Melcher Duucan . . 
Jonathan Oyler . . 
John N. Buxton . 
Oliver Cowdry . . . 
George Johnson . . 
Jefferson Hunt . . 
Guernsey Brown . . 
Ebeneaer Brown . . 
Moses Clawson . . 
Edward Weaver . 
James Johnson . , 
John Miller ... 
Elisha Hill ... 
Avery Smith . . 
Jesse Mackarl . . , 
George P. Dykes . . 
John Bozarth . . 
Daniel Shearer 
Patrick Lynch . . 
Jotham Maynard . 
Elijah Reed . . . 
Timothy B. Foot . 
Albern Allen . . , 
Caleb Odell . . . 
Francis Odell . . 
Dolphus Babcock . 
Wilson Vanderlip . 
Joseph Miller . . 
Wm. B. Bryan . . 
John M. Davis . . 
Jfunes Burnham . 
Francis McGuire 
Sherman Brown . 

John Rowland 
and lived there for 
bank of Shoal cr 
early day. 

sw. sw. sec. 27 

se. se. & se. sw. sec. 28 & nw. ne. sec. 33 

n. \ ne. sec. 28 

.'^e. ne. 

sw. ne. 

ne. sw. 

uw. I sec. 31 and w. | se. sec. 30 . 

w. ^ nw. sec. 30 

sw. sw. sec. 32 

w.^ ne. " 

ne. ne. " 

e. \ ne. sec. 31 and ne. se. sec. 30 
se. se. sec. 30 

sw. sw. 


se. sw. sec. 31 

ne. sw. 
uw. sw. 
sw. sw. 
nw. ne. 
sw. ne. 
ne. SQ. 
se. se. 

nw. nw. sec. 32 
sw. nw. *' 

nw. sw. and se. sw. sec. 32 
e. ^ nw. sec. 32 ... . 
ne. se. " .... 

se. ne. " " 
ne. se. " 
se. sw. sec. 33 
e. ^ ne. 
ne. se. " 
e. I ne. sec. 35 
ne. nw. sec. 3C 

May 21, 1839 
Sept. (5, 1836 
July 13,1839 
May 23, 1837 
July 18,1837 
July 27, 1838 
June 22, 1836 
July 5, 1337 
Dec. 6, 1836 
Sept. 1, 1837 
Sept. 1, 1837 
Dec. 15, 1836 
Mar. 11, 1837 
May 30, 1837 
April 1, 1839 
June 8, 1837 
Aug. 29, 1836 
Sept. 23, 1837 
June 17, 1837 
Jan. 28, 1837 
Feb. 13,. 1837 
April 16, 1839 
Jan. 21, 1837 
Mar. 11, 1837 
May 25, 1837 
Dec. 27, 1836 
Sept. 3, 1835 
Sept. 10, 1836 
Feb. 9, 1837 
June 2, 1837 
July 12,1837 
July 13, 1839 
May 21, 1839 
June 29, 1837 
May 30, 1835 
Aug. 19, 1836 

squatted " on a piece of land in section 16 in 1838, 

some time. Odell lived in a cabin on the north 

eek, about a mile northeast of Kingston, in an 


Formerly Kingston township formed a portion of Blythe township, 
which was organized long before the Civil War, and at one time took 
in what are now Grant, Kingston and Hamilton townships, and some 
other territory. This township was named for Riley Blythe, an old 
pioneer who hunted and trapped along Shoal creek and its tributaries 
more than fifty years ago, and who is now living, at an advanced age, 
near Camden, Ray county. November 4, 1867, Blythe was broken up 
and Kingston and Hamilton townships organized out of its territory — 
a line runninfj east and west between sections 12 and 13 to Shoal 
creek, in township 56, range 28, then up Shoal creek to range 29, be- 
ing the dividing line between Kingston and Hamilton. In 1870 the 
boundaries were reduced to their present lines. Since the recent 
township organization the officers hare been as follows : — 


1881, — Trustee, Elmore H. Johnson; collector, Eli Giipen ; clerk, 
John Colvin ; justices of the peace, Augustus Mack, Thomas J. Reid ; 
constable, L. B. Clevenger. 

1883. — Trustee, IC. M. Prickitt ; collector, Eli Gapen ; clerk, John 
Colvin ; justices of the peace, John Wright, John Theilman ; consta- 
ble, C. J. Johnson. 

1885. — Trustee, E. M. Prickitt ; collector, Horace Johnston ; clerk, 
M. C. Canou ; justices of the peace, James McMillan, John Theilman ; 
constable, John T. Brown. 


What is now the east half of the town of Kingston, including the 
public square, was entered by Abraham Couts, September 4, 1835. 
The west half was entered by Roswell Stevens, June 8, 1837. Mr. 
Couts had a cabin on the east side of his land, nearly half a mile east 
of the present court-house, and this building was torn down about 1840. 
In 1841 Isaac Creason, a son of Willis Creason, who lived down on 
Crooked river, built a cabin on where is now the northeast corner of 
the square, cleared a " patch" of ground, and resided here a year or 
two, when he moved back to Ray county. 

After the Mormons left the county Far West continued to be the 
county seat until the spring of 1843. Meantime the center of popula- 
tion of the county had been removed to somewhat near the center of 
the county itself. It became very inconvenient for the large number 
of people then living on lower Shoal creek to go to the county seat 
and many complaints arose. At the August election, 1842, John 
Skidmore was chosen the Re})resentative from this county, and it was 
demanded of him that he procure a removal of the county seat. So 
December 16, 1842, soon after the assembling of the Legislature, a 
bill was passed appointing commissioners to relocate the capital of the 
county of Caldwell. The commissioners appointed under the bill were 
George W. Dunn, of Ray ; Littleberry Sublette, of Cla}' ; Robert D. 
Ray, of Carroll ; John Austin, of Livingston, and Milford Donaho, 
of Daviess. 

It is said that only Dunn, Ray and Donaho acted as commissioners, 
and that after looking the county over they at first selected the site on 
a tract of land south of Log creek, two miles southwest of where 
Kingston now is, but the owner of the land, W. B. Bryan, refused to 
donate over forty acres to the county, and so the commissioners went 
elsewhere, and at last selected the site where it now is. The owners 


(tf the land, James Ramsey and William Hill, cheerfully donated 
between them 160 acres of land to the county for county seat 

In the spring of 1843 the town was regularly surveyed and laid off 
into lots and blocks, and Charles J. Hughes, then a young lawyer of 
Far West, was appointed county seat commissioner to conduct the 
isale of lots, etc. The site of the town was chiefly a brush patch, 
although Creason's improvement still remained. 

The commissioners, upon request of a large number of citizens, 
named the to\vn Kingston, in honor of Judge Austin A. King, of 
Richmond. Judge King had been circuit judge of this circuit, and 
was well and most favorably known. In 1848 he was elected Governor 
of the State on the Democratic ticket over Hon. James S. Rollins, the 
Whig candidate, and served four years. When the war came on he 
was a decided Union man, and was taken prisoner by Gen. Price's 
forces and held for some days. In 1.862 he was elected to Congress 
from this district, and served one term. Gov. King was a native of 

The first house in Kingston is still standing on the northeast corner 
of the square, a t^vo-story building, part log and part frame, but has 
been eiilarired since first erected. It was hauled from Far W^est, and 
was originally built by a Mormon. It was placed in its present posi. 
tion Juh' 5, 1843, by W^alter A. Doak, now residing in the northern 
part of Mirabile township. Mr. Doak was born in East Tennessee, 
near the famous "Kit Bullard's mill, on the Big Pigeon." He and 
his wife Elizabeth kept open house for some months after they settled 
in Kingston, entertaining travelers and others as best they could in 
their little domicile, which at first was but a small frame buildins:. 
Mr. Doak was a shoemaker, and followed his vocation here for some 

A man named Marsh, a Yankee, built the second house, a small 
shanty, on the southwest corner of the square, where Heiser's furni- 
ture store now is. This was about the last of July, 1843. 

The first merchant in the place was a Mr. Baxter, who })nrchased 
Doak's house in August or September, 1843, and opened a store 
therein. Baxter enlarijed the buildinsr and kept a hotel in it for a 
time. Not long after Baxter opened his store Free and Ned Sisson, 
merchants at Camden, sent up a stock of goods in charge of Joseph 
Hord (or Hoard), who ])ought Marsh's building and opened the 
second store. Perhaps Ardinger and Woodson were the next mer- 


In the fall of 1843^ the first court-house, the log building mentioned 
elsewhere, was built. The second was built in 1847 by Hawkins 
Green, and was the two-story brick burned in April, 18G0. 

The first attorney in Kingston was Charles J. Hughes, who came in 

1843, and the second was Volney E. Bragg. The first practicing 
physician that located here was Dr. Evans, who came from Ohio in 

1844, and now lives in Plattsbursr. 

July 4, 1843, a large crowd assembled on the town site of Kingston 
to celebrate the Fourth of July. There were no houses in the place 
except Creason's cabin, and so a large brush arbor was erected on the 
south side of the public square, and under this the exercises were 
held. There was a bountiful dinner, plent}^ of whisky, everybody 
was happy, but nobody very drunk, and the crowd enjoyed itself 

Charles J. Hughes, then a young attorney of 22 or 23, was the 
orator of the day. Just forty-two years afterward, on July 4, 1855, 
on a similar occasion at Kingston, he again delivered the oration in 
commemoration of the anniversary ; but on the last occasion not more 
than a dozen of the hundreds who heard him speak in 1843 were 
present, although the crowd was ten times as large. 

Maj. T. W. Higgins had prepared a fine flag for the first celebration 
and this was raised by the mayor amid the shouts and cheers of the 

At nio;ht there was a ffreat dance under the arbor. The jji'ound 
had been cleared off and covered with sawdust, making a very 
respectable " floor," and the lads and lassies, as well as some of the 
older folks, enjoyed themselves immensely — as well doubtless as 
their descendants and successors now do, on the same site, in Davis & 
Spivey's hall. 

No post-office was established in Kingston until in 1845. John H- 
Ardinger was the first postmaster. Mails came in twice a week from 
Richmond and Plattsburg. Mr. Ardinger was a merchant in the 
place at the time. 

Other pioneer merchants and business men in Kingston were 
Martin D. Hines, who built a two-story business house in 1844; 

Frank Haines and Marshall. After a time George Johnson kept 

the hotel which had formerly been managed by Baxter. 

The first church building was the Christian, built in 1859. Pre- 
vious to this religious meetings were held in the court house. The 

1 Mr. Doak is positive that the first court-house was not built until 1844. 


first school house was built by the township of Blythe in 1846. It 
was a brick and stood south of the public square. 

Massingale & Wilhoit's mill, on Shoal creek, a few hundred yards 
up the stream from the bridge, on the Hamilton road, was the first 
mill in the neighborhood of Kingston. It is fully mentioned else- 


Kingston was incorporated by act of the Legislature, November 21, 
1857, as a town. The following is an extract from section 1 of the 
act of incorporation : — 

The inhabitants of the tract or district of country known by the 
name of Kingston, in the county of Caldwell, situate and lying in the 
following boundary, to wit : The east half of the southwest quarter 
of section 22, in township 56, of range 28, shall be, and they are 
hereby created a body politic and corporate, by the name and style of 
the " Town of Kingston," etc. 

In April, 1872, the foregoing section was amended and the boundary 
extended b}' the Legislature, so that the limits of the town should com- 
prise " the east half of the southeast quarter of section 21, and the 
west half of the southwest quarter, and also a strip 59 rods wide oflf 
of the south side of the southeast quarter of the southwest quarter of 
section 22; also, that part of the west half of the northwest quarter 
of section 27 which lies north of Log creek, all in township 56, 
range 28. 

The present population of Kingston is about 600, although 750 is 
claimed. It has three general stores, one exclusive grocery and pro- 
vision store, one hardware store, three drug stores, two livery stables, 
one furniture store, two hotels, two newspapers — the Caldwell 
County Sentinel and Kingston Times; one banking house, the Caldwell 
County Bank, capital $50,000, John D. Cox, proprietor; two or three 
millinery establishments, mechanics' shops, a steam flour and grist 
mill, ten or a dozen attorneys, half a dozen physicians, etc. There is 
a fine two-story brick public school i)uilding, and a comfortable frame 
school-house for the colored children of the district. There are three 
church buil(lin<j[s — Christian, Presbyterian, and Congregationalist. 
The town is connected with Hamilton by telephone. 

Free from the bustle and busy turmoil of large railroad towns, 
Kingston is without many of their advantages ; but it is also with- 
out many of their disadvantages, without their vices and their 
crimes, their corruption and prevailing sentiment of distrust 
and thought of evil. The people of Kingston are generous, hospit- 


able, socially disposed, and confiding. The stranger, if his walk is 
at all circumspect, is not looked upon with suspicion, but is trusted 
and made welcome. The true nobility and gentility of character of 
the men and women of this town can not be too highly commented 
upon. The slanderer and the backbiter do not ply their calling here. 
People choose to hear and to talk of the good traits of their neighbors 
rather than of their weaknesses. 

The young people are pure in character and correct in true 
deportment, but withal are full of merriment and jollity, fond of each 
each other's society and of harmless recreation and amusement. The 
young ladies are alike well qualified to serve in the kitchen, to grace 
the parlor, and to shine in the ball room and at the reception, and 
their many charms of person and manner attract to them hosts of 

God bless and prosper the people of Kingston ! 


Christian Church. — December 24, 1865, this church was organized 
with the following members : Dwight Dodge, Lemuel Dunn, J. D. 
Cox, J. P. McKinnie, H. B. Nelson, Walker Miller, Susannah P. 
Thompson, Rowanna McKinnie, Emma A. Dunn, Lydia W. Dodge 
and Harriet C. Northup. The church building, a frame, was pur- 
chased from the Southern Methodists in 1869, at a cost of $1,200. 
The pastors of the church have been Revs. Joseph T. Rice, C. P. 
HoUis, Samuel P. Johnson, Benj. F. Matchett, Wm. Trader and M. 
L. Smith. The present membership is 49. 

Presbyterian. — The Presbyterian Church of Kingston is of recent 
organization, and has but a small membership. It was organized May 
15, 1884, and the same year bought the Congregational Church build- 
ing, a frame, for $750. The original or constituent members were E. 
D. Johnson, A. W. Bishop, Dr. Daniel A. Neff, Jacob Kautz, Joseph 
Frazier, J. A. Rathbun, Emily Johnson, Julia A. Bishop, Mary Kautz, 
Mecca Frazier, Mary S. Rathbun, Belle Buxton, Laura Dodge, Han- 
nah L. Lambert, Mary C. Spivey, Mary Higgins and Jennie Mills. 
The present membership is but 18, and the pastor is Rev. Goodale. 


Odd Fellows Lodge. — Kingston Lodge No. 154, I. O. O. F., was 
instituted by Rt. W. Charles H. Mansur, D. D. G. M., of Chillicothe, 
assisted by D. W. C. Edgerton, of the same place. The dispensa- 
tion was issued September 8, 1865, and the charter May 16, 1866. 



Amonjr the charter members were N, M. Smith, J. P. McKinnie, 
Joseph Williams and A. C. Davis. The first officers were: N. M. 
Smith, N. G. ; J. P. McKinnie, V. G. ; A. C. Davis, secretary; 
Joseph Williams, treasurer. The hall is of brick and was erected in 
1875, at a cost of $2,000. The present membership is 30. 

Masonic Lodge. — Kingston Lodge No. 115, A. F. and A. M., 
was instituted by Samuel Hardwick, D. D. G. M., of Liberty, Jan- 
uary 19, 1866. The dispensation is dated December 22, 1865, and 
the charter October 19, 1867. The charter members and officers 
under the dispensation were N. M. Smith, W. M. ; Elias Lankford, 
S. W. ; J. S. Orr, J. W- ; I. K. Esteb, Geo. H. Windsor, John Hale, 
Asa Goodrich, J. H. Filson, A. W. Rice, W. A. Northup, J. D. S. 
Cook, T. D. Clarkson and A. S. Gray. The first officers under the 
charter were : N. M. Smith, W. M. ; I. R. Esteb and T. D. Clarkson, 
wardens ; I. Merchant, treasurer ; Lem. Dunn, secretary ; E. T. Dun- 
can, tyler ; J. D. S. Cook and A. B. Miller, deacons. The hall (a 
brick building) was erected in 1884 at a cost of $1,200, and is but 
half paid for. The membership at present writing is about 40. 

Grand Army of the Republic. — Ben Loan Post No. 33, G. A. R., 
was instituted by A. P. Pease, A. A. A. G. The charter is dated 
September 26, 1882 ; the first officers and members were John A. 
Cross, post commander ; John Calvin, senior vice; E. D. Johnson, 
junior vice ; J. F. Heiser, quartermaster ; Eli Gapen, surgeon ; J. G. 
Everett, chaplain; P. D. Kenyon, officer of the day; W. L. Smith, 
officer of the guard ; C. W. M. Love, adjutant ; B. F. Klepper, ser- 
geant-major ; D.A.Glenn, quartermaster sergeant; J. C. Adams, 
W. P. Doak, Leroy Ellis, Howard Lester, A. B. Mills, Joseph Myers, 
Jonathan Palmer, R. D. Sackman. At present there are about 20 
members. Since its organization the post has lost three members by 
death : John Dixon, Eli Gapen and Henry Tospann. 



(Dealer In Drugs, Paints, Oils, Window-glass, School Books, Wall Paper, Druggists' 

Sundries, etc., Kingston). 

Among the more recent acquisitions to the business interests of 
Kingston, the establishment of which Mr. Alexander is proprietor has 


taken a place such as one might well think belonged to an older estab- 
lished house. It was early in the present year that he became located 
at this point, at which time he purchased his present business, and the 
stock which he now carries is one to be found only in a well kept, 
reliable store. It includes a complete assortment of drugs, paints, 
oils, window-glass, school books and druggists' sundries ; and if a 
thorough knowledge of the business, together with necessary and 
natural qualifications for its successful carrying-on, amount to aught, 
then surely Mr. Alexander's future career is bright with promise. 
His personal popularity is also the cause of considerable patronage. 
He is a Virginian by birth, born February 9, 1834, at Alexandria, 
Alexandria county. In endeavoring to trace his genealogical record 
we find that the family lineage can be followed in an unbroken line to 
the fifteenth century. The name has become well known in the affairs 
of the world in different capacities. William B. Alexander, the 
father of George R., was a cousin to the celebrated Archibald Alex- 
ander, a noted Presbyterian divine. He (Wm. B.) was married after 
reaching manhood to Miss Susan Brown, also of Virginia birth, 
whose father was the owner of the Bull Run Mill, in Fairfax county, 
Va. George R. Alexander was a resident of his native State until 9 
years old, when he accompanied his parents to Kentucky, remaining 
in the Blue Grass State some three years. Coming to Missouri soon 
after this, he settled in Saline county, thence going to Lafayette 
county. During all this time he had been perfecting himself in the 
knowledge of drugs, compounding of medicines, etc., and it was this 
fact which led us to say above that he was perfectly qualified for the 
management of a drug establishment. In 1862 Mr. Alexander went 
to Nevada and made his home west of the Rocky mountains the 
greater part of the time until 1885, In 1885 he took up his perma- 
nent location at Kingsto)i. He was married September 21, 1868, to 
Miss Lucy Wilson, a daughter of Capt. George Wilson, of Iowa. 
They have two children, Georgia A. and Susie. Mr. Alexander is a 
prominent member of the Masonic order, in which he has risen to the 
32d deo;ree. The I. O. O. F. also finds in him a warm friend and 


(Farmer, Section 15, Post-offlce, King.ston). 

Mr. Bethel was about tAvo months past the age of 22 when his 
marriage to Miss Sharlie Duston, of this county, born in June, 1859, 
occurred. Her father is Mr. J. H. Duston, an outline of whose 
life is given within these pages. Her mother was Miss Martha J. 
Hawks, of Indian and English birth, born in Tennessee in the 3'^ear 
1833. She removed to Missouri, and in the year 1852 married John 
H. Duston, and of this union there were born eight children, five of 
whom are living, the eldest daughter marrying John Bethel. The 
marriage was consummated October 1, 1878, and of this union three 
children have been born, C.Maud, Robert A. and Ugene L. Though 
now only a little over 30 years old Mr. Bethel has achieved a place 


among the agriculturists of this township by no means an inferior 
one, and one which many older in years and experience might well 
feel proud to occupy. He came originally from a state of progressive 
agriculturists, and was a descendant of a prominent and extensive 
farmer, Chapman Bethel, of Adams county, 111., born December, 1818, 
who, until his death in January, 1865, was closely identified with 
the interests of that vicinity. He left a widow and a large family 
of ten children to be brought up ; but how well the trust left to 
this noble woman was fulfilled is evident in looking upon those who 
have srrown to manhood and Avomanhood. The maiden name of his 
wife was Miss Eliza Fetherngill, married in the year 1840. She 
was a Kentuckian by nativity, and in 1866 she came to Caldwell 
county, Mo., and located where she now resides with her son — 
two miles from Kingston. She had to practice economy in rearing 
her young fiimily; though by great judgment and capability she can 
now look back with pride on her success. John Bethel was born in 
Adams county. 111., August 17, 1855, grew up upon the home farm, 
and after his father's death assisted in caring for the family. He 
now owns a good farm of 20 acres, which is being cultivated ac- 
cording to advanced ideas. He has thus far been very successful 
in life, and his outlook for the future is promising. 


(Farmer, Section 20, Post-ofSce, Kingston) . 

In the year 1877 the subject of this sketch was chosen to occupy the 
position of judge of the county court of Caldwell county, and after 
discharging the duties of this office in a manner highly creditable to 
himself, and with none the less satisfaction to the people of the com- 
munity, he was again made county judge. To the excellent natural 
ability possessed by Judge Bishop were added the wisdom and experi- 
ence of a useful and well spent life, and there was no reason to view 
his oflScial career with disappointment when he left the bench. Still 
less than 50 years of age at this time, he was born March 24, 1837, 
in Athens county, O., the son of James and Sylvia (Wines) Bishop. 
The father was a native of Ireland, the mother of New Hampshire, 
and of their fiimily of four children, all of whom ^ive achieved 
honorable positions in life, A. W. was the eldest. One of his 
brothers is a resident of Knoxville, la., another is a practicing phy- 
sician at Centerville, the same State, and his sister is now Mrs. S. S. 
Aten, of Dexter, la. Upon the removal of his father's family to 
Knoxville, la., in about the year 1852, young Bishop, then 15 years 
of age, also located there and turned his attention to agricultural pur- 
suits. He was favored with exceptionally fine educational opportuni- 
ties, which he did not fail to improve. In August, 1862, the usual 
quietude of this portion of the country being disturbed by the mut- 
terings of civil war, he eidisted on August 11 in Co. A, 33d Iowa 
infantry, serving in that regiment until the close of the conflict. On 
July 11, 1865, he received a honorable discharge at New Orleans, 


having been a participant in the following battles: Helena, July 4, 
1863, where he was wounded by one of Gov. Marmaduke's regiment; 
the ball received in that struggle he still carries ; Spanish Fort, 
Prairie du Chien, Little Rock, and several others of minor importance. 
Returning now to hi« old home in Knoxville, Mr. Bishop resumed his 
farming operations until 1871, when he became a resident of Caldwell 
county, Mo., taking up his location in Rockford township, but in 1881 
he settled on his present homestead. This embraces 80 acres of 
choice land, the improvements of which are of a superior character, 
and in addition to this he is the owner of 240 acres in Mirabile town- 
ship. In May, 1860, Judge Bishop was married. Miss Julia A. Fort 
becoming his wife. She was a native of Troy, N. Y., and a daughter 
of E. Fort, Esq., now of this county. This union has been blessed 
with five children : Charles E., James, Lillie, Albert and Chester A. 


(Postmaster, Kiugston, Mo.) 

Mr. Botthoff's father, Jacob BotthotF, a carpenter by occupation, 
was a native of Lancaster county. Pa., as was also his wife, whose 
maiden name was Mary A. Trout. The senior Mr. B. with his family 
removed to Montgomery county, O., in- 1855, living there until ten 
years later, when they came to Caldwell county, and here he followed 
agricultural pursuits. He was the owner of the farm known as Salem 
Farm, somewhat noted for having been the site of the old Mormon 
town of Salem. Jacob Botthoft" died July 30, 1880, from the eft'ects 
of an accident caused by falling in a well. He left two children, 
John H. and Horace. His widow still survives and finds a pleasant 
home in the family of her son, John H. Botthoff, who was born in 
Lancaster county, Pa., October 29, 1848. His knowledge of the world 
was only such as could be learned on the home farm until his twenty- 
fifth year, when he commenced a mercantile career. He first entered 
a drug store as clerk ; this was in 1873, and May 5, 1879, he engaged 
in the drug business in Kingston on his own account. June 14, 1882, 
he suflTered a severe loss in the burning of his establishment, with only 
a partial insurance, but he has long since recovered from the effects 
of this misfoftune. Re-engaging in business he built up a prosperous 
trade, carrying a large and extensive stock in his line and personally 
.superintending the concerns and details of the establishment. Mr. 
Botthoff is a first-class druggist and pharmacist, and a reliable, pop- 
ular business man. In the surhmer of 1885 Mr. Botthofi', at the 
solicitation of certain friends, became an applicant for the postmas- 
tership at Kingston upon the expiration of the term of the then 
incumbent, A. B. Mills. Although not a strenuous and unreason- 
able partisan, Mr. B. has always been a Democrat in politics. 
Exercising a freeman's privilege, he has at times refused to indorse 
certain nominations of his party, but in its principles and its cause he 
has ever been a consistent believer. The selection of postmaster was 
left to the Democratic patrons of the Kingston office. Opposed by 


popular and worthy gentlemen, Mr. Botthoff was three times declared 
the choice of the voters, each time by a large majority. Had he in- 
sisted that the first, or at least the second, election was final and 
determining, it might have been so declared, but he waived all con- 
siderations that were in his own favor, declaring that the choice must 
be entirely satisfactory to everybody. As before stated he was 
chosen by a large, clear majority, received the recommendation of 
Congressman Dockery, and in the early fall the appointment from 
Postmaster-General Vilas. Everybody was gratified, and had the 
whole people, irrespective of politics, been given a choice in the selec- 
tion of a Democrat to the place, the result would have been the same. 
Upon his appointment Mr. BotthofF sold his drug business to Mr. Geo. 
Alexander, and now devotes his attention almost solely to the 
duties of his office, giving entire satisfaction to its patrons. Mr. 
Botthoff was married August 4, 1868, to Miss Rettie Arowood, who 
came originally from North Carolina. To them have been born three 
children, two of whom are living, '' Cutie," a bright, winsome, and 
accomplished young lady, admired by all who knew her, and Prior 
Essie, the beautiful little pet of the family. One child, Archie, is 
deceased. Mr. BotthofF is a prominent member of the A. O. U. W. 



(Deceased) . 

A man well known to the earlier settlers of Caldwell county was 
Louden Brown, — one respected for his upright, straightforward 
course and beloved by all for his noble Christian qualities of mind 
and heart. He was born in Virginia, in 1790, moved to Kentucky 
about 1817, settling in Pulaski county, in 1838 located in Lafayette 
county, Mo., and in the year following he came to Caldwell county 
and soon purchased 400 acres of land. In 1812 he was married in 
Virginia to a Miss Gover, a Virginian by birth, born in 1795. They 
reared to maturity seven daughters and five sons, all of whom mar- 
ried and all but three daughters and one son survive. Louden Brown 
wa.-> an (>xhorter and a class leader in the M. E. Church and died in 
the full faith of a life beyond, October 14, 1858, aged 68 3'ears. His 
widow died in 1877, as a Christian. None of her folks were ever in 
Missouri ; her father and two brothers were drowned in Kentucky 
about 1825. The Brown family, as a family, have always been among 
the most respected members of society and influential residents of this 
county. Three of the ])rothers crossed the plains in 1850 — John W., 
William L. and Samuel T. — but returned but little improved in a 
tinitncial sense. John W. Brown has bortjc more than an ordinary 
part in the affairs of this county and it is but proper that an outline 
of his career should be inserted here. He was born in Pulaski county, 
Ky., June 27, 1823, one of a pair of twins l)orn to his parents, there 
being four children in the family older. In 1838, when 16 years old, 
he came to this State and this has since l)e('n his home. From 1856 
to 1861 he lived in Harrison county, but from that time to the present 


has resided in Caldwell. He has devoted his attention to farming and 
now owns 700 acres of hind, his homestead including 160 acres of the 
old home place in Kingston township. In 1854 he was elected one of 
the county judges, and in 1860 he also filled a like position in Har- 
rison county. In 1878 he was elected public administrator. In 1848 
Mr. Brown had been appointed by the county court one of the com- 
missioners on organization to form the county into school townships. 
From 1867 to 1874 he served as township clerk. Judge Brown was 
married January 4, 1849, to Miss Margaret C. Gay, of Washington 
county, Va., and to them 11 children were born, seven of whom 
survive: Louden W., Polly F., Martha J., Elizabeth, Rosa J., Lilburn 
W., Virginia. All are married except Lilburn. The Judge is an 
extensive raiser of fine stock. 


(Farmer and Stock-raiser, Section 14, Post-oflBce, Kingston). 

Mr. Butts, a man who, full of zeal and enthusiasm in the cause of 
the land of chivalry, enlisted in 1861 in the six months' service, is a 
son whom Missouri proudly claims as her own. His father. Col. T. 
N. O. Butts, a Virginian by birth, was one of the early pioneers to 
Ray county, this State, having removed there in 1832. Seven years 
later, or in 1839, he became a settler of Caldwell county, and until 
his death was prominently and intimately identified with her material 
affairs and prosperity. He died in January, 1864. William M. Butts 
was born in Ray county, November 28, 1837, though his early train- 
ing was given him in this county, where his education was also re- 
ceived. His chosen calling in life has been that of farming. In 1861 
he became a member of Co. D, of Col. Hughes' regiment, with 
which he remained until the close of the six months' terra. Then 
joining the Confederate service he enlisted in Col. Reaves' regi- 
ment of Ray county, and with that command participated in the 
battles of Oak Hill, Lexington, Pea Ridge, luka, Corinth, Grand 
Gulf, Port Gibson, Champion's Hill, Big Black and Vicksburg. At 
this place he became a cavalryman, under Col. Lawther, subse- 
quently taking part in the engagements at Gaines' Mill, Camden 
and several others. He sustained wounds at Vicksburg and Biff 
Island. Surrendering at Shreveport, La., when peace once more 

" Lay like a sliaft of light across the land " 

Mr. Butts wended his way homeward, after having spent four years 
in defense of the cause which he believed to be riffht. Altogether 
he was in more than 100 engagements. On April 14, 1870, he was 
married to Miss Mary Bethel, like himself a native of Missouri. The 
fruits of this union are four children: Alice O., Ella Lee, William 
Jesse and Georgia A. Mr. B. has a good homestead of 200 acres 
upon which are excellent improvements. He gives his principal atten- 
tion to raising stock. 



(Farmer, Section 23, Post-offlce, Kingston). 

Thomas J. Butts, a brother to William M. Butts, a sketch of whose 
life immediately precedes this, is a worthy representative of the family 
whose name he bears. He is a son of Col. T. N. O. Butts, men- 
tioned elsewhere in this volume as being among the earliest settlers 
and esteemed residents of Caldwell county, this having been his 
home for many years prior to his demise. His estimable compamion 
was formerly Miss Harriet C. Ellis, who came to this county in 1840. 
Born in Caldwell county January 26, 1845, Thomas J. Butts has, like 
his brother, followed the pursuits of agriculture as his principal occu- 
pation during his lifetime, though for some two or three years after re- 
turning: from the battlefield he devoted his attention to the studv of 
law, first under the tutorship of Col. C. T. Garner, of Richmond, 
Mo., following the practice of his profession for about eight years. 
A career passed in this vicinity from his very birth has caused him to 
become widely and favorably known to the people of this county 
and community, and he is recognized as a progressive agriculturist 
and stockman. It was on August 9, 1864, when he enlisted in the 
Missouri volunteer infantry, becoming a member of Co. C, 44th regi- 
ment, and serving with that command until August, 1865, when he 
was honorably mustered out and then returned home. Mr. Butts has 
been twice married ; first, August 14, 1873, to Miss Kate Stirman, of 
Missouri, whose death occurred August 12, 1876. She left an infant 
son, who also died in about nine days after her death. His second wife 
was formerly Miss Mary A. Reynolds, and their union was consum- 
mated January 15, 1885. Mrs. Buttsis a daughter of Thomas and Mary 
J. (Smith) Reynolds, and was herself born and brought up in Missouri. 
It should have been mentioned in connection with Mr. B.'s military 
career that he participated in a number of serious engagements, among 
others those of Union Mills, Mo.,. Spring Hill and Franklin, Tenn., 
where he received three wounds, from the effects of which he still 
sufiers to some extent. 


(Druggist and Dealer in Drugs, Medicines, Cigars, Tobacco, Fruits, Candies, Drag- 
gists' Sundries, etc., Kingston). 

Mr. Canon is a young man who is rapidly and surely making his 
way to the front among the energetic business men of this community. 
Though only in his thirty-sixth year he has built up a constantly in- 
creasing patronage, and by attending strictly to each minor detail of 
his chosen calling can not fail of success. His stock is complete and 
always fresh. Mr. Canon wa.«i born in Columbiana county, O., De- 
cember 31, 1849, his father, David F. Canon, also being a native of 
that State. The latter married Miss Mary F. Drake, who came 
originally from Europe. The father, a farmer by occupation, moved to 


Caldwell county, Mo., in 1867 (having previously purchased land 
here), and to a farm life the subject of this sketch was brought up, 
partly in Columbiana county, O., and also in this county. His incli- 
nations, however, led him to enter into active business life, and he 
accordingly commenced his mercantile experience in 1877 as a clerk. 
In 1880 he was enabled to start for himself, and his outlook for the 
future is full of promise. October 14, 1880, Mr. Canon was married 
to Miss Luella Inskeep, a most estimable young lady. Her native 
place was in Coshocton county, O. Two children have blessed this 
union, Helen and Gail. 


(Clerk of Caldwell County, Kingston, Mo.) 

The public services of Mr. Carter since 1875 have been character- 
ized by a noticeable devotion to the welfare of this county, and his 
ability and fidelity in his present position have made a lasting impres- 
sion upon this sphere of public duty. For many years his name has 
been closely connected with the history of Kingston. It was in 1873 
that he became a citizen of Caldwell county, his time and attention 
having just previous to that year been given to merchandising in 
Kansas City. Prior to the war he took a trip West visiting Colorado, 
Montana, etc., Jind for four years was engaged in freighting and min- 
ing. In 1866 he returned to Missouri and settled at Kansas City. It 
can safely be said that no other man besides Mr. Carter mentioned 
in the biographical division of this work can claim Kansas as the place 
of his birth. He was born in Kansas while it was still a territory 
March 7, 1843. His father, Luther M. Carter, was a Kentuckian by 
birth, and upon reaching this then wild West assisted in building the 
old Shawnee Mission, near Shawnee Town, Kansas, afterwards re- 
moving to Wyandotte. His wife, the mother of the subject of our 
notice, was formerly Miss Susan Threlkeld, from Kentucky. Of 
their six children living, W. H. B. is the fifth child and third son. 
It was in 1844 that he was brought to Missouri, and in this State his 
early scholastic advantages were enjoyed, though only such as the 
common schools of that period afi'orded. His career since then has 
been briefly noted. In 1875 he entered the county clerk's office as 
deputy, which position he held for six years, when he was ap- 
pointed by the Governor to fill the place made vacant by the resigna- 
tion of his chief Mr. Russel. In 1882 he was elected to fill the same 
office, the duties of which position he has since continued to discharge. 
Mr. Carter is also something of a landholder, having in his posses- 
sion a farm of 210 acres of good land. His marriage to Miss Mattie 
E. Russel occurred October 20, 1869, she having been born in 
Kentucky. Their three children are named Nellie S., Willie L. and 
Samuel R. Mr. C. is Democratic in politics ; in social life he is kind, 
courteous and affable in his demeanor to all classes, and a man who 
attracts the regard of all who approach him. He is universally rev- 
erenced by his fellow-citizens. 



(Farmer, Section 23, Post-oflace, Kingston"). 

The entire life of Mr. Gates has been one unmarked by any unusual 
occurrence outside of the chosen channels to which he has so diligently 
and attentively given his time and attention. A native-born citizen 
of the State, he has ever been occupied in tilling the soil, and the 
manner in which he has acquired his present estate denotes him to be 
an energetic, successful agriculturist. He was born in Howard county, 
Mo., March 25, 1839, but when young he was taken to Ray county, 
where he was principally reared, his education being acquired in the 
common schools. In 1880 he purchased 80 acres of land in Galdwell 
county, and in 1884 was in a situation to add to this original tract 
another 80 acre farm, thus forming an excellent landed estate of 160 
acres, which is being improved to the best advantage. March 10, 
1859, Mr. Gates was married to a most worthy hidy, — Miss Eliza 
Kemper, a native of this State and a daughter of John Kemper, Esq., 
one of the first settlers of Linn county. Mo. He was a Kentuckian 
by birth, and after reaching manhood was married to Miss Jane Boyer, 
who came originally from Tennessee. Wherever a family of Kempers 
have resided they have been recognized as prominent and influential 
citizens. Mr. and Mrs. Gates have an interesting family of four chil- 
dren: John P., Susie L., Martha Belle and Leah May. Mr. G. and 
wife are members of the M. E. Ghurch South. 


(Sheriff of Caldwell county, Kingston). 

Mr. Glevenger, the popular sheriff of this county, though born in 
Union county, Ohio, June 10, 1853, has resided here from his fourth 
year, and the confidence which the people have in him is therefore 
intelligently placed, for they have known him from boyhood and have 
had every opportunity to judge of his character and qualifications. 
His father, Lewis B. Clevinger, is well remembered by the earlier res- 
idents of Galdwell county, for he was long associated with its agricul- 
tural interests. He was a native of Greene county, O., born April 
27, 1827, and from that place, after having been raised there, he went 
to Illinois, where he made his home for one year, the year of 1856. 
In 1857 he cast his fortunes with this county. Here he resided until 
his death, one of the well known and respected men of the com- 
munity. In 1862 he entered the army as a member of the 
6th M. S. M. cavalry, and was made first lieutenant, thereafter 
soon being promoted to captain. He served until 1865, was then 
mustered out, returned to Galdwell county, and resumed farminir. In 
1866 he was appointed a member of the boai'd of registration tor the 
county, and in 1868 was a candidate for county judge, though defeated 
by a small majority. In 1874 he was elected sheriff, and so well did 
he fill that position that at the next general election he was again 


called to the same office. His death occurred April 4, 1882, from 
the effects of a wound received at Yelville, Ark. His widow 
still survives and finds a pleasant home among her children. 
Her maiden name was Miss Mary Elizabeth Spencer, of Union, 
county, Ohio. Six children of her family are now living, William W., 
Mary E., now Mrs. Cross; John C. F., Florence M., now Mrs. 
Faulkner ; Oliver L. and Lewis B. William W. Clevenger was 
brought up in this county and received his education here. He re- 
mained on the home farm until 1874, when he was appointed deputy 
sheriff during the term of his father, and in 1878 was elected for one 
term. In 1884 .he was again elected to the same position, having in 
the interval between his two terms acted as deputy. It is but saying 
the truth when the statement is made that no more capable man for 
the position could be found than Mr. C. He is very popular with all, 
kind and courteous in his intercourse with his fellow-men (a secret 
doubtless of his great popularity), and always willing to aid an enter- 
prise which tends to the interest of his adopted county. Mr. Clev- 
enger's wife was formerly Miss Permelia E. Sackman, of this county, 
to whom he was married September 7, 1876. Five children have been 
born to them : Orie D., Myrtle B., Blanche M., Ella E., and Lulu L. 
M. He is a member of the following orders: A. F. and A. M., I. 
O. O. F. and A. O. U. W. His father was connected with the 
Masonic and I. O. O. F. fraternities. 


(Banker, Kingston) . 

In any worthy history of Caldwell county the name that heads this 
sketch will always be given an enviable place among the leading citizens 
of the county and its self-made wealthy business men. His experience 
in life has been a varied one, but at the same time one that reflects only 
credit upon him as a man. His parents were Solomon and Deborah 
Cox; the former was born in Grayson county, W. Va., and in 1818 
took up his location in White county, Tenn., going thence to Lafayette 
county. Mo. His attention and time during life had been given to 
farming and milling, so that upon his removal to this county, in 1842, 
he erected a mill on section 24 of Kingston township, which was suc- 
cessfully conducted until 1857. This was one of the earlier mills in 
Caldwell county, and one of no small reputation in that early day. In 
1849 Mr. Cox, Sr., took a trip to California, drawn thither in common 
with thousands of others by the overdrawn pictures of mines of wealth 
to be had almost for the asking. However, he never returned to the 
home which he left east of the Missouri, his death occurring Novem- 
ber 26, 1849. He left ten children living: James, John D., William 
B., Lewis W., Kobert W., Patsey, who married L. Fine ; Ruth, now 
Mrs. Coles; Elizabeth, now Mrs. Hampton ; Malvina, now Mrs. Ray; 
Mary, now Mrs. Johnson. One son, Elias, died in 1847. John Den- 
nis Cox, the sixth child of his parents' family of children, was born 
November 26, 1824, in Lafayette county. Mo. He was reared there 


and as he grew up learned the lessons of industry, frugal habits and 
economy — lessons which he has never forgotten. They have ever 
been characteristics of his subsequent life and conduct. Up to 1849 
he divided his energies between the farm and mill ; but at that time 
he, too, went to California, where for one year he was occupied in 
working in the mines. He returned then to Lafayette county. In 
1852 and 1853 Mr. C. again crossed the plains, the last time driving 
500 head of cattle, and renjaining until June, 1855. Continuing to 
make his home within the borders of Lafayette county for about eight 
years after this, he then settled in Caldwell county, moving into 
Kingston in 1867. From that period until 1882 he gave considerable 
attention to money matters, trading in stock, land, etc., and in this 
business he met with the success due a man of his stamp. Impressed 
with the favorable opportunities presented in Kingston for the estab- 
lishment of a solid banking institution, he opened the Caldwell County 
Bank in 1882. This has become well known as one of the substantial 
and reliable banks in this portion of the community, a fact greatly to 
Mr, Cox's credit. During the war, a stanch Union man, he was the 
object of many cruel indignities, the outgrowth of that long and terrible 
struggle ; and even after the cessation of hostilities some unworthy 
office-holders, not satisfied with the record which he had gained during 
the four years of civil strife — a record which any true man would be 
proud to have — endeavored to disfranchise him. This was indeed 
only adding insult to injury, and since that time Mr. Cox has stead- 
fastly refused to vote. On the 10th of January, 1860, he was married 
to Miss Mary C. Robinson, of Lafayette county, Mo., who died De- 
cember 21, 1860. Mr. Cox's second marriage occurred July 14, 1867, 
when Miss Amanda J. Buford became his wife. She is also a native 
of Missouri. They have five children: Kate M., Robert, Arthur, 
Frankie and John D. One son, William, died in infancy. 



Mr. Curtis has resided in this county since 1863, his principal occu- 
pation during this period being the one to which he was reared, that 
of farming. However, he embarked in his present business in 1883. 
He is now engaged in conductinff a saloon and billiard hall, and has 
met with good success in this calling ; and though his trade is large, 
he prides himself on his quiet, orderly house. His standing in 
society illustrates forcibly the truth that — 

" Honor and shame from no condition rise, 
Act well your part ; there all the honor lies." 

Mr. Curtis is a native Missourian, born in Barry county April 22, 
1856. Thomas G. Curtis, his father, was a North Carolinian by 
birth, as was also his mother, whose name before marriage was Sarah 
Henderson. The former pursued agricultural pursuits as his occupa- 
tion in life. In 1863 he came with his family to this county. Sep- 
tember 5, 1875, the subject of this sketch was married to Miss Sarah 


Kiple, who was born in Ohio, and to them three children have been 
given : Annie, Levi and Ivie. 



(Attorney at Law, Kingston) . 

The subject of this sketch is a native born resident of the county 
and as such is looked upon with considerable pride by the people of 
this locality as a representative son of a cultured and refined common- 
wealth. To live an entire life in one community and still retain the 
reputation which Mr. Davis enjoys is by no means as easy asitis for a 
stranger to come into a place where he is entirely unknown, and by his 
upright conduct of a short time win the estimation of the public. The 
acquaintances of Mr. D. therefore know who and what he is. He is 
now having a very fair practice in his profession, and in the manage- 
ment of his cases displays considerable ability and sagacity for one of 
his years. His energy and determination to succeed cannot fail of 
assisting him to rise to considerable prominence. His father was 
Thomas Colson Davis, a Kentuckian by birth, who came to Howard 
county, Mo., in an early day, and in 1853 to Caldwell county. He 
was a farmer by occupation and took for his wife Miss Mary Emmer- 
son, also of Kentucky birth, though brought up in Howard county, 
this State. Jeff, was born June 30, 1855, and grew up in this county, 
though the principal part of his education was acquired in William 
Jewell College, that well known and widely distinguished institution 
of learning at Liberty, Mo. In 1873 he commenced the study of law, 
and in June, 1877, after a most searching preparation, was admitted 
to the practice. Since then he has closely applied himself to follow- 
ing his chosen profession. Mr. Davis is a married man, his marriage 
to Miss Ada Smith having transpired on January 13, 1878. She was 
born in Jackson county. Mo. Their family numbers four children: 
Eda, Jeff., Forest S. and Grover Cleveland. The latter name was 
given to their youngest son on account of Mr. D.'s strong Democratic 
proclivities, and it is to be hoped that this child upon growing up may 
only have the sterling qualities of that glorious President. 


(Mei'chantJTailor, Kingston). 

Mr. Dickinson was born in Yorkshire, England, May 22, 1834, and 
was the son of Joseph and Mary (Green) Dickinson, also natives of 
that country. The former early learned the business of a woolen 
manufacturer, and met with good success in that calling for manv 
years. Deciding to come to America, he brought his family here in 
1854, and at once settled in Lowell, Mass. He and his wife had seven 
children : John, Henry, Thomas, Charles, Anna, Margaret and 
Elizabeth. Henry, the second in the family, was brought up in 
England, where he thoroughly qualified himself for the trade of a 
tailor. This he has followed the greater part of his life, with most 


gratifying results. In 1857, he left Lowell and settled in Adams 
county, 111., where he made his home until 1868, then coming to 
Caldwell county, Mo. Mr. Dickinson's career since his location here 
has been one of industry and great material benefit to the community. 
He has done much for the advancement and progress of the different 
places in which he has resided, and is well known as a public-spirited 
enterprising man. He was one of the first settlers of Polo, and 
among the early business men of Hamilton. Since becomins: a resi- 


dent of Kingston he has succeeded in building up a good patronage, 
and the quality of the goods which he tnrns out has gained for him no 
insignificant reputation. He at one time discharged the duties of 
judge of the county court with efficiency, receiving an appointment to 
that position from Gov. Hardin. Besides his business interests, Mr. 
Dickinson owns two farms in this county, one of 80 acres in Grant 
township, and the other of 160 acres in Kingston township. He is a 
married man, his wife having formerly been Miss Mary J. Hinchelaiff, 
of Warsaw, Hancock county, 111. ; to them have been born two chil- 
dren, Jennie and Harry. Mr. D. belongs to the I. O. O. F., 
and has held the position of Noble Grand. He is also a member of 
the Encampment. 


(Attorney at Law and Pension Attorney, Kingston) . 

Mr. Dodge is a representative of a well known family of physicf&ns 
who were prominently identified with the medical fraternity at an 
early day in the history of New York. Both his father and paternal 
grandfather, each of whom were named John, were regularly educated 
and qualified ph3'sicians, as well as skillful and experienced practi- 
tioners, and at the same time men of advanced general culture. Com- 
ing of such an ancestry, perhaps it is not to be wondered at that 
Robert L. Dodge has succeeded in reaching his present high position 
as a member of the legal profession of Caldwell county. But the 
reputation he has acquired has l)een gained largely through his own 
individual efforts, and at the expense of diligent study and hard, 
practical experience. He spent his youth in his native State, New 
York, and there received an education far above the averaije, having 
attended an academy at Fairfield, Herkimer county, which he supple- 
mented with a course at Union College, of Schenectady. From this 
well known institution he was graduated in the class of 1850. Mr. 
Dodge now took charge of an academy at Spencertown, Columbia 
county, and acted in the capacity of principal with eminent success 
for one year, when he resigned in order to enter upon the study of 
law, towards which he had turned as the source of his future labors. 
He soon commenced to read law, and thorouirhlv fitted himself for an 
examination for admission to the bar ; having in the meantime re- 
moved to Missouri, he was licensed to ])ractice in all courts of record 
in the State of Missouri, at Savannah, Mo., in 1853, and soon located 
at Gallatin, where was begun a career that has since developed into 
one of consideral)le prominence. From 1856 until 1869 he followed 


the practice of law, but in the latter year was elected to the position 
of jnd^e of the court of common pleas and probate court of Daviess 
county, Mo. The excellent manner in which he discharged his official 
duties are too well known to need any additional words of compli- 
ment ; suffice it to say that during his term of office the records show 
that there were fewer of his rulings reversed than those of any one 
who ever occupied the same position. In 1878 he came to Kingston, 
and since that time has devoted the larger part of his time to the 
pension business, in which he has met with unusual success, a fact 
well understood by the people of this community and one which they 
have not failed to appreciate. Mr. Dodge was born in Dutchess 
county, N. Y., November 16, 1823, and was the son of John and Sophia 
(Cheesman) Dodge, of the same State. He was married in 1853 to 
Miss May E. Barnett, a native of Missouri, who died June 12, 1858. 
His second wife was Miss Laura Kautz, of Caldwell county, Mo., and 
their union was consummated in 1861. To them four children have 
been born : Robert K., Emma, George K. and Nellie. Mr. E. belongs 
to Kingston Lodge No. 118, of the A. F. and A. M. 


(Farmer, Section 14,-Post-ofRce,tKingston). 

Mr. Duston's farm of 340 acres is one of the finest for successful 
agricultural purposes to be found in this part of the township, and 
the manner in which it is conducted is in full keeping with the per- 
sonal characteristics of its owner, a man of great energy, determin- 
ation and of much perseverance. For over thirty years he has 
resided upon his present place, having entered it in 1852, and his 
entire life since that time has been spent in attending strictly to his 
chosen calling. By so doing he has done much to advance the repu- 
tation which the county enjoys as a prosperous farming community, 
for it is a sturdy, intelligent and energetic class of citizens who give 
life to any portion of a country. From the age of 10 years Mr. 
Duston has made this county his permanent home, though when 19 
years old he went to Galesburg, 111., and entered as a student the 
well known Knox College. In 1849 he took an overland trip to Cali- 
fornia and remained in that far-off land (as it was then considered) 
for two years, not however without substantial evidences of success. 
In 1852 he returned to this county and has conti»ued to reside here, 
as mentioned above. The family of Dustons are of English origin, 
the first record we have of them in this country showing that they 
settled in New Hampshire. John's father, also John Duston, removed 
from that State to New York, locating in Oneida coiintv. He was a 
soldier in the War of 1812. His marriage occurred in Whitesboro, 
N. Y., when Miss Sophia, daughter of Judge White, became his wife. 
He it was from whom the town of Whitesboro took its name. In 
about the year 1820 John Duston removed to St. Louis, Mo., and 
after leaving there settled in Saline county, and later in Lafayette 
county. In that vicinity he remained until 1838, when he came to 


Caldwell county, being among the pioneers here. He was a civil 
engineer by profession, and as such his services were in frequent 
demand. He enjoyed an extensive acquaintance and was highly re- 
spected. Of his family of children eight grew to maturity. John 
Henrj-^, the fifth child, was born in Saline county. Mo., on the 9th 
day of September, 1827. April 29, 1852, he was married to Miss 
Martha J. Hawks, a native of Tennessee, who died February 4, 1871, 
leaving a family of five children: Archie A., William W., Charlotte 
L., wife of John Bethel, of this county; John H. and Sarah Etta. 
Three were deceased : Ora, Ida H. Sturges and Martha S. Mr. 
Duston's second marriage occurred February 23, 1873, to Miss Mary 
A. Bowers, a native of Missouri. They have five children living: 
Russella L., Alice C, Barnard E., Dessa M. and Ann J. They lost 
one son, Hugh H. 


(Farmer, Section 21, Post-office, Kingston), 

The parents of Mr. Esteb, J. M. and Nancy J. (Fisher) Esteb, 
went to Indiana at an early day and there reared a family of seven 
children, of whom the subject of this sketch was the fourth child. 
His father was a native of North Carolina, but the mother was a Ken- 
tuckian by birth. Young Esteb was born in Wayne county, Ind., on 
the 4th day of May, 1837. His youth and earl3'^ manhood were passed 
in the State of his birth, and after attaining his majority he engaged 
in the mercantile business, becoming connected with his father, and 
in which he continued for about nine years under the firm name of 
McKinnie & Esteb. In 1864, disposing of his mercantile interests, Mr. 
E., Sr., removed to this county, and located where his son, John T., 
now resides — a place of 160 acres. The latter now owns this tract, 
which is well improved, and, in fact, a valuable piece of property, 
besides having an undivided interest in the Esteb estate. Careful and 
painstaking in the cultivation of his land and thorough in everything 
connected with its management, it is, perhaps, not to be wondered at 
that he is meeting with good success. His marriage occurred August 
9, 1865, at which time Miss Alice O. James, a native of this county, 
became his wife. She was the daughter of John P. and Melcena A. 
(Butts) James, both of whom died when she was an infant. Mr. and 
Mrs. Esteb have a family of six children : Mary F., John M., Hattie, 
Cora, Edith L. and "Thomas O. 


(Farmer and Stock-raiser, Section 9,|Post-offlce, Kingston). 

Of all the infamous persecutions which history records as having 
been the result of religious intolerance, none are more terrible or 
bloodthirsty than the massacre of the Huguenots on St. Bartholomew's 
Day of 1572, when from 40,000 to 100,000 victims were butchered at 
the instigation of the debased Catherine de Medici. From that time 
on until the famous Edict of Nantes in 1598, numerous Huguenot fami- 


lies left France and emigrated to other countries, among others some 
of the ancestors of T. C. Fort. They settled in New Jersey, and 
after reaching America went thence to Virginia, and subsequently 
to the French grant, in Ohio. The father of Thomas was Benjamin 
Fort, and he finally settled in Indiana. Thomas Fort, the fourth 
child in a family of eleven children, was born in Henry county, Ind., 
November 20, 1834. As soon as he was old enough certain duties 
upon the home farm were given his attention, and in connection he 
familiarized himself with stock dealing. At the age of 22 he com- 
menced the study of medicine, intending to follow that profession as 
his calling in life ; but after devoting two years to preparatory study 
he found that branch of learning somewhat unsuited to his tastes, 
and resumed his former occupations. These he has since continued, 
and with what success it is unnecessary for us to say, as all are 
acquainted with his substantial worth, not only as a citizen, but as 
a man. In 1865 he came to this county, and in 1872 to his present 
farm, which embraces 230 acres of tine land. As a stock farm this is 
one of the best in this vicinity, and Mr. Fort is greatly interested 
in raising graded cattle. He was probably the first man in the county 
to introduce Moore's Poland-China hogs, and owing to his enterprise 
and encouragement in stock matters this interest has been largely and 
materially developed in the community. Mr. F. was one of the or- 
ganizing members of the Caldwell County Agricultural and Mechan- 
ical Association at Kingston, and he it was who drew up the articles 
of agreement for the same, and he sold the first 100 shares. He was 
married November 12, 1858, to Miss Mary E. McKinnie, a native of 
Henry county, Ind., her father having been born in Ohio. Their 
family consists of six children living : Benjamin H., Jesse E., Alice C, 
Rhoda E., Thomas E. and Fannie M. 



Dr. Frazier, still a young man only little past the age of 30, is 
however, conceded to be one of the leading dentists of Caldwell 
county. He is a native of Maryland and was born in Alleghany 
county, April 8, 1854. His parents were Ferdinand and Matilda 
(Barrick) Frazier, both of whom were born in Hampshire county 
(now), W. Va. In 1863 the family removed to McLean county. III., 
and after a residence there of several years came to this county in 
1866, and here it was that the subject of this sketch was principally 
brouo-ht up. He divided his time between working on the farm and 
attending school, where he received a good practical education, and 
in 1879 he commenced the study of dentistry at Hamilton, under Dr. 
W. H. Simcock as his preceptor. Some time after this he entered 
the Missouri Dental College, at St. Louis, in which he took a thor- 
ouo"h course. Upon leaving that institution he returned to his home 
in this county thoroughly imbued with its enterprise and the magnifi- 
cence of his future, and located at Kingston in 1882, where he has 



since resided, Jind quietly and faithfully pursued the practice of his 
profession. His ability and learninij: are well recoij^nized in this com- 
munity, the people of which are giving him an excellent patronage. 
Dr. Frazier is a married man, Miss Mecca Brid^ewater becomina: his 
wife Octol)er 24, 1883. She is one of the native born daughters 
of Caldwell county. Of this union one child has been born, Mary 


(Farmer and Stock-raiser, Section 30, Post-ofl3ce, Kingston). 

It was in 1855 that Mr. Fu^itt first became a resident of Caldwell 
county, having come here from Randolph county, this State, where 
he learned the rudiments of farm life. Later on, and in fact ever 
since then, he has given his entire time and energies to the pursuit of 
farmins, in which he has had more than the average success. His 
first location in this county was on the site of the present Poor Farm, 
but in 1870 he improved and moved upon his present homestead which 
consists of 485 acres. Everything about this place is kept in good 
condition, all necessary buildings forming a prominent feature of the 
improvements. Mr. Fugitt was born in Maury county, Tenn., May 
10, 1817. When three years old he was taken by his mother to Ran- 
dolph county, Mo., his father having departed this life in Tennessee 
some time before. She continued to remain there until December 2, 
1856, William making his home with her until reaching his majority. 
On September 25, 1843, he was united in marriage with Miss Margaret 
Alexander, originally from Kentucky, and she has borne hiu) eight 
children, four of whom are now living: Mary J., wife of Joab 
Houghton, a well known resident of this county ; William, Josephine, 
now Mrs. Walter Hill, and John. Four are deceased : James, Dona 
Maria, Eliza and an infant. The first named, James, was a brave 
soldier in the late Civil War, and being taken a prisoner, was confined 
for two years in Andersonville. He was released April 13, 1865, but 
the confinement and suffering had so undermined his health that he 
died at Albany, Ga., a few days after. Though now quite advanced 
in life, Mr. Fugitt is remarkably well preserved in years, the " rav- 
ages of time " having had but little effect upon him. He is widely 
honored l)y those who know him. 


(Farmer, Section 1, Post-office, Hamilton). 

A lifetime of hard, earnest endeavor in pursuing the occupation to 
which he now gives his attention, coupled with strict integrity, hon- 
esty of purpose and liberality in all directions, have had a result to 
place Mr. Gillett among the truly respected and honored agricultur- 
ists of the county. It was in 1868 that he came here from Illinois, at 
which time he settled on his present homestead, improving a farm of 
170 acres. To this he has constantly added improvements of a high 
order until now everything about the i)la('e is in excellent condition. 


Besides furming in a general way, he handles stock to no inconsider- 
able extent, a branch in which he is well known. Mr. G. was 
born in Otsego connty, N. Y., August 21, 1825, and there it was that 
he received his schooling and orrew to manhood. In 1854 he went to 
Belvidere, 111., where he remained for about 14 years, then, as before 
stated, locating in this county. The Gilletts originally were early 
settlers of Vermont, and from there members of the family removed 
to Connecticut. Allen's mother was formerly Olive Granger, and of 
her 8 children he was the third. On the 1st of February, 1850, Mr. 
Gillett was married to Miss Alziiia Dailey, like her husband a native 
of Otsego count3% N. Y. Nine children in their family are living as 
follows: Juliet, wife of Jacob Snider, whose biogra[)hy appears in this 
work ; Viola, widow of Lewis Nelson, who died a few mouths after 
marriiige ; William D., of this county ; Charles M., now of Nebraska ; 
Ida Jane, Wallace B., Jerome B., of New York; Abraham and Stephen 
A. One daughter, Selina Brown, died April 3, 1881. Mr. G. is a 
loyal Re[)ublican through and thiough. 


(Insurance Agent and Ex-Sheriff of Caldwell County, Kingston). 

It was in 1873 that Mr. Glenn became a citizen of Caldwell county, 
and from that time to the present he has been intimately connected 
with its advancement and material interests in moi-e ways than one. 
Upon settling here he commenced selling goods at Polo, and only dis- 
continued that business when elected to the position of sheritt'in 1880. 
His majority in that year over his opponent was 78, but in 1882, so 
faithfully and efficiently had he discharged the duties as sheriH', that 
he was complimented with a re-election, and a majority of 390. It 
is a well known fact that his services while in this position were of 
great benefit to the people of Caldwell county, and his constituents 
have never had cause to regret the support which they gave him. 
Since the expiration of his official term, he has given his attention to 
the insurance business. Mr. Glenn's father was John Glenn, a Vir- 
ginian by birth, who studied medicine for some time and afterwards 
tauorht school and also emrJiged in farming. He was amono; the 
earliest settlers of this county, coming here in 1838, and soon there- 
after he went to Knoxville, Ray county. In 1850 he was among those 
who took a trip to California during the gold excitement, but his 
death occurred there in 1851. He left six children : David A.^ 
Sarah, now Mrs. Teegarder ; Rebecca Ann, since deceased ; Malinda, 
since deceased; Catherine, now Mrs. Odell, and Mary, now Mrs. 
Henderson. His widow is still living, at the age of 77, and finds a 
pleasant home with her children ; her maiden name was Mahala Lewis, 
a native of Virginia. David A. Glenn, was born in Abington, Wash- 
ington county, Va., September 15, 1836. He was principally reared 
in Ray county, Mo., on a farm up to the breaking out of the war, when 
he enlisted in the 6th Missouri cavalry, and served for three years in 
Southwestern Missouri. After the close of the conflict he returned to 


Kiioxville in 1865, and clerked for J. M. Stone, then deputy sheriff, 
for IX time. In 1867 he became occupied in clerking for John 
Grimes, after which he devoted himself to his farming interests. As 
mentioned elsewhere he came to this county in 1873. Mr. Glenn's 
marriage was consummated in 1867, at which time Miss Susan Vin- 
sant, daughter of Richard Vinsant, of Knoxville, though born in 
Campbell county, Tenn., became his wife. Mr. and Mrs. Glenn have 
six sons: John, Richard, William, David K., Robert, Alvin. Mr. 
G. is a member of the A. F. and A. M. and the A. O. U. W. fra- 


(Dealer in Furniture, Undertaker's Goods and Agricultural Implements, Kingston). 

A native of Union county. Pa., Mr. Heiser was born on the 24th 
of November, 1833, and is now, therefore, in his fifL3'-second year. 
His parents were Benjamin and Elizabeth Heiser, nee Meyers, both 
of whom were also Pennsylvanians by birth. Up to the age of 13 
young Heiser's youth was passed at his birthplace, but in 1846 the 
family removed to Illinois and located in Stephenson county, where 
he was taught the rudiments of farminij. He also familiarized himself 
with the trade of a machinist, and became thoroughly qualified to 
follow that business. In 1859, becoming possessed of a desire to see 
something of the West, he went to Colorado, but in 1861 located at 
St. Joseph, Mo., where he lived for a time. It was at this period that 
he entered upon a career which for four years caused him to endanger 
his life and endure the hardships of a soldier's lot. On the 9th of 
May he enlisted in the 16th Illinois volunteer infantry, the first regi- 
ment of Union troops to enter Missouri, and during the war followed 
the fortunes of that command through its louij and terrible struggle. 
He was a participant in the capture of New Madrid, Island No. 10, 
siege of Corinth, and many others which we can not here mention. 
After returning from the army Mr. Heiser removed to Caldwell 
county, Mo., and for one year was engaged in farming, after which 
he settled at Kingston and embarked in wagon-making. For 10 years 
he carried on a most successful business, l)ut on the 1st of A[)ril, 1869, 
he turned his attention to the conduct of a furniture and undertaking 
establishment. Later on he became interested in sellinij agricultural 
implements, in which he is meeting with good success. As a business 
man generally Mr. Heiser ranks among the foremost in Kingston, and 
the i)atronage which he receives is only such as he deserves. He is 
careful and painstaking in all matters connected with his undertaking 
department, and in all lines carries a full and complete stock of goods. 
He has been called upon to serve as a member of the town board, and 
has also been mayor of the place, a position which he accceptably 
filled. Mr. H. was married to Miss Sarah A. Goodman, in December, 
1869. She was born in Caldwell county. The names of their three 
children are Edgar Frederick, Blanche and Benjamin B. 



(Proprietor of the Caldwell County Sentinel, Kingston) . 

Rev. C. W. Higgiiis bought the Caldwell County Sentinel about 
five years ago, and has since had control of that paper as proprietor, 
though its editorial management is chiefly in the hands of his son, C. 
C. Hiirgins. The /Sentinel is one of the ok] and well established 
country journals of this portion of the State, and has ever exerted a 
potent influence in public affairs and the general interests of Caldwell 
county — never more so than in late years whilst under the direction 
of its present proprietor. It has a good patronage, and as a journal 
commands the respect and confidence of the entire reading public 
among whom it circulates. Mr. Higgins is a gentleman of culture 
and large general information, scrupulously conscientious in all he 
says and does, and one who does as much good for the community as 
lies within his power, and as little harm. These are qualities which 
he esteems to be of the first importance in any calling in life. For 
many years he was engaged in the ministry of the Presbyterian 
Church, and did valuable work for that denomination while occupying 
the pulpit at different places. Rev. Mr. Higgins came originally from 
Massachusetts, having been born in Hampshire county, January 18, 
1823. His father was Luther Higgins, also of an early colonial fam- 
ily of that State; he married Miss Lydia King, and of the family of 
children born of this union C. W. was the fourth child. The senior 
Higgius during life was occupied in both farming and pursuing his 
trade as mechanic. His death occurred in 1846, his wife departing 
this life in 1866. The subject of this sketch was reared in Massachu- 
setts, and as he grew up learned farming upon the old homestead. 
His school advantages were, perhaps, superior to those of the general 
average of youths in that part of the country, and he succeeded in ob- 
taining a good education. He attended Williston Seminary and also 
Williams College, and after this, having decided to devote himself to 
the ministry, he took a theological course at Auburn Theological 
Seminary, commencing his studies in 1850. After three years of close 
and studious application he was graduated in 1853. Mr. Higgins 
began at once to preach, and subsequently was engaged in the State of 
Wisconsin for two years, as well as in New York for sometime. In 
1868 he accompanied a colony from Bingharaton, N. Y., to Osborne, 
DeKalb county. Mo., and remained there as pastor of the Presbyte- 
rian Church until 1880, in the meantime preaching to various congre- 
gations. In 1881 he came to Caldwell county and purchased the 
Sentinel, and from that time to this he has been identified with the 
interests of this community in diff"erent capacities. Mr. Higgins has 
been twice married ; his first wife was Miss Hattie Chapin, of Roches- 
ter, N. Y., a daughter of Judge Chapin. She died in 1872 leaving 
six children : Carrie, now Mrs. McKinlay ; Willie, editor of the Udall 
(Kas.) Sentinel; Mary, now the wife of Rev. W. T. Scott, of 
Laclede ; Edward, an attorney at law ; Charles and Lucy, at home. 



Mr. Hiojgins' second marriage occurred in 1874 to Miss Mary Frazier, 
a native of Ohio, and of Scotch parentage. Mr. Higgins is devoting 
much attention to bee culture, an occupation in which he is greatly in- 
terested. He is meeting with success in this departure, and is recog- 
nized as one of the most prominent apiarists in the county. 


(Farmer and Stock-raiser, Section 3, Post-office, Hamilton). 

From the age of about 26 years, and for some 23 years thereafter, 
Mr. Hogsett was engaged in an occupation w^iich we feel safe in say- 
ing that but few men in this county liave ever folh)wed — that of 
pump making. This branch of l)usiness he commenced in Ohio, 
whither he had removed from his native State of Virginia, in 1847, 
and this is the principal exception to an otherwise lifetime of farming 
which has received his attention. His entire career during life has 
been a remarkable one; he commenced in the world for himself with 
absolutely nothing, and the success which has crowned his efforts and 
the competence to which he has achieved, are due only to his own 
perseverance, energy and good management. As has been intimated 
Mr. H. was born in Virginia, in Augusta county, Novemlier 5, 1821, 
and from that time on until leaving there he worked on the home 
farm. In 1868 he settled in Caldwell county, Mo., and has since re- 
sided here up(m his homestead of 100 acres. Upon this place he is 
at the present time erecting a commodious dwelling. Miss Margaret 
I. Cauffman, also a Virginian by birth, became his wife in July, 1842, 
and this union has been blessed with a numerous family of children, 
eight of whom survive, viz. : Mary J., Martha E., wife of Louis Meck- 
lin, of Ohio; James F., of Hardin county, O. ; William O., George, 
Ann, now Mrs. H. T. Baker ; Laura, wife of William Brent ; Lucretia, 
whose husband is a Mr. M. Downing, of Illinois. One daughter, 
Elizabeth Margaret, is deceased. In connection w^ith his farming 
operations Mr. Hogsett is taking great interest in raising stock, 
of which he makes quite a specialty. In this he has been quite 


(Farmer, Section 19, Post-office, Kingston). 

Mr. Houghton, a man over whom more than 40 years have passed, 
is native to Missouri and also to this county, having been born here 
December 25, 1844. His father, John S. Houghton, is well remem- 
bered among the earliest settlers of the county, for he was a man who 
for a long time was actively and usefully associated with the interests 
of Caldwell county and vicinity. The Houghtons were early comers 
tp this country and, as far as we are al)le to trace their history, 
they were from England, locating first in New Jersey after reach- 
ing this continent. George's grandfather, William Houghton, was a 
soldier of the Revolution. His son, Joliu S., before referred to, first 
saw the light in New Jersey, from which State he removed to Cort- 


land county, N. Y., when 23 years old. While there he met and es- 
poused Miss Lucy K. Alvord, a hidy of rare personal attractions and 
beauty of character, and who at this writing retains a brightness of 
memory and intellect so marked that she describes very vividly re- 
miniscences which occured years ago. She is now 77 years of age, re- 
markably well preserved in every particular. Members of the Alvord 
family were also participants in the Revolutionary War. Their name 
has become more than ordinarily well known in this country, and espec- 
ially prominent is it in the State of New York,where many of their rep- 
resentatives have filled prominent positions and responsible ones, too, 
in the social and political history of the State. Numerous judges, leg- 
islators and lieutenant-o:overnors have born this name. The familv of 

CD " 

John S. Houghton and wife consisted of six children : William, Alice 
C. (Brown), Charles H. H., Geo. W., Joab, and Rachel E. (Orr). 
Rachel and Charles are now deceased. In 1844 Mr. Houo-hton, Sr., 
became a citizen of this county and here he engaged in agricultural 
pursuits. He was highly esteemed by those who were favored with 
his acquaintance, and once represented with ability his county in the 
Legislature. He died August 28, 1865. Brought up in this county, 
and also educated in the schools in this locality, George W. Hough- 
ton has a very extensive acquaintance of the people and the country 
around about. When 17 years of age he returned to New York and 
attended the Homer Academy, at Cortland, where he supplemented 
the course of instruction received here. In 1865 he returned to his 
houje and since then has been industriously occupied in tilling the 
soil. His farm of 80 acress embraces some choice land and is well 
improved. Mr. H.'s wife is the daughter of John Orr, a sketch of 
whose life appears elsewhere in this volume. Her maiden name was 
Mary A. Orr, and their marriage was consummated October 4, 1881. 
One child has blessed this union, Charles H. 


(Farmer and Stock-raiser, Section 30, Post-office, Kingston). 

In everv communitv and among all classes there are alwavs a few 
men who seem to become leaders in whatever they do, whether of 
a commercial or agricultural nature ; and these same men are the 
ones who perhaps unconsciously take a prominent and active in- 
terest in promoting any movements which may be thought capable 
of tending to the welfare of the county or vicinity in which they 
may reside. Such a one is Mr. Houghton, a native-born citizen of 
Caldwell county, and a man highly respected by every one who knows 
him. His parents were Hon. John S. and Lucy (Alvord) Houghton, 
who came originally from Cortland county, N. Y., to this county iu 
1844 ; and it was some four years after this, on August 1, 1847, that 
Joab was born. Though spending his boyhood and early manhood 
here, he accompanied his parents to Cortland county, N. Y., when 
they returned there in 1860, but remained only until 1865, when this 
county again became their home, and here the sul)ject of this sketch 


acquired a good education. He has since been orivins: much attention 
to the stock business, particuhirly to buying and shipping, and his 
choice hmded estate of 220 acres is one of the best tracts for stock 
raising purposes in this section of the county. It is well improved 
and in a good state of cultivation. Mr. Houghton is a married man, 
his wife havinir oriainally been Miss Mary J. Fu^itt, a native of lUi- 
nois, but brought up in this county. She is a dauofhter of William 
Fugitt, an outline of whose life will be found in a few pages before 
this. Their marriage occurred on the 9th of March, 1871. This 
union has been blessed with an interesting family of four children, all 
of whom are living. Their names are, in the order of their births, 
Fannie May, Carrie F., John S. and Alice B. Houghton. 


(Farmer aud Stock-raiser, Section 23, Post-office, Kingston). 

Not without justice Maj. James is conceded to hold an enviable 
position among the prominent and successful men of Caldwell county. 
He served his county and State in a most acceptable manner during 
the war, but has rendered it even more valuable service, not only as 
a reliable public official, but as an industrious farmer and law-abiding 
citizen. He came to this county before reaching his majority, in fact 
when but 16 years of age, and had established himself thoroughly in 
his farming operations at the outbreak of the war. Descended frotn a 
family who were renowned for theii' military instincts, he at once 
threw himself into the conflict, and in June, 1861, organized a com- 
pany of home guards, of which he was captain, the company being 
called " Capt. James' Company of Home Guards." The following 
October he organized the 5th battalion, and was soon commissioned 
major, his command being stationed at Cameron until May, 1862. 
The term of service for which the battalion had enlisted having expired 
it was mustered into the 6th regiment, M. S. M. cavalry, of which 
Maj. James was also made major. In September of the same year he 
resigned his commission and returned home. In 1862 he was also 
elected sheriff of Caldwell county ; but in consequence of his farming 
and stock interests he could not devote the time necessary to discharg- 
ing the duties of that office, and at the same time do justice to his 
own affairs. Therefore he was compelled to decline the honor which 
had been conferred upon him. Upon his present place he moved in 
1865, and this contains 200 acres of well improved land, the build- 
ings upon it being models of neatness. He was married February 12, 
1845, to Miss Mary Eleanor, daughter of Gen. Thomas Butts, a Ken- 
tuckian by birth. Her parents emigrated to Ray county. Mo., in 
1830, and to this coynty in 1840. There is one son living of this 
union, John Milton, one being deceased, Thomas William, as is also 
a daughter, Hattie Elizabeth. Maj. James was born in Kentucky 
December 13, 1825, his ancestors having been early settlers to that 
State from Virginia. They had become located in this latter State 
prior to the War of the Revolution, and five of the family were 


soldiers in that conflict. It was Maj. John James who disphiyed con- 
siderable courage by knocking down at Charleston Capt. Artesof, of 
the British army. M. L. James in early manhood learned the tan- 
ner's trade, which he followed some time, devoting the greater part of 
his time, however, to agricultural pursuits until he came to this county 
in 1841. He then located on a farm in Mirabile township and im- 
proved it, and in 1852 was elected county surveyoi-, having served the 
county in that capacity for several terms. His subsequent career has 
been noted. Maj. James' son, John M. James, was married April 14, 
1881, to Miss Lucy Jane Reynolds, who was born in Johnson county, 
this State. Their family consists of two children : Mary EUor and 
Lolla Lee. The Major is meeting with substantial success in his 
present calling. 



Edward D. Johnson, the seventh child and third son of Robert and 
Jane (Stevenson) Johnson, was born in Coshocton county, O., Novem- 
ber 28, 1828. His parents were of Irish ancestry and themselves 
natives of Ireland. The father emigrated from that country to Ohio 
in 1810 ; he is still living at a ripe old age, honored and beloved by 
all who know him. There were nine children in their family. Edward, 
as soon as old enough, was at once put to work upon the home farm 
and there acquired a taste for agricultural pursuits ; when the duties 
of the farm permitted he attended the common schools. In 1846, 
upon the outbreak of the Mexican War, he enlisted in Co. B, 3d Ohio 
infantry, with which command he served tifteen months. After his re- 
turn from the battle-field he settled in Benton county, la., and made his 
home there for five years. At the expiration of that period he became 
located in Caldwell county, in 1854, though it was merely a matter of 
chance that caused him to stop here, as he was at the time on his 
way to Texas. But immediately turning his attention to farming and 
stock raising, he continued that calling with much profit for several 
years ; and, indeed, the greater part of the time until within the past 
few years. During the progress of the Civil War he was prominently 
identified with the Federal army as captain in Co. C, of the 6th 
regiment, M. S. M., and such a strong defender of the rights of his 
country was he that at the very first outbreak he raised a company for 
the United States service, the first one in North Missouri. He was a 
participant in the Blue Mills fight. In 1848 Mr. Johnson was married 
to Miss Emily Shafer, originally from New York State. A family of 
three children has been given them : Josephine, now Mrs. James 
Orr ; Miriam, now Mrs. McAfee, and Robert. The career of Mr. 
Johnson in this county has certainly been one of much influence. For 
some time he held the position of county judge, the duties of which 
office were carefully discharged. Besides his property interests here 
he has property in Springfield, Mo., and Eureka Springs. Mr. J. is 
,well known in this county as a man of great application and strict 
integrity. His business qualifications are best attested by his success, 


for prudent foresight, sound judgment and an active mind have proven 
to be his best friends in his long business career. His social qualities 
are of a high order. He is a member of the G. A. R. 


(Farmer and Carpenter, Section 29, Post-office, Kingston). 

Though in more recent years Mr. Johnston has given his attention 
principally to farming as his chief calling, he is an experienced car- 
penter and builder, and many evidences of his ability and skill in this 
direction are to be seen in various portions of Caldwell county. He 
has erected many buildings in Kingston and vicinity and now upon 
his present homestead he has a neat and commodious dwelling, home- 
like in all its appointments. In 1860, upon coming to this county, 
he purchased a farm of 100 acres a mile and a half west of Kingston, 
upon which he still resides. This is being cultivated to advantage. 
Mr. Johnston is a native of Huntingdon county. Pa., born March 6, 
1835. He was reared in the vicinity of his birthplace, and at the age 
of 16 commenced to learn the trade of carpenter and builder, in which 
he subsequently met with most encouraging success. In 1855 he 
removed to Illinois and was eno;ai;ed in building until the breakina: 
out of the war, when he responded to his country's call and enlisted 
in the State service. Soon after he was mustered into the United 
States service, and in May, 1861, became a member of Co. G, 
13th Illinois volunteer infantry. In June, 1864, he was mustered out 
at Springfield, 111., after having participated in the siege of Vicksburg, 
the battles of Champion's Hill, Jackson, Lookout Mountain, Mission- 
ary Ridge, and several other engagements. After leaving the army 
he followed his vocation in Illinois until coming to this county in 
1866. On the 14th of November, 1867, Mr. Johnston was married 
to Miss Kate McConnell, who came originally from Ireland. This 
union has been blessed with two children: John W. and Kate May. 
The same success which followed Mr. J. in his carpentering business 
seems to be attending him in his farming operations, but all will admit 
that he deserves his success. 

J. R. JONES, M. D. 

(Retired Physician and Surgeon and Farmer). 

Among the people of Caldwell as well of surrounding counties the 
name that heads this sketch is by no means an unfamiliar one ; for 
for many years he was actively and successfully occupied in the prose- 
cution of his chosen profession, and during this time his career as a 
practitioner and thorough student of medicine won for him no less a 
rei)utation than did his i)ersonal characteristics as a citizen and ncugh- 
bor. Of recent years he has endeavored to avoid as far as possible 
the practice of medicine, preferring to give his entire attention to the 
management of his larire farming interests : but occasionallv an im- 
portunate patient is found who is not willing to risk his treatment to 


any but Dr. Jones. The doctor came oriuinally from Wayne county, 
O., where he was born March 7, 1828. He was there brought up and 
educated, and in addition to the course of instruction which he received 
at home he attended both the Jefferson College, of Philadelphia, and the 
Miami Medical College, of Cincinnati, O., from each of which insti- 
tutions he subsequently graduated. Thoroughly qualified for the 
practice of medicine Dr. Jones commenced his professional career in 
his native town of Wooster, but afterwards traveled extensively in 
this western country until attracted to Caldwell county. In 1858 he 
located in Mirabile, and in 1874 came to his present homestead 
near Kingston — a place consisting of 840 acres. Tliis large estate is 
all under fence and improvement. The doctor's father, Hon. Benja- 
min Jones, was born in Winchester, Frederick county, Va., but in 
1812 became a resident of Wooster, O., engaging in mercantile pur- 
suits on a large scale. He was prominently identified with the private 
and public atfairs of that community ; represented Wayne county in 
the State Senate for two terms, and in 1832 was elected a member of 
Congress from that district, and was re-elected in 1834. It is re- 
corded of him in the history of that county that " there was a genial, 
sunshiny humor, phiyful but caustic wit, and broad hospitality about 
him that attracted and fascinated ; honesty of purpose and rectitude of 
conduct in the discharge of his oflScial duties in the various offices he 
filled, gained him the esteem and approbation of his constituents. So 
ardent were his feelings for the happiness, prosperity and glory of his 
native land that, in a conversation with his family a few days before 
his death, in remarking upon the situation of our country, he observed 
that he had lived to see the adoption of the Constitution which bound 
the States in union with each other, and that before he should be 
called to witness a dissolution of the Union he hoped God in His pro- 
vision would dissolve his existence." Dr. J. R. Jones was married to 
Miss Catherine Davis April 18, 1860. She was a daughter of Thomas 
C. Davis, one of the early settlers of Howard county, this State. Four 
children of their family are living: Benjamin C, Charles K., Quinby 
and Lutie Lake. Two are deceased, Wayne and an infant. 


(Miller and Auctioneer, Kingston, Mo.) 

It was on the morning of the 29th of July, 1840, over 45 years ago, 
that Mr. Kenyon was ushered into life. Hague, Warren county, in the 
State of New York, was the place of his birth, though when quite 
young he was taken by the family to Carroll county. III., and it was 
there that he passed his youth and early manhood. His education 
was received in the common schools and the Mt. Carroll Seminary, an 
institution of high merit as an educationsd center, where he secured a 
thorough intellectual training. In 1868 he left Mt. Carroll, where 
he had so long and successfully followed farming, and came to Cald- 
well county, Mo., giving his attention to agricultural pursuits until 
1881. He then became enocasred in conducting a orfist and saw mill. 


which he has since continued, and in addition to this he has also been 
occupied in selling stock, a calling in which he has achieved no inte- 
rior reputation. As an auctioneer he is, without doubt, one of the 
most competent in this section of the country, and his services as such 
are well recognized. While the life of Mr. Kenyon has been one of 
which he may well feel proud, though perhaps uneventful in the or- 
dinary walks of his career, his record as a soldier is deserving of 
more than passing notice. It was in 1861 that he enlisted from Mt. 
Carroll, 111., in Co. K, 15th Illinois infantry, with which he served in 
many battles, among them those of Fort Donelson, Pittsburg Landing, 
in which 26 out of the 52 men in the company were killed and 
wounded and the engagements during the siege of Corinth. For mer- 
itorious conduct and bravery displayed at the battles of Fort Donelson 
and Pittsburg Landing he was promoted to the position of tirst lieu- 
tenant while on the field of action at the latter place, and as such 
served in West Tennessee until October 5, 1862. He participated in 
the battle of Hatchie, and was promoted to captain, December 1, 1862, 
participating also in the battles at Vicksburg and Jackson, Miss., and up 
to that of Meridian, on February 3, 1864, where one-half of the regiment 
veteranized. After a 30 days' furlough Mr. K, returned to join Sher- 
man's army, which he did at Ackworth, but on October 4, of the same 
year, he was captured by Hood's command, and as a prisoner was 
thrust into Anderson ville prison. From there he was transferred to 
Macon, then to Columbia, S. C, and finally, on the 14th day of Feb- 
ruary, 1865, when it I)ecame known that Sherman's army was ap- 
proaching, he was run through to Goldsboro' and from that place 
paroled. He was subsequently sent to the Union lines, and after 
being mustered out returned to his homfe in Illinois, from whence 
he came to this county as before noted. To the facts here mentioned 
we can not add anything of a complimentary nature for they speak 
for themselves in a manner which will not fail to be understood. Mr. 
Kenyon's marriage to Miss Louisa S. Bauman occurred in 1866. She 
was born in Ephratah, Lancaster county. Pa. To them 8 children 
have been born : Stella C, Howard, Albert G., Frank L., Warren J,, 
Austin W., and Linnie H. M., are now living and one daughter, Lida 
E., is deceased. Mr. Kenyon is a member of the G. A. R., belonging 
to Ben Loan Post. In politics he is Republican. 


(Recorder of Caldwell County, Mo., Kiujjston). 

Mr. Love, one of the most efficient recorders this county ever had 
and a man well known in the community, has been an incumbent 
of his present position since 1883. Previous to that he had dis- 
charged very satisfactorily to all the duties of county collector for 
two years, and when it became necessary to select some one to occu- 
py the office of recorder, Mr. Love was wisely chosen as the projier 
person. Born in Miami county, Ind,, July 10, 1845, Mr. L. is 
now therefore in his forty-first year. His parents were James S. and 




Sarah (Fiers) Love, the former of whom still lives in Indiara, but 
the mother is deceased. The life of Charles has been by no means an 
inactive one. From the home farm he enlisted in the 151st Indiana 
volunteer infantry, and followed the fortunes of that command through 
all the vicissitudes and hardships of a soldier, until his discbarge in 
September, 1865. He then returned to Indiana, resuming his for- 
mer occupation as a tiller of the soil until 1869, when, attracted by 
the superior advantages offered by Caldwell county to men of enter- 
prise and energetic business principles, he came here and for ten years 
handled grain at Hamilton with most pleasing results in a pecuniary 
point of view. His subsequent career has been noted above and is 
one which would do honor to any one. Mr. Love is a married man, 
his wife having formerly been Miss Sue Jameson, a native of the 
same county as himself. They have three children. Otto E., Don O. 
and Gladys. Mr. L. is a member of the A. F. and A. M., the A. O. 
U. W. and the I. O. O. F. fraternities. 


(Attorney at Law, Kiagston, Mo.) 

Mr. McAfee is a good example of what can be accomplished in life 
when a thorough determination to succeed in any calling is coupled 
with energy, perseverance and close application in the direction chosen. 
From his earliest recollection up to the age of 18, his time was occu- 
pied with the monotonous duties of farm life, but at that period, 
becoming desirous of supplementing the primary education which he 
had received in the vicinity of his home with a more thorough knowl- 
edge such as could be obtained in advanced institutions of learnino-, 
he left the parental homestead and for some time worked as a farm 
laborer in order to obtain the means with which to prosecute his 
studies. Subsequently he attended Johnson College, where his career 
was marked with rapid advancement. Now thoroughly qualified to 
enter upon a career which was destined to be a bright one, he engaged 
in teaching school, and for four terms taught in Kingston. He was 
one of the first teachers, acting as first assistant, to occupy the new 
school building here, teaching in it three terms. Mr. McAfee had 
long been eager to follow the practice of law as his profession in 
life and in February, 1873, he commenced its study. The same 
characteristics which marked his progress at school were prominent 
in his legal studies, and after a thorough course of instruction in the 
office of Dunn & Johnson he was admitted to the bar in June, 1876. 
The same year he was elected prosecuting attorney of the county and 
again in 1878. His practice is steadily and substantially increasing 
and his outlook for the future is promising. Mr. McAfee was born 
in Blue Lick, Clark county, Ind., September 19, 1850. His father, 
Hamilton McAfee, also a native of that State, was a cooper by trade 
and in 1865 came to Caldwell county. Mo., embarking in agricultural 
pursuits. His wife was formerly Hannah Hosea, of the same State 
as himself. She died in the sprins: of 1876. The father is now livinsr 


in StjJoseph. Mr. William McAfee was married April 1, 1875, to 
Miss Marium Johnson, (lauirhter of Capt. E. D. Johnson. She is 
native 'ito Caldwell county. They have one child, Agnes. Mr. McA. 
belongs to the I. O. O. F. and the A. F. and A. M. orders. 


(Retired, Kingston). 

A history of any community, large or small, is made up to a greater 
or less extent of the lives of its citizens, and it is apparent to any 
intelligent observer that the history of this county is only such as has 
been made by those who have been identified with its development 
from the very first. Among that class of pioneers we can not fail to 
mention "Uncle John" McBride, as he is reverently called. 
Though a resident of this county less than thirty-five years, he has 
still been so prominently associated with its material progress and 
development, both in private and public life, that we feel it but just 
to number him among that honored few now livinj^:, who were brave 
enough to open the way for civilization. Uncle John was born in 
Hampshire county, Va., June 21, 1802, his father being Thomas 
McBride, a native of Ireland, born in 1770, and who came to America 
in 1785. John's uncle, also John McBride, upon coming to this 
country served for seven years as a brave and true soldier in the Revo- 
lutionary War. He settled in Hampshire county, Va,, after his mar- 
riage to a German woman. Thomas McBride, a farmer by occupation, 
was married in Hampshire county in 1797 to Polly McVicker, a 
native of New Jersey. Her father, Duncan McVicker, also a native 
of Ireland, but of Scotch descent, took part in the War of the Revo- 
lution. He was a stanch Presbyterian of the Old School t^'pe. 
Thomas McBride, after participating in the War of 1812, and 
returning home in 1815, disposed of his farm in Virginia in 1816 and 
the following year removed to Richland county, O., where he 
died in 1824. His widow died in 1833, leaving five sons, viz. : 
Alexander, John, Archibald, Duncan and Wilson — all born in Hamp- 
shire county, Va. — and two daughters, Nancy and Mary. The occu- 
pation of a farmer has been the calling to which John has devoted 
himself during life. Upon his settlement in Richland county, O., 
then a boy of 15, he grnl)l)ed five acres of land for his uncle, and also 
a like amount for his father. June 29, 1826, he was married. Miss 
Sally McBride becoming his wife. She was born in York county, 
Pa., in 1806, her father having moved to Mansfield, O., in 1823. 
They had the following named children : Thomas, now living near 
Kidder; Mary Jane, married in 1852 to William Brandt; Ann Maria, 
widow of William Brown ; Esther, now Mrs. Hopkins, married in 
1866; Artemesia, at home; James and John, both of whom died 
while in the Union army ; their bodies are interred in the home ceme- 
tery. In 1851 Mr. McBride came to this county and at once made it 
his permanent home. His career from an humble beginning in life to 
the present position which he occupies is one of honorable ascent and 


reflects great credit upon him. August 20, 1873, Mrs. McBride died, 
in the sixty-seventh year of her age. The next spring, or in March, 
1874, Mr. McB. rented his farm and purchased a place near Kingston, 
where he has since resided. March 7, 1881, he sustained a severe in- 
jury by falling upon the ice. In 1862 he received the appointment 
from the Governor as treasurer of this county, but in November fol- 
lowing he was elected ; during his term of service, on July 20, 1864, 
an armed gang robbed the office of $7,000. During her life Mrs. Mc- 
Bride was a firm adherent to the Presbyterian faith of her fathers. 
In 1824 she united with the Associate Reformed Church, of Mans- 
field, under the pastorate of James Johnson, by whom she was after- 
wards married. In 1827 Mr. McB. united with the same church, 
under the same pastor, and in 1851 it was he who granted them letters 
of dismission to unite with another church. There being no Presby- 
tejrian church at Kingston in that early day, they went about eight 
miles west to Plum's Creek school-house. After worshiping there 
for four years a Presbyterian Church was formed at Mirabile, and Mr. 
McBride and his wife joined it. In 1858, notwithstanding his protesta- 
tions to the contrary, he was elected an elder, which position he filled 
until the outbreak of the war. On the 3d of June, 1865, they be- 
came connected with the Congregational Church at Kingston. He 
was elected deacon, trustee and treasurer of that church. Though 
well advanced in years Mr. McBride is remarkably well preserved, 
his memory especially showing no indications of the ravages of 

c. s. McLaughlin 

(Attorney at Law, Kingston) . 

Mr. McLaughlin is a man who is steadily and surely making his way 
to the front in the profession of law, and as a prominent and useful 
citizen. Oi thorough education, a close student of and well versed in 
law, he has at the same time, to more than an ordinary degree, the 
natural attributes essential to a successful career at the bar and in public. 
Full of life and spirit, he is also a man of studious habits, and closely 
applies himself to whatever he has in hand. He is the possessor of 
much personal popularity and highly esteemed by all who know him ; 
for his prominent characteristics are an acute sense of honor, unques- 
tioned integrity and singular fairness and liberality, a mind just and 
liberal, and generous of heart and character. With all these he is 
very unassuming in his demeanor. Mr. McLaughlin has an excellent 
law library, is an energetic worker and since his admission to the bar 
has been connected with Mr. Charles Mansur, of Chilli i^othe, in the 
practice of law. He came originally from Springfield, Clarke county, 
O., where he was born June 29, 1848, being the fifth child and second 
son of Cyrus D. and Sarah J. McLaughlin, nee Wharton, also natives 
of Ohio. The former engaged in commercial pursuits and was post- 
master at Springfield under appointment of President Pierce at the 


time of his death. Before his removal to this State the life of young 
McLaughlin was passed in either Ohio or Illinois, and in the latter 
State he was reared to a knowledge of farm life. The i)rincipal part 
of his education was acquired in Ohio, and he obtained an excellent 
course in tlie Southwestern Normal School. In 1868 he settled in 
Missouri and soon commenced reading law in the office of Donaldson 
& Farris, of Richmond, Mo. (in 1871). The same year he was ad- 
mitted to the bar after a most searching examination, and irumediately 
came to Kingston, where he has since been successfully devoting him- 
self to the practice of law, in connection with Mr. Mansur, of Chilli- 
cothe. Mr. McLaughlin's marriage occurred in October, 1875, when 
Miss Fannie Cannon became his wife. She was born in Ohio. They 
have one son, Frank D. 


(Judge of the Probate Court of Caldwell County, Mo.) 

Judge McMillan, a resident of this county for nearly 20 years, is a 
worthy descendant of an old and highly respectable Scotch family. 
He is himself a native of the grand old commonwealth of Scotland, 
having been born there November 10, 1842. His parents were James 
and Margaret (Biddle) McMillan, both of Scottish origin, the former 
being a mechanic by occupation. It was not until 1864 that young 
James determined to leave the place where he had passed so many 
important years in his labor about the farm and in acquiring an 
education ; but in that year he emigrated to America, settling first 
in Pennsylvania. Moving westward then, he took up his location 
in Illinois, continuing to make his abode in Jackson county for two 
years. In 1867 he settled upon Missouri as the most suitable 
State in which to find a place for a comfortal)le home and very 
wisely selected Caldwell county as his permanent residence. He 
at once, with the energy and industry of his forefathers, devoted 
himself to agricultural pursuits, and for 8 years found a profitable 
source of revenue in the cultivation of the rich land of this county. 
Al)out the year 1875, he suspended his farming operations and en- 
gaged in the insurance and real estate business, also discharging such 
duties as were incumbent upon the office of justice of the peace, to 
which he had been elected. He was also commissioned notary pul)lic. 
In 1883 he was elected probate judge. Judge McMillan has become a 
prominent citizen of the county, respected and esteemed l)y all for 
his sterling integrity, sober, sound judgment, brojid intelligence and 
liberal progressive ideas. He is a man whose decisions are not made 
without careful and painstaking study of the evidence adduced, but on 
the contrary all feel that his judgment can be relied upon. He has 
been twice married. First, in 1866, to Miss Jane Stewart, a native of 
Scotland, who died in 1875, leaving three children, James, George 
and Mary. The Judge's second wife was formerly Miss Vina Miller, 
of New York, to whom he was married in 1876. 



(Manufacturer of and Dealer in Saddles, Harness, Etc., Kingston). 

This respected citizen of Kingston has been a resident of the place 
since 1860, dnring which time he has been engaged in business, and 
not without substantial results. He is the oldest business man in 
point of continuous business experience here, and the reputation which 
he has acquired for safe, thorough and reliable transactions in the 
atlairs of every-day life is one which he deserves. He has been quite 
prominent in local political matters for some years, and during the 
war was postmaster. The duties pertaining to the office of justice of 
the peace were discharged by him in a satisfactory manner for quite a 
while; and besides, the people of Kingston selected him to be their 
mayor a number of terms. For three terms he was public adminis- 
trator, and is the present incumbent of that position. This record 
speaks more for his popularity than any emj^ty complimentary re- 
marks we might offer. Mr. Mack was the son of Jacob Christian 
Mack, who was born in Wertheim, Germany, and who upon emi- 
grating to America settled in Indiana in 1865. He was a dyer by 
occupation. Augustus' birth occurred in Wertheim on December 26, 
1831. He came to this country in 1850, expecting to resume the 
trade of dyer, which he had previously followed for some time; but 
this not agreeing with him he served an apprenticeship of three years 
at the harness making and saddler's calling. After two years of 
"jour" work in various places he came to Caldwell county in 1856, 
worked here a few months and then went to Plattsburg, where he 
made his home for four years. Mr. Mack now formed a partnership 
with William Goodman in Kingston, which existed until 1864, when 
he purchased Mr. G.'s interest, and has since conducted the busi- 
ness alone, and to good advantage. In 1856 Miss Mary Schreck, of 
Indiana, became his wife. Their marriage occurred in Aurora, Ind. 
Mr. and Mrs. Mack have six children: Edward, Anna, Carrie, Willie, 
Freddie and Nellie. Mr. M. and his wife are connected with the 
Methodist Church. He is a member of the A. O. U. W. 


(Proprietor of tlie Kingston Hotel). 

Since October, 1884, Mr. Miller has been occupied in conducting 
the hotel with which he is still connected. By good management, 
hospitality and fair dealing he has succeeded in gaining an excellent 
patronage, and his earnest endeavors to see that the wants and needs 
of his patrons are satisfied have made him personally very popular. 
His native State was Tennessee, where he was reared until 1842, and 
after prosecuting the study of medicine for some time he subsequently 
went to Iowa, becoming prominently identified with the affairs of 
Page county. His worth and ability were soon recognized and he was 
appointed district clerk. Later elected surveyor of the county, it was 



while holding this position that he luid off the town ot" Clarinda. He 
discharged the duties of surveyor for six years and afterwards was 
county school commissioner for ten years. Mr. Miller now resumed 
the practice of medicine for a while, but in 1882 came to Missouri, 
and to Kingston, as above mentioned, in the fall of 1884. He was 
born in Anderson county, Tenn., January 2, 1825, his parents being 
Isaac and Susan Miller, nee Davis. The former, also a Tennesseean 
by birth, was by occupation a millwright and surveyor. He took up 
his location in Platte county, Mo., in 1842, but finally went to Iowa. 
The mother of the subject of this sketch, originally of North Caro- 
lina, died in Buchanan county, Mo. Mr. Miller was married in 1852 
to Miss Alethea Loy, who, like her husband, came originally from 
Tennessee. Six children have been born to them ; Josephine, Web- 
ster C, Sophia, wife of John Aikin ; Alice, Noah and Charley B. 


(Clerk of the Circuit Court, Caldwe]! county, Mo.) 

Thouofh by birth of Pennsvlvania ancestry, Mr. Miller was brou2:ht 
up in Caldwell county from the age of 18 years, and this has con- 
tinued to be his home from that time. His father is John M. Miller, 
also a native of Pennsylvania, who, by trade a carpenter and joiner, 
is now engaged in farming with most satisfactory success. He mar- 
ried Miss Anna E. Swartzwelder, originally from Lancaster county. 
Pa., and in 185H with his family he removed to Illinois, settling in 
Mt. Morris, where he continued to live for about a year. For nine 
years succeeding this he made his home in Decorah, lo., but at the 
expiration of this period he came to Caldwell county in 1865. This 
is now his home, and he is the possessor of many warm friends and 
acquaintances among the people of this portion of the State. Win- 
field W. H. Miller was born April 23, 1852, in Reading, Berks county, 
Pa. He was reared to the life of a farmer, but his education was 
only such as he received before attaining his thirteenth year. How- 
ever, he improved his opportunities to the best advantage, continued 
to till the soil for five years and subsequently taught school for nine 
years in the common and high schools of Caldwell and adjoining 
counties. He now began to cast about for some pursuit in life con- 
srenial to his tastes, and almost instinctively turned to the law, com- 
mencing at once its regular study. During this time he was nominated 
and elected circuit clerk and recorder, in 1878, and in 1882 he was re- 
elected. He has since continued to be the capable incumbent of that 
position. At the expiration of his present term of oflSce he will begin 
the practice of law, and it requires no gift of prophecy to predict for 
him a long and successful career in that profession. In 1884 Mr. 
Miller was admitted to the bar of Caldwell county. He is a man of 
family, having been married OctoI)er 12, 1880, to Miss Edith E. 
Filbey, of Wayne county, O. Two children have blessed this union, 
Blaine Heston and Winfield Clarence Miller. Mr. M. belongs to the A. 
F. and A. M. and the Cha[)ter connected with that order ; he is also a 
member of the I. O. O. F. and Encampment. 



(Late Postmaster, Kingston) . 

Anson B. Mills, the son of Edward W. Mills, was born in Rome, 
Oneida county, N. Y., November 1, 1841. His lather was a native of 
England and a millwright by occupation, and in 1830 he emigrated to 
America. In 1850, his father, beingof anenterprisingturn of mind, took 
his way westward, locating with his family in Wisconsin. His mother 
was formerly Miss Phebe A. Rose, whose birth occurred in the State 
of Connecticut. Young Anson was only about nine years of age 
when taken to Wisconsin, and there he was developed into a man, his 
youth being passed in common with others of the vicinity where he 
made his home. Upon the outburst of the war cloud which had been 
hovering above the country for so long a time, Mr. Mills volunteered 
his services in defense of the old flag and enlisted as a private in Co. 
G, of the 30th Wisconsin, with which he served until 1864, being dis- 
charged therefrom February 16, 1864, to accept promotion as second 
lieutenant of Co. A, of the 3d regiment of Missouri volunteer infantry, 
A. D., what was afterward designated as the 67th U. S. colored troops, 
and was mustered out as first lieutenant in the 65th U. S. col- 
ored troops, November 20, 1865, by reason of surgeon's certificate of 
disability. His career as a soldier was marked by fearlessness and in- 
trepid courage, and he returned home with the consciousness of having 
faithfully performed his duty. In the spring of 1866, he came to 
Caldwell county, Mo. In 1854 Mr. M. had entered a printing office in 
Wisconsin,where he thoroughly fitted himself for a career as a journal- 
ist ; and upon his removal here, he in company with John T. Ross, 
started the Age of Freedom on the 16th of August, 1866. This part- 
nership was continued one year, Mr. Mills then retiring and afterwards 
establishing the Sentinel. For ten years Mr. L. M. Spivey was asso- 
ciated with him in this enterprise but owing to Mr. Mills' appointment 
to the position of postmaster in 1881, the relation was dissolved. He has 
several times been called upon to serve the people of the county in an 
official capacity, and his duties have always been discharged with faith- 
fulness and to the satisfaction of all. In 1874 he was elected coroner, 
which position he filled until entering upon his present office, when he 
was compelled to resign. He was appointed to fill the vacancy as a 
member of the school board in 1873, and was a member when the con- 
tract for the new school building was awarded in that year. Subse- 
quently he was elected and served as secretary of the board for two 
years. In addition to these mentioned Gov. Fletcher appointed him 
superintendent of registration of the Fourth Senatorial District, in 1868, 
and in that capacity he acted fou two years. He has ever taken a 
warm interest in local political affairs and on this account has been 
called upon to fill the chair of the Republican executive committee of 
the county from 1870 to 1872 ; again in 1874 he was made chairman 
of the county Republican committee, which place he filled four years. 
From these few facts an idea may be formed of the estimation in 



which Mr. Mills is held by those among whom he has made his home. 
He is a man of famil}', having married July 4, 1867, Miss Jennie 
Spivey. Three children have been born to them : Kittie, Albert L. 
and Willie A. Mr. M. is prominently connected with the Masonic 
and G. A. R. orders. He has served as worshipful master of Kings- 
ton Lodge No. 118, A. F. and A. M. and as high priest in Hamilton 
Chapter No. 45, R. A. M., and has been commander of Ben Loan 
Post No. 33, of the G. A. R., Department of Missouri. 


(Wagon-maker, Blacksmith and Dealer in Agricultural Implements, Kingston) . 

Mr. Mohler has been engaged in his present business for about four 
years, and has become established as one of the permanent and enter- 
prising residents of Kingston. His war record is one which he may 
well feel proud of; for a long time he followed the stars and stripes 
through their many conflicts and struggles on to victory, and at last 
returned to his home with the full satisfaction of having served his 
country well. He was a member of the 130th Indiana volunteer in- 
fantry, and with his command took part in the battles of Resaca, 
Atlanta, Franklin, and others of prominence. He continued to make 
his home in Indiana after the war until removing to Caldwell county, 
Mo., in 1870, at which time he commenced fjirming. To this calling 
he gave his attention until starting in his present business. He is 
having a good trade, and in addition to doing wagon-making and 
blacksmithing on a general scale, he handles carriages and wagons, 
together with farm implements. The Studebaker wagons are sold by 
him. Mr. Mohler is honest and upright in all his dealings, and has 
acquired a fine reputation for the thoroughness with which he turns 
out goods of his manufacture. He is well respected by all who know 
him, and his promise of a successful future is very bright. Born in 
Cumberland county, Pa., May 5, 1832, he was the son of Henry 
and Susan Mohler, the former a native of Lancaster, Pa., and a 
brushmaker by trade. Henry worked on a farm until 18 years of age 
and then learned the blacksmith's trade, at which he worked four 
years, then removing to Preble county, O. Some three years later he 
went to Montgomery county, that State, and subsequently to Wabash 
county, Ind., from there entering the army. His life since has been 
noted above. Mr. M. was married July 26, 1855, to Miss Susan Early, 
who came originally from Rockingham, Va. They have six children : 
Francis M., in Oregon ; John Monroe, Rosa Bell, the wife of Reuben 
Altman, of Indiana ; Mary S., now Mrs. D. D. Temple; Henry A. 
and Nevada. He is a member of the German Baptist Church. 


(Physician and Surgeon, Kingston). 

The parents of Dr. Neff, John and Elizabeth (Schener) Neff, were 
both natives of Pennsylvania, the former having bedn born April 13, 


1784. They left that State in 1834 and went to Ohio, where they 
continued to make their home for many years. Their deaths occurred 
the same year, and within a short period of each other, the father 
dying March 12, 1873, and the mother February 6, 1873, both highly 
respected and worthy citizens of the community in which they made 
their home. Their son, the subject of the present sketch, and a 
physician of more than ordinary ability, was born in Lancaster county, 
Pa., July 14, 1826, and from an early age displayed an eagerness for 
study and a desire for a professional life. Eight years of age when 
taken to Ohio, he was reared there, mostly upon a farm, and improved 
the most of the excellent educational advantages offered him. He at- 
tended school at Dayton, of his adopted State, and supplemented this 
course with an attendance at the Delaware Wesleyan University. Now 
prepared to follow out a long cherished desire young Neff entered 
upon a course of medical study, reading under the preceptorship of 
J. J. Mcllhenney, M. D., and later attended medical college at 
Columbus. Subsequently he was graduated from the medical depart- 
ment of the Western Reserve College, of Cleveland. While prepar- 
ing for his colle2:e course Mr. Neff had taught school in order to 
obtain means with which to prosecute his studies. His first location 
in the practice of medicine was at Enon, Clarke county, O., from 
which place he removed to Litchfield, III., in 1859. This continued 
to be his permanent place of residence until 1868, when he was pre- 
vailed upon to settle in Caldwell county. Since then he has made his 
home here and has acquired no inferior reputation for his ability as a 
physician and surgeon. He has several times occupied places of dis- 
tinction of a local nature, and since 1873 has acted as county physi- 
cian. He is an interested member of the County Medical Society, 
and in the affairs pertaining to medicine is numbered among the most 
prominent. He has also held the position of pensioner examiner. In 
February, 1873, Dr. Neff was called upon to pass through the most 
trying ordeal which can befall a man on this earth, the loss of a true 
and loving and beloved wife. Her maiden name was Miss Jane A. 
Cannon, originally from Ohio. Mrs. Neff was a lady in every sense 
of the term, one whose refined presence and noble qualities of mind 
and heart had endeared her to a large circle of friends. Her loss 
to her own immediate family was a severe one. The Doctor is a 
Presbyterian in his religious preferences. Politically he is a Repub- 


CPost-offlce, Hamilton). 

Mrs. Nevel (whose maiden name was Weaver), the relict of Jacob 
Nevel, Esq., was born in Pennsylvania, her ancestors of the Weaver 
family having come from Germany at a very early day and settled in 
Pennsylvania. There she received her education and was reared to 
womanhood, and subsequently, on the 18th of November, 1866, she 
was united in marriage with Mr. Nevel, who was also a Pennsylvanian 
bv birth. He had been taught the occupation of farming on growing 


up, and this he immediately resumed after marriage. In 18(58 he re- 
moved with his family to this county and settled on the land now oc- 
cupied by his widow. This he continued to improve and cultivate 
until his death, on the 18th of November, 1884. He left besides his 
worthy companion two children to mourn his loss, George Alvin and 
Mattie May. The former is a young man of considerable promise 
and has intrusted to him the full management of the home farm. This 
he conducts in a careful, painstaking manner, managing it in a prac- 
tical as well as theoretical way. The homestead place on section 4 
embraces 40 acres, but in addition to this they own another tract of 
90 acres on section 3. This is all good land, and improved in a sub- 
stantial manner. Mr. Nevel was a brave and gallant soldier during 
the late Civil War, having enlisted March 10, 1862, in Co. H, 84th 
regiment Pennsylvania volunteer infantry. He was engaged in the 
battles of Rappahannock, Bull Run, Fredericksl)urg, Chancellorsville, 
Kelley's Ford, Locust Hill, and several others of minor importance, 
being honorably mustered out June 29, 1865. 



(Late of the Vicinity of Kingston). 

In many respects the life of Mumford D. Northrup was an eventful 
one, and it was a life that demonstrated how much may be accom- 
plished and acquired even under most unfavorable circumstances. 
His birthplace was in the State of Rhode Island, and his parents were 
substantial people, but not blessed with too great an allowance of this 
world's goods. Early in youth he learned the carpenter's trade and 
afterwards lectured on phrenology and physiology in various parts of 
his native State, achieving for himself quite a reputation in this direc- 
tion. Upon leaving Rhode Island, where he was reared, he went to 
Albany, N. Y., and subsequentl}^ to Wisconsin, through which he 
traveled extensively. Moving westward, he located at Atchison, 
Kas., and in 1863 came to Caldwell county, Mo., where he at once 
enirasred in mercantile pursuits. He was doiui; a <2;ood business and 
enjoying a successful patronage until, during Thrailkill's noted raid 
through this portion of the country, his store was completely stripped 
of all its contents. This was sufficient to discourage a person of the 
most sanguine temperament, but Mr. N. again established himself <>n 
a sound footing. After a time he disposed of his interests in this 
line and set out a vineyard, and to this he continued to give his atten- 
tion until his death, on the 24th day of July, 1883. He was a man 
whose character and ability and whose services in the private walks 
of life entitle him to lasting remembrance. His wife was formerly 
Miss'H. C. Wiley, a native of Massachusetts, and to them were born 
four children, one of whom, Sarah, is the wife of Elwood Lewis, of 
Gallatin, Daviess county. Mo. One son, William A. Northrup, and 
at whose instance this biography is inserted in this work, was born at 
Newport City, R. I., November 9, 1839. He was educated in that 
State and also at Albany, N. Y., and in 1861 he enlisted in Co. D, 


15th Illinois infantry, in which he served until the close of the war. 
He took part in many severe engagements, among them being the 
battles of Fort Doiielson, Pittsburg Landing, all the skirmishes on 
the way to Corinth, first and second battles of Corinth, Hatchie river, 
Resaca, Rome, Altoona Pass, and many others of minor import mce. 
He also accompanied Sherman on his march to the sea. After being 
mustered out he returned to Caldwell county, which he had made his 
home some years before, and here he has continued to reside, one of 
the intelligent and substantial citizens of the county. December 25, 
1884, he was married to Miss Lillie Rhea, who came originally from 


(Farmer, Sectiou 20, Post-office, Kingston). 

Among the representative families of this county none are more 
favorably known or more highly respected than that to which the sub- 
ject of this sketch belongs. As noticed elsewhere in this work, Mr. 
Orr's father, John Orr, came to Caldwell county in 1865, and since 
that time has been prominently identified with its material growth 
and development. His wife was formerly Miss Sarah Haley, a native 
of Ohio, and on the 18th of November, 1840, she became the mother 
of Joseph, his birth occuring in Holmes county, Ohio. Like most 
of the youths of that vicinity, as he grew up he devoted his time and 
attention to farming, receiving in the meantime a good common school 
education. Upon the breaking out of the war, hiying aside his agri- 
cultural implements he volunteered as a member of Co. A, 102d Ohio 
volunteer infantry, with which command he remained until the close of 
the war. During his term of service he was never absent from duty, but 
fortunately escaped unharmed. He took part in the engagements of 
Decatur, Ala., Pulaski, Nashville, and others of minor importance, 
receiving his discharge at Nashville in June, 1865. After this he 
resumed his operations of tilling the soil, and in September, 1865, he 
settled permanently in this county, where he has continued to be 
occupied Avith agricultural pursuits. His farm embraces 120 acres, 
in addition to which he has another tract of 30 acres. The improve- 
ments upon the homestead are excellent and the neatness and system 
displayed in and about the place indicate to a certainty the progressive 
and intelligent citizen that he is. Some good graded stock is upon 
the place. An event which occured in 1880 proves to what a position 
he had risen in the estimation of the people of the county when he was 
chosen to fill the office of county collector, the duties of which were 
discharged in a very satisfactory manner. Mr. Orr has been twi(^e 
married; first, October 1, 1868, to Miss Rachel E. Houghton, who 
died July 20, 1878, leaving two bright and interesting children, 
Fannie I. and John H. His i-econd wife was formerly Miss Barbara 
E. Spivey, whom he married May 24, 1881. She was born in Ohio 
and accompanied her parents to this State in 1858. She is a lady of 
many estimable qualities, and one who makes home attractive and 



(Manufacturer of and Dealer in Boots and Shoes, Kingston). 

For several generations back the ancestors of Mr. Palmer have been 
natives of Maryland, and there, he, himself, was born January 22, 
1842, Frederick county being the place of his birth. When only an 
infant one year old he was taken by his parents, Michael and Elizabeth 
CLeedy) Palmer, to Franklin county, Pa., where he was brought up 
and educated, learning the trade of shoemaker. This was the occupa- 
tion to which he gave his undivided attention until coming to Caldwell 
county. Mo., in 1868, with perhaps one exception, which we cannot 
fail to mention. That was during the time he served in the war. In 
1862 he enlisted in the 126th Pennsylvania volunteer infantry, in 
which he continued some nine months; then he re-enlisted in the 21st 
Pennsylvania cavalry, and with that command remained until it was 
mustered out. Still desiring to fulfill his whole duty as a soldier, and 
eager and anxious to do his full part in suppressing the Rel)ellion, he 
became a member of the 209th Pennsylvania infantry (at which time 
he was promoted to sergeant for his faithful performance of his duty), 
and with them served until the close of the war. He participated in 
a number of closely contested engagements, among them being the 
second battle of Bull Run, Antietam, Fredericksburg, Chancellors- 
ville. Fort Stedman, Petersburg, and many others. Surely such a 
career in the defense of one's country is not to be overlooked, and the 
descendants of Mr. Palmer may be proud to look back upon this 
record as that of one of the bravest of soldiers. In 1866 Mr. P. was 
married to Miss Almira Appenzellar, who was born in Franklin county. 
Pa. The complement of their family circle numbers seven children: 
"William H., Edgar, Gracie, Charlie, Jonathan, Lola and Robert. Mr. 
Palmer is a member of the G. A. R., being connected with Ben Loan 
post. Since his settlement here he has been engaged in working at 
nis trade of boot and shoe making, and his business thus far has been 
one of gratifying success. He has built up a custom which insures 
him a ]irosperous future in the boot and shoe trade, and being a man 
of superior skill in this calling, is able to meet the wants of customers 
in every instance. Mr. and Mrs. Palmer are members of the Christian 


(Deputy Collector and Treasurer of Caldwell County). 

Among the men who early cast their fortunes in the then new county 
of Caldwell was one whose memory is still treasured by the few re- 
maining pioneers of a rapidly passing age as a man of honest integrity 
and true sterling worth. We refer to Enoch Rathbun, the father of the 
subject of this sketch. He was the son of Allen Rathbun, and in 
1837 accom|)anied him to Caldwell county. Mo., settling in New York 
township. Enoch was then about seven years old, having been born 
in Wayne county, O., in 1830. After his location in this community 


he was daily instructed as he grew up into tiie mysteries of farm life, 
following that avocation, as had his father before him, until he was 
called away from this earth by death in 1870. His wife's maiden 
name was Elizabeth Thompson, also originally from Indiana, who re- 
moved to the State of Missouri when five years of age. She is still 
living, and is the worthy companion of Mr. J. B. Taylor. To Mr. and 
Mrs. Rathbuii were born six children: Mary L., now Mrs. P. S. Proc- 
tor ; James A., John S., Elizabeth, wife of R. C. Friziell ; Laura, now 
Mrs. William A. Bay, and Enoch E. James A. Rathbun, though com- 
paratively young in years, has already risen to a position in life which 
many of grreater age and experience might well covet. He is a na- 
tive born citizen of the county, his birth having occurred May 26, 
1857, and he is now the youngest man in the State who was ever 
elected to the position of county treasurer. While growing up he 
attended the common schools, where he obtained a good practical 
education ; but this course he supplemented by attending the State 
University. Until 18 years of age the greater part of his attention 
was given to the duties of the farm ; but after leaving school he com- 
menced teaching, continuing to wield the ferule until 1880. In this 
year one of the greatest compliments which could have been given was 
conferred upon him when the suiFrages of the people placed him in 
the office of county treasurer. In 1882 he was re-elected to the same 
position, and since that time he has been deputy collector and treas- 
urer. Two of the strongest characteristics in Mr. Rathbun' s nature 
are strict honesty and remarkable business capacity, both of which 
he is exercising to advantage. October 27, 1881, he was united in 
marriage with Mary S. Spivey, a daughter of William Spivey, and who 
was born in Kingston. They have one child, Ethelyn L. Mr. R. is 
a member of the I. O. O. F., and is secretarv of his lodge. 


(Attorney at Law and Prosecuting Attorney, Kingston) . 

The greater part of the life of the subject of this sketch has been 
passed within the Northwestern portion of Missouri and his acquaint- 
ance, therefore, is an extensive one. His career has been one of much 
benefit to the people of Caldwell county, and especially so when we 
consider what he has done for the promotion of education in this com- 
munity. Mr. Rogers is and has always been a warm friend of schools 
and all institutions of learning, and it was the knowledge of this fact, 
together with his eminent fitness for the position, that caused him to 
be selected for the office of school commissioner. After one term's 
service he was re-elected and discharged the duties which were imposed 
upon him with great satisfaction. His career in this position ex- 
tended over a period of five years. Besides this his charge of the 
schools of Kingston existed from September, 1874, until 1883, and 
doubtless would have continued until the present had it not l)cea for 
his determination to commence the practice of law. He had been 
brought up in Clinton county upon a farm, there also receiving a pri- 


mary education which he completed at the State Univei*.sity at Col- 
umbia, where he was graduated in the class of 1873. Having chosen 
the legal profession as his calling in life, he returned to the law school 
at Columbia in September, 1873, and after a thorough preparation 
was admitted to the bar in 1875. In 1884 he was elected prosecuting 
attorney of the county, and thus far has unquestionably made an able, 
successful and just, but not illiberal, public prosecutor, one who has 
shown good judgment and heart enough not to make his office an en- 
gine of inhumanity and injustice. Stephen C. Rogers was born in 
Claiborne county, Tenn., March 20, 1848, his father, Hu L. W. Rogers, 
and also his mother, whose maiden name was Barbara Cawood, being 
natives of that State. The father was a farmer by occupation, and 
in 1856 removed to Clinton county. Mo., where, as has been said, 
Stephen grew up. The latter was married December 24, 1874, to 
Miss Mattie Edwards, of Boone county, this State, This union has 
been blessed with one child, Lalla Rookh. Mr. Rogers is a member 
of the A. F. and A. M. 


(Farmer, Section 22, Post-office, Kingston). 

One of the neatest farms in Kingston township is that owned by 
Mr. Royer, containing 146 acres and situated just out of the town of 
Kingston. It is all in cultivation, and upon it are besides the resi- 
dence other necessary outbuildings. It is admirably adapted to the 
raising of either grain or stock. Having come from Ohio he has ad- 
vanced ideas as to how a farm should bo conducted, and endeavors to 
combine the practical with the theoretical in its management. Born 
in Montgomery county, of the Buckeye State, June 10, 1818, Mr. 
Royer traces his ancestry back to good old German stock, the first 
settlement of the family in this country having been made in Virginia. 
His parents went to Ohio in a primitive day and there reared their 
family, George being the youngest of six children. His whole life 
has been spent in the pursuit of agriculture, and in this calling he has 
met with the results due a lifetime of active and determined energy. 
After leaving the State of his birth he moved to Indiana in 1838, and 
from there came to this county in 1863. This has since been his home 
and he has come to be regarded as one of the relial)le, substantial citi- 
zens in this community. In 1869, though a comparatively new man 
in the county, such was his popularity among those who knew him 
that he was nominated for county judge; his own township he carried 
by an overwhelming majority, but owing to his unacquaintance in 
other parts of the county, he was defeated by only eight votes, the 
successful candidate being Judge Dodge. Mr, Royer was married in 
September, 1839, to Miss Sarah Landes, a native of Ohio. By this 
union were born four children : Lavina, wife of Benjamin Arnet, of 
Ohio; Louisa, now Mrs. Will Pemberton, of this county; Mary Ann, 
wife of R. Spivey, of Hamilton and Jacol). This wife died in July, 
1853, and in October, 1854, Mr. R. was united in marriage with Miss 
Margaret Young, originally from Ohio. They have six children liv- 


iug : Willii^m C, Geoiije W., Ida J., Grant W., Frank L. and Emma 
T. One daughter, Amanda, is deceased. George W.*Royer, the 
second son, is a young man of excellent ability and fine business capa- 
city, and besides is quite an inventive genius. He had patented a 
fence of his own invention which is something of much merit and in 
other articles he is displaying considerable thought and ingenuity. 
He has been a lifelong resident of this county and is well known. 


(Dealer in Groceries, Kingston, Mo ^ 

Mr. Sackraan's father, Jonathan Sackman, a native of Franklin 
county, Pa., left the place of his birth when young and removed to 
Richland county, O., where he made his home until about 25 years of 
age. During life his time and attention were occupied in agricultural 
pursuits, in which he vyas not unsuccessful. He was sherifl' of Cald- 
well county for eight years, from 1861 to 1868, filling the /)fiice with 
honor and credit to the county. It was in 1840 that he located in 
Caldwell county, and here he continued to live until his death in 1874 ; 
two children survive him, Rufus and Richard D. His wife was for- 
merly Miss Barbara Shanabarger, originally from Maryland, though 
she was reared and educated in Ohio. 8he is still living, a lady well 
preserved in years and highly respected. Richard D. Sackman, one 
of the oldest native born residents of the county now living within 
its limits, has made his home during his entire life in this immediate 
vicinity, and it is but the truth to say that no man in Caldwell county 
is better or more favorably known than he. His birth occurred July 
12, 1841, consequently he is in his forty-fifth year. Brought up to a 
knowledge of farm life, he very naturally chose that occupation as 
his calling in life when it became necessary for him to select some 
permanent industry; but with keen business foresight, and realizing 
the advantages to be gained in conducting an exclusive grocery store, 
he embarked in his present business some four years ago. The ex- 
perience which he has had since that time has only proved the wisdom 
of his judgment. Since his identification with Kingston as a business 
man he has been active and enterprising, and has done much in his 
line to increase and extend the trade and influeuce of the place. He 
is thoroughly honest and reliable in all his transactions and naturally 
draws to his house a large custom. Mr. Sackman was married in 
1865 (May 7) to Miss Kate Dunn, the daughter of Dr. Dunn. She 
was born in Ray county. Mo. They have no children living, but one 
daughter, Sallie, died at the age of 7 years. During the war Mr. S. 
served for some time in the M. S. M. 

N. M. SMITH, M. D. 

(Kingston) . 

Dr. Smith is descended from a family of Smythes, well and favora- 
bly known at Rahway, N. J. His paternal grandfather, Prof. Samuel 


Smythe, emigrated from Glasgow, Scotland, about the close of the 
Revolutionary War, and was President of Rahway Academy for many 
years, a position he occupied at the time of his death in 1798. Prof. 
Smythe married Mary Baker, of New York City, a niece of Cornelius 
Baker, a well known and celebrated shipper and importer of New 
York in his day. Samuel B. Smythe, father of the sulvject of this 
sketch, was born January 25, 1792, at Rahway, N. J. After his 
father's death, he was taken, reared, and educated bv an uncle at 
Camden, in that State, to the age of manhood. At the breaking out 
of the War of 1812, he volunteered in the service of his country, serv- 
ing during the war in the Philadelphia Guards, under Gen. Patterson. 
In 1815 he married Martha Siegfried, near Philadelphia, and in 1816 
they emigrated West, settling in the vicinity of Wheeling, Va., where 
Nathan M. Smith was born April 17, 1825, the fifth child of a family 
of nine children. When about seven years old they removed to Bel- 
mont county, O., where he was brought up and educated, taking a 
thorough academic course of study. Choosing the profession of med- 
icine, he entered the office of Drs. Kirkpatrick and Smith in 1842, and 
remained with them until 1845, completing his medical course at Col- 
umbus, O. February 22, 1849, the Doctor was married at Mt. Gilead, 
O., to Mary French, daughter of Samson French, Esq., who had re- 
cently removed from Cherry Valley, Otsego county, N. Y. In March, 
1852, he came to Missouri, locating at Sibley, Jackson county, where 
he resided and practiced his profession extensively and successfully 
for 11 years. The desolations of war, however, drove him from his 
home in March, 1863. Receiving a timely warning from a friend. Dr. 
J. P. Henry, of Independence, that Gen. Ewing's order No. 11 would 
be issued in a short time, he concluded to make his hesira to a more 
congenial locality. He crossed the Mississippi river and settled at 
Richmond, Ray county, where his family rejoined him, removing 
thence to Kingston, Caldwell county, where he has since resided. At 
the siege of Lexington in September, 1861, he was a conscript surgeon, 
and served in Gen. Rains' division under Surgeon-General McMurrv, 
in the hospital of Dr. Cravens, of Gallatin, at the AuU residence, dur- 
ing the siege and capitulation, and for some time after the Federals 
recaptured the city of Lexington. About May 1, 1863, he was ap- 
pointed post-surgeon for the posts at Kingston and Hamilton, where 
he officiated until May 1, 1864, when he was commissioned surgeon of 
the 33d E. M. M., serving as field surgeon till August, 1865, and 
up to the time the hospital at Kingston was abandoned ; but he never 
received a discharge, and, as he expressed it, is " still on duty! •' 
Since the war the Doctor has closely and assiduously adhered to his 
profession, which has been a success professionally and financially. It 
goes without saying that he is a careful and thorough physician and 
surgeon, especially as a gynecologist and bone-setter. He has been 
the osteological surgeon of Caldwell county for over 20 years. He is 
highly respected for his noble qualities of mind and heart. He is a 
person of excellent conversational powers, and well posted in the 
topics of tlie day, keeping up with the advancement and progress of 


the times and science of medicine and surorerv, and beinff a liberal sub- 
scriber to the leading medical and surgical journals of the day. Both 
the A. F. and A. M. and I. O. O. F. fraternities have found in the 
Doctor one of their warmest advocates. He was the first W. M. of 
Kingston Lodge No. 118, of the Masonic order, and the first N. G. of 
Kingston Lodge No. .54, of the Odd Fellows. He is also a member 
of the Grand Army of the Republic. He is a charter member of 
the Grand River Medical Society, and ex-President of the Caldwell 
County Medical Society. Besides attending to his extensive practice 
he conducts a first-class drug store. Dr. Smith has three children : 
Willie is a lawyer in Denver, Col. ; Ada, wife of Jeff Davis ; and Stella, 
Charlie, Louie and Mary (Mamie), the pet of the family, are still at 
home. I 


(Farmer, Section 1, Post-ofHce, Hamilton). 

In endeavoring to trace the genealogy of Mr. Snider, we find that 
his ancestors came originally from Germany, the first mention of them 
in this country being at the time of their location in North Carolina. 
His father became a resident of Indiana in 1821, and it was in that 
State that Jacob was born January 13, 1835. He moved from there 
in 1836 to Caldwell county. Mo., and in 1838 went to Adams county, 
III., thence into Lee county, la., in 1845, and from thence to Andrew 
county. Mo., in 1847, then in 1851 to Caldwell county. Mo. From 
this time on until the breaking out of the war he passed his entire 
time in attending to the duties of carrying on a farm. But upon the 
call for troops to suppress the outbreak which had arisen in the 
country he laid down the implements of peace for the weapons of 
warfare, and in September, 1861, enlisted in Co. A, 1st battalion, for 
a six months' term ; in March, 1862, he entered the Enrolled Militia 
as first lieutenant, in which he remained until 1864, and on the 9th of 
August, of that year, he enlisted in the United States service in Co. 
H, 44th Missouri volunteer infantry, of which he was made second 
lieutenant. With this command he participated in the battles of 
Franklin, Tenn., Nashville, Spanish Fort, and others of minor 
importance. His term of service expired September 15, . 1865, at 
which time he was mustered out. Returning home in the full con- 
sciousness of having done his duty faithfully and well, he again 
resumed the occupation which he had previously followed, and since 
then has met with substantial success. Two hundred and forty acres 
comprise his place, a farm well adapted to the purposes of general 
farming, to which he attends principally. His improvements are of a 
good order. Mr. Snider was married on the 16th of November, 1879, 
to Miss Julia Gillett, whose birthplace was in New York. The two 
children which have been given them are named Alice Jane and Eli C. 
Mr. Snider has held the position of supervisor of registration. 



(Farmer and Builder, Section 3, Post-office, Kingston). 

Were it necessary for us to include in the sketcli of Mr. Snyder's 
life any items pertaininor to his ability and skill as a mechanic or 
builder, perhaps the greatest compliment that could be paid him 
would be for us to point to those monuments of his handiwork which 
now grace so mtiny of the homesteads in this portion of Missouri. He 
was brought up as a farmer but at the age of 23 commenced to learn 
the trade of l)uilder, which has since been a principal source of work 
for him. Continuing to labor at his chosen calling in the State of 
his birth — Ohio — until 1864, he then went to California, where he 
remained some two years. Upon returning to Ohio he sold out there 
the same year and settled at Chillicothe, Mo., where he immediately 
identified himself with the building interests of that locality; and 
many buildings northeast of that place attest his efficiency as a me- 
chanic. In 1881 he moved to his present location where he has 80 
acres of hind under fine improvement. Some of the best barns and 
residences in this county were erected by him. Mr. Snyder was born 
January 9, 1836, in Ohio, where he was reared and educated. Feb- 
ruary 23, 1860, his marriage to Miss Elizabeth Tilton occurred, she 
also having been born in Ohio. The names of their eisht children 
now living are Mabel, Francis M., Nancy J., Mary E., William T., 
Alburtis, Dora B. and AUedelpha. One son, Oliver Leadon, is de- 
ceased. Mr. S. now gives his attention to both his farming and build- 
ing interests, in which he is, as all will acknowledge, an adept of a 
hifjh order. 


(Editor and Proprietor of the Kingston Times, Kingston) . 

Under the efficient policy and management of Mr. Spivey, the 
Times has come to be regarded as one of the representative country 
journals for a wide scope of country in this part of the county. 
Though it has been established only since January, 1885, he has 
proven himself to lie a man of good judgment in directing the editorial 
policy of his paper. He has ever been an earnest advocate of all 
public enterprises calculated to benefit Caldwell county, and through 
the columns of this journal has wielded no slight infiuencc in directing 
the proper steps to be taken for a worthy movement. Born in Han- 
cock county, Va. (now West Virginia), October 5, 1852, he was the 
son of William Spivey, also a Virginian by birth and a millwright by 
trade. The latter emigrated to Missouri in 1857, locating in Caldwell 
countv, where he was successfully occupied in milling. His wife was 
formerly Sophronia McCaskey. Levi M. Spivey early commenced to 
acquaint himself with the printing business, after which, in 1872, in con- 


nectionwith Mr, Mills, he began the publication of the Sentinel. This 
he continued to conduct until selling out in 1882. In 1885, as stated 
above, he started the Times. Mr. S. belongs to the 1. O. O. F. and the 
Encampment of that order. He has held the position of Noble 
Grand. June 15, 1880, he was united in marriage with Miss Mary C. 
Kautz, a native of Rising Sun, Ind., and daughter of Jacob Kautz of 
this place. They have two children. Flora Colleen and Edward 
Bruce. One son, Harry, died in 1881. 


(Proprietor of Livery, Feed and Sale Stables, Kingston). 

Milton A. Switzer was born in Hancock county, O., March 19, 
1840. His father, Samuel Switzer, was a Pennsylvanian by birth, 
born in 1811. By occupation he is a farmer and is now living in 
Johnson county, Kas. The mother of Milton, a native of Ohio, was 
Julia A. Royce before marriage. The subject of this sketch, the 
eldest son and fourth child in a family of eight children, was reared to 
the experience of farm life near Fort Finley, O., and continued to 
make his home there until 1866, when he came to Caldwell county, 
Mo. He at once l)ecame engaged in the livery business and farming, 
and stock breeding, which he has since continued to follow, and at this 
time he has a good stable fitted with a complete line of carriages and 
horses. He is especially popular with commercial men, for his charges 
are reasonable and good rigs are provided for transportation. As a 
man no one doubts the reliability and rare personal characteristics 
of honor and integrity which Mr. Switzer possesses. He is quite 
prominently connected with the I. O. O. F. lodge at this place, 
and indeed all things of a public nature which point to the ma- 
terial benfit of the county receive his support. June 5, 1862, 
occurred his marriage to Miss Amanda Essex, who came origiiuilly 
from Ohio. Of the five children l)orn to them but three survive, 
Amos R., Effie M. and Otho. Two are deceased, Ola and Russell, 


(Farmer, Section 28, Post-office, Kingston). 

A gallant soldier for four years in the Federal array during the late 
war, and a man whose life has been an active one, and one not without 
the substantial reward of years of toil, Mr. Tantlinger is now occu- 
pied in cultivating his farm of 140 acres, located in this township. 
He has only resided here since 1876, but more than sufficient time has 
elapsed since then to determine the character of the agriculturist that 
he is. His present homestead is among the best small farms in the 
county, and upon it is a fine spring, and one that is unsurpassed in 
the State. While living in Livin2;ston countv. 111., he was married to 
Miss Laura V. Downing, a Kentuckian by birth, though brought up 
in Illinois, and to them have been born two sons, Thomas Edwin and 
George Perry. In tracing the history of the family, of which the sub- 


jcct of this sketch is a representative, we find that they came origin- 
ally from Scotland to this country, and members of the family have 
participated in every struggle from the Revolutionary War down to 
the present. Mr. Tantlinger was l)orn in Somerset county. Pa., May 
7, 1840, being the son of John and Caroline (Canady) Tantlinger, 
who, in 1843, removed from Pennsylvania to Iowa City, la., where 
the father was engaged in the harness business for a few years. In 
1845 he commenced farming, and in 1848 his death occurred, caused 
by overwork in the harvest field. Young Perry went to Woodford 
county, III., in 1854, and l^egan life tor himself as a farm laborer. 
By economy, industry and close adherence to this occupation he was 
fortunate enough to become possessed of some means. When the 
Civil War broke out he at once offered himself as a soldier and en- 
listed in Co. I, 47th Illinois volunteer infantry, with which regiment 
he served until the close of the war. He was a participant in the bat- 
tles of Jackson, Miss., Vicksburg, Mechanicsburg, Richmond, Hen- 
derson Hill, Pleasant Hill, Nashville, Siege of Spanish Fort, besides 
numerous other battles and skirmishes. He was wounded at Spanish 
Fort in the left ankle and this still troubles him to some extent. In 
July, 1865, he returned to Woodford county, 111., and remained there 
about 18 months before recovering sufficiently to resume his chosen 
calling. HoAvever, in 1867 he went to Livingston county, in the same 
State, partially improved a farm there and then came to the place 
which he now occupies. He is indeed a prominent agriculturist in 
this township. 


CAttorney at Law, Kingston). 

To show what industry, perseverance and good management can do in 
following the legal profession as a calling in life, it is only necessary 
to record the facts of Mr. Temple's career at Kingston. He came 
here from Livingston count}^ Mo., in 1882, having been engaged in 
farming in connection with the practice of law for some time in that 
locality, and not without substantial success. But since his residence 
here he has worked hard, studied closely, and by living an upright 
life has won the esteem and confidence of the community. He is now 
about 35 years of age, having been born on the 8th of September, 
1850, in Washington county. Pa. His parents were both natives of 
the Keystone State. His father, William Temple, has during life 
pursued the peaceful career of a farmer. His wife's maiden name 
was Lydia Devore. In 1864 the family removed from their old home 
in Knox county, III., where they continued to reside for some four 
years, coming thence to Livingston county, Mo., and from there 
David transferred his residence to Kingston, as before mentioned. 
His early life was passed in agricultural pursuits, and his education 
was received in Pennsylvania, Illinois and Missouri, his advantages 
for attending school being above the ordinary. Determining to enter 
upon the practice of law as his occupation, he began reading with 
Judge Davis, of Utica, Livingston county, and after thorough prepar- 


iitory training was admitted to the bar in 1876. He is now enjoying 
a good practice. Mr. Temple was united in marriage November 23, 
1882, to Miss Minnie Mohler, a native of Indiana. By this union 
there is one child, Nevada. Mr. T. belongs to the I. O. O. F. 


(Farmer, Section 19, Post-office, Kingston). 

Nowhere in Caldwell countv is there to be found a youns: man of 
more energy or determined will or force of character than Mr. Walters 
possesses, and no young agriculturist is deserving of greater success 
in the conduct and management of a farm than he. Born in Holmes 
county, O., November 2, 1860, he is only little more than 25 years of 
age. His father, Isaac Walters, came originally from Pennsylvania, 
but when a youth was taken to Ohio, where he gave his attention 
to the blacksmithing business. This he followed until the outbreak 
of the war, when he enlisted in Co. A, 102d Ohio volunteer infantry, 
with which he was identified until the cessation of hostilities. Re- 
ceiving his discharge at Nashville in May, 1865, he came the same 
year to this county and at once entered upon the career of a farmer. 
Young Walters was, of course, very young when brought to this 
county, so that really his entire life almost has been passed within 
the neighborhood of his present home. His education was acquired 
here in the common schools. He is now actively and assiduously 
t)ccupied with farming, and can not fail of soon taking a place in 
the front rank of the prominent men of the county. The ftirm which 
he cultivates includes 100 acres of choice and well improved land. 
In another portion of this volume is mentioned the name of Mr. 
Walters' mother, who was formerly Miss Rebecca Orr, a daughter of 
John Orr, a leading citizen of the county. Maud Walters, a sister of 
J. O. Walters, was born in Caldwell county, Mo., March 20, 1871. 


(Attorney at Law, Kingston) . 

Judge Wood, an attorney of some eight 5'ears' experience in the 
practice, and a lawyer of thorough preparatory training, both literary 
and professional, as well as a gentleman of good ability and excellent 
business habits, is a native of Missouri, having been born at Weston, 
Platte county, July 19, 1855. He comes of two families well known, 
not only in this State, but, indeed, over the entire country — the 
Woods and Loveladys. His father, James Wood, a Kentuckian by 
birth, was born in Owen county, and by occupation was a farmer, 
though he also gave some time and attention to merchandising. His 
wife was formerly Miss Maro-aret Lovelady, daughter of James Love- 
lady ; both parents are still living. William A. Wood was reared in 
Platte county, living there until 22 years of age, and he was given a 
well grounded and thorouo^h common English and classical education. 

CD O ^ 

He was for a long time engaged in the store of B. J. Woodson, 



brother of ex-Gov. Woodson, after which he commenced school teach- 
ing, and in this he was interested until beiziiininj^ the study of law 
under two able and influential lawyers of Platte county — Judge E. 
H. Norton and Hon. R. P. C. Wilson. Continuing the study of law 
for some time, he was admitted to the bar in 1877, and soon there- 
after he opened a law office in Platte City, where he followed the 
practice. Upon leaving that place he went to Maysville, DeKalb 
county, in the winter of 1877, and in the spring of 1879 he came 
to this county. Since that time his success in the practice of his 
chosen profession has been something almost phenomenal. In 1881, 
when Judge Orr resigned his position as presiding judge of the county 
court, Mr. Wood was appointed by Gov. Crittenden to till out that 
term, and sincere commendation was the opinion exi)ressed everywhere 
of his career as an official judge. Judge Wood's wife was formerly 
Miss Anna M. John, a daughter of Dr. John, of this place, and they 
have one son, William A., and one daughter is deceased, Mary Edith. 
For several years, besides attending to his i)rofessional duties, he 
served as adjuster for the American Insurance Company, of Philadel- 
phia, for the States of Missouri, Kansas and Nebraska. Various local 
positions have been held by him, in all of which he has proven him- 
self competent to discharge his official duties. He has served six 
terms as city attorney, and has been a member of the town board and 
school board several terms. His library is among the very best in the 
State, containing the choicest volumes on all subjects of interest and 
information, toijether with about 1,000 volumes of law books. Per- 
sonally he is a man of pleasing appearance, energetic and thorough in 
all his undertakings, and as a lawyer possesses solid, substantial tal- 
ents. His future points to a successful career in his profession. Mr. 
Wood belongs to the A. F. and A. M., also to the I. O. O. F., 
and in the Encampment of the latter order he has taken all the 


, (Retired, Kingston). 

John Wright, the subject of this sketch, was born on the 28th of 
May, 1817, in County Chester, England, being the son of John Wright, 
of the same county. The latter was a shoemaker by trade and was 
very successful in the management of a large business. He was mar- 
ried in England to Miss Hannah Sharret, also of that vicinity, and to 
them eiffht children were born, of whom John was the eldest. Youncr 
John was reared and educated in his native county, spending his youth 
and early manhood on a farm until 19 years of age, when he met with 
a severe accident. This disabled him from manual labor, and he 
therefore entered the employ of a gentleman with whom he remained 
until emigrating to the United States in 1844. For the following two 
years Mr. Wright made his home in either St. Louis, Mo., or the 
State of Illinois, but iu August, 1846, he came to Caldwell county 
and engaged in fai-ming in what now constitutes Mirabile township. 
The settlers in this cfimmuuitv were very limited in numbers in that 



day and he can well be considered one of the county's pioneers. 
Removing into Kingston in November, 1865, he was appointed by the 
county court to fill the unexpired term of George W. Buckingham as 
judge of the probate court, and again in 1866 he was re-elected, to 
discharge the duties of another unexpired term. The same honor was 
conferred upon him in 1868 and also in 1870, when the office was 
declared vacant. His ability and peculiar fitness for this position 
were only too apparent, for in 1874 and again in 1878 he was called 
upon to occupy the chair as probate judge. Further nominations he 
was compelled to firmly but kindly decline. To attempt to pass upon 
the career of Judge AVright while on the official bench svould be an 
undertaking which we feel ourselves incapable of doing. His constant 
re-elections to the position and the manner in which the people of the 
county sanctioned his course while in office speak more for him as a 
man than any remarks we might make. Indeed his entire life has 
been one without a shadow of reproach. Closely identified with the 
county's progress and development from almost the very first, he has 
done as much as any man for its material advancement and prosperity. 
In an early day he did a successful business in land sales, and since 
that time has not failed to be numbered amons; the foremost citizens 
of Caldwell county in every worthy movement calculated to benefit 
her. He enjoys to an unlimited extent the confidence of the com- 
munity and is widely respected. Judge Wright was married December 
16, 1843, to Miss Elizabeth Jackson, who was born in England. Their 
three children are now deceased, one son, Thomas John, having given 
up his life for his country during the war; he was a member of the 
44th Missouri, and was 19 years of age. The Judge and Mrs. Wright 
are members of the Christian Church. 



Position and General Description — Early History — First Land Owners Before the 
Mormons — The Mormon Settlements — Early Gentile Settlers — Items — Official 
History — The Village of Mirabile — General Historical Sketch — Churches — 
Secret Orders — Cornet Band — Biographical. 


Thh township comprises Congressional township 56, range 29, and 
lies midway from north to south in the western tier of townships in 
the county. There is nothing in its natural features to distinguish it 
from the other townships of the county, containing as it does prairie 
and timbered tracts in beautiful proportions, with the prevailing roll- 
ing character of the land. Good soil, timber, stone and water are 
here . 

Shoal creek runs from east to west through the northern part of the 
township, and Goose creek, which heads in the southern portion, tra- 
verses the southeastern. Steer creek empties into Shoal creek in 
section 1, in the northeastern corner. There are numerous small 

North of Far West, in section 11, coal was found many years ago in 
a natural exposure, and James Swartz, an old time blacksmith, of 
Kingston, used it in his forge. The coal was obtained by merely 
digging it out from near the top of the ground without much trouble 
of stripping the earth. Nearby, on land belonging to Mr. Stoner, 
coal has been discovered, but no mines have as yet been opened. 


Perhaps the first settler in what is now Mirabile township was David 
Gwynn (the name is also spelled Guinn), who came in the fall of 1834 
to the southeastern part, and January 10, 1835, entered land two miles 
northeast of where Mirabile town now is (w. V-2 se. section 25), and 
there lived for some years. Jesse Clevenger came up from Ray county 
in the spring of 1835, and August 27th following entered 80 acres near 
Goose creek, on section 23 (w. V2 sw. V4). These are known to be 
the first owners of land in the township. 


Following were the entries made in this township prior to the cora- 
ins: of the Mormons : — 

Name. Description. Date. 

David Guinn w. ^ se. ^ sec. 25 Jan. 10, 1835 

David Guinn sw. nw. and nw. sw. sec. 34 ... . Aug. 5, 1835 

Jesse Clevenger w. | sw. ^ sec. 28 Aug. 27, 1835 

Hannah Errickson . . . . se. sw. sec. 33 • . . Sept. 17, 1835 

Thomas Huntsucker . . . . se. nw. sec. 25 Sept. 19, 1835 

Samuel Kimball sw. se. sec. 26 Mar. 3, 1836 

It was in this township where the Mormon settlement was made, and 
the Mormons are the next white settlers known to have come in after 
Gywnn and Clevenger, though there may have been others who were 
squatters, and did not enter the land on which they lived. 


After John Whitmer and W. W. Phelps had selected this county as 
a location for " the Saints," the Mormons, as elsewhere stated, came 
in rapidly, and in 1836 and 1837 nearly every quarter section in what 
is now Mirabile township was entered and settled upon. A majority 
of the entries were made in the latter year. To give the names of 
all the Mormons who located here would require too much space. 

June 22, 1836, the west half of section 27 was entered in the name 
of the Prophet Joseph Smith, and soon after many other tracts in 
this township were entered in his name. Other tracts in different 
portions of the township were located in the name of Bishop Edward 
Partridge, W. W. Phelps, Hiram Smith, Thomas B. Marsh, and 
others. It is understood that these lands were held in trust by the 
Prophet and his associates for the general benefit of the church, and 
especially for the benefit of indigent Morm(»ns unable to buy lands of 
their own. Among the many others who came in with the Mormons 
were the Bozarths (sometimes pronounced Bozier), of whom Squire, 
John and Abner became well known citizens of the county. In June, 
1837, John Bozarth settled upon and entered the e. I/2 of the se. V4 of 
section 29, and moved a house upon it from Far West. He had lived 
in Far West and near Fugitt's mill. Abner Bozarth entered the 
w. V2 of the s. V2 of section 18 in 1837. 

In October, 1837, the sw. 1/4 of section 30 was settled by Ezekiel 
Billinston and another Mormon named Sanders. The north half of 
this section was also settled by Mormons about the same time. 

The town, or city, of Far West, the first county seat of Caldwell 
county, and the headquarters of Mormonism for more than two years, 
was in the northeastern portion of this township. Its history and 
description are detailed in preceding pages of this volume. 



After the Mormons were expelled from this township Gentile 
settlers, in considerable numbers, came in and settled upon their 
lands, many of which had been improved to a greater or less extent. 

Wm. H. Cross came in October, 1839, from Ohio and settled on 
the n. 1/2 sw. V4 of section 29. This tract was entered in May, 1837, 
by the Mormon Gen. Geo. M. Hinkle and Thos. King. It is said 
that Mr. Cross improved Hve other farms, and finally located on sec- 
tion 28, a mile east of his first location. 

George Strope, an ex-veteran of the War of 1812, came from New 
York in July, 1838, and settled on section 31, in the southwestern 
part of the township. The land was then owned by Roswell Prindle, 
a Mormon, who entered it in 1836. In 1842 Mr. Strope moved two 
miles northeast, on the sw. V4 of section 28, where Mr. Cross had 
once lived. This tract was entered in June, 1837, by James Durfey, 
who laid the foundation of a mill here, but never completed it. 

Christian Smith, from Ohio, located on the ne. V4 of section 29 in 
1840. The land had been entered in the name of Bishop Partridge 
and Squire Bozarth in December, 1836. A man named Milstead, a 
Tennessean, came to this vicinity in 1839. 

Rev. Jones, a Methodist minister, settled the nw. I/4 of section 20 
in 1839 ; the land was entered by Alpheus Cutler, in October, 1836. 

In 1839 David StofFel made a settlement on the nw. of the ne. of 
section 29, half a mile northeast of school house No. 3 ; land entered 
by Bishop Partridge in December, 1836. 

The northeast quarter «f section 27 was entered in the names of 
Joseph Smith, Isaac Bebee, and Reed Peck, in July, 1836, and after 
the Mormon expulsion was settled on by Esquire Kelso. 

Thos. Grover settled on the se. V4 of section 19 in the fall of 1837, 
and entered the land in January, 1838. 

Solomon Musser settled the ne. of section 21 in 1839 ; land entered 
by Joseph Holbrook in December, 1836. John Musser settled on 
section 18 in 1839, and the same year Wm. Gilbert made a permanent 
location in the extreme southwest corner of this section or the north- 
west corner of section 19, on the Clinton line. 

Humphrey Beckett settled three-fourths o-f a mile west of Mirabile 
about 1839. Beckett died in this township, but his widow is yet 
alive. In November, 1840, Daniel Sackman came in from Ohio and 
bought the farm settled on by Beckett. Mr. Sackman was a black- 
smith, and worked at that occupation while his son Jonathan, after- 


wurd sheriff of the county, managed the farm. Henry Clark lived 
two miles northwest of Mirable in 1840. Henry Sackman came with 
Daniel and located one-fourth of a mile north of Mirabile, but returned 
to Ohio in a year or so. 

The southwest quarter of section 27, on Goose creek, was entered 
in the name of Joseph Smith in 1836, but afterwards, about 1840, 
Eli Penny settled it, and it is now well known as the Penny farm. 

John Whitmer moved back from Ray County and July 9, 1840, 
settled on the north side of section 14, half a mile east of the temple 
site at Far West. It will be remembered that he had previously en- 
tered this land in his own name in 1836, as a portion of the town site 
of Far West. 


In 1837 the Mormons built a school house in the center of section 
29, near the site of where school house No. 3 now is. It rotted years 
ago. The Mormons had numerous good teachers among them and 
schools were plenty. In the winter of 1837-8 spelling schools were 
common enough in this township, Brigham Young, John Taylor, 
Orson Hyde and other prominent Mormons took part in them. 

The first mill in the township was Fugitt's, a mile north of Far 
"West, on Shoal creek (s. w. corner of section 2,), which was built 
in about 1837 and was washed away in the spring of 1859. This mill 
was much resorted to ,by the Mormons during their occupation of 
the county. As late as 1870 some of the saw-logs hauled to it by the 
Mormons in 1838 had not entirely decayed, and were plainly 

A man named Gardner had a horse-mill three-fourths of a mile 
north of Mirabile in 1840, which was resorted to by the settlers in 
that quarter. Gardner sold this mill to Gibson, and afterward it was 
the property successively of Anderson, Smith, Adams, Bragg, Robt. 
Walker, Isaac Sackman, Robt. Henderson, and Renner. 

Some fine farms in this township, and some magnificent stretches 
of country deserve more extended mention than can be o-iven them. 
There were a number of first-class farms here before the Civil War, 
and the township was in good state of improvement. 

Mirabile was thoroughly Union in sentiment durino; the Civil War, 
and it is claimed that nearly every able-bodied man in the township 
did duty in the Federal service. A few entered the Confederate ser- 
vice. Capt. Johnson's and Capt. James' Home Guards were organ- 
ized in Mirabile in June, 1861. 



What is now Mirabile township formed a portion of Rockford^ 
which comprised the western tier of Congressional townships from 
1860 to May 6, 1867. On the latter date the county court, on 
petition ofWm. H. Frederick and others, divided Rockford into two 
civil townships. It must be borne in mind that Rockford then com- 
prised all of range 29, or the west six miles of Caldwell county. 
Shoal creek was made the dividing line between the two new town- 
ships. All north of the center of the stream was called Kidder, and 
all south was called Mirabile. 

Three years later, or May 4, 1870, the boundaries of Mirabile town- 
ship were re-established as at present, comprising all of township 56, 
range 29. The voting place was established at Mirabile. Jacob 
Dewalt was appointed the first constable under the last organ- 

Since the township has had independent organization its officers 
have been as follows : — 

1881 — Trustee, Jacob Buck; collector, I. S. Mylar ; clerk, J. P. 
Renfrew; justices of the peace, John Allen, David E. Cross; con- 
stable, J. C. F. Clevenger. 

1883 — Trustee, L. L. Frost; collector, I. S. Mylar; clerk, J. P. 
Piatt ; justices of the peace, Wm. H. Alleman, Wm. Dudley; con- 
stable, Wm. Beckett. ' 

1885 — Trustee, L. L. Frost ; collector, J. H. Conley ; clerk,W. T. 
Frederick ; justices of the peace, Leonard Sparks, I. B. Haworth ; 
constable, Edgar Boner. 


The site of the village, a town of Mirabile (the se. V4 of the sw. 
V4 of sec. 34), was entered by John Gregg, Nov. 9, 1836. He was a 
Mormon, and left the State with his brethren for Nauvoo in the spring 
of 1839. Not long after the Mormon exodus Wm. E. Marquam 
(pronounced Marcam), who was an Indianian, visited the locality, and 
it is said then purchased Gregg's land. 

In 1848 or 1849 Mr. Marquam purchased a stock of goods and the log 
building in which they were exposed for sale at Far West, and removed 
them to his land, and thus laid the foundation for the town of Mirabile. 
The logs and all the other material in the building were brought from 
Far West, and it stood on the north side of the western part of Main 


street, just east of the present Crawford building. About the same 
time Mr. Marquam established a blacksmith shop in the southeastern 
part of the town, and soon after an ox-mill, which ground both corn 
and wheat, and bolted the latter into good flour. Some years after- 
ward he started a carding mill, which he operated for some time. 
Marquam's old store-house burned down years ago, but the carding 
mill is still standing, and is used as a stable. 

Mr. Marquam is remembered as a worthy citizen aiul a most estim- 
able gentleman. An old settler says: "Everybody liked him, and 
he liked everybody." Some time after the Civil War he removed 
to Iowa and died there. 

For a time the locality was called "Marquam's Store," but after 
some years a second store was opened by Joseph Hoard, who built 
a store-house in the southeastern part of town. Then John Burrows 
built a brick on the south side of Main street, next door east of 
the brick hotel. Isaac Stout built the brick hotel, a tavern. Mr. 
Marquam had a town or village laid out and platted, and named it 
Mirabile, from a Latin word signifying wonderful. 

After John Burrows, perha[)S the next store was that of Cheshire & 
Partin, a frame structure, which stood on the north side of Main street. 
A man named Jones put up a steam saw and grist mill and carding 
machine sometime before the war. At first, and until the Hannibal 
& St. Joseph Railroad was built, all the merchants in Mirabile hauled 
their goods from Camden on the Missouri river. 

During the war Mirabile was headquarters for the Unionists in this 
section of country. The Union drums were beaten first in this vil- 
lage in the summer of 1861, before in any other in this quarter of 
the State, and the two companies of home guards, under Capts. James 
and Johnson, were among the very first organized in Northwest Mis- 
souri. The old brick tavern was used as quarters for the soldiers. 
The raid on Mirabile by Thrailkill's Confederates is fully noted else- 

Dr. William H. Crawford, who came to the place before the war, 
has been a prominent citizen of Mirabile. He was for many years a 
merchant, built a fine residence, assisted largely in building the Catho- 
lic Church, and in various other enterprises, and made a large circle of 
friends. The Doctor now resides in Cameron. 

Being situated away from a railroad Mirabile has made but little ad- 
vancement since the war. It contains a good steam saw and grist 
mill and carding machine, two general stores, two hotels, a drug store, 
mechanics' shops, etc. It has a daily mail to Kingston. 



Presbyterian Church. — The first organization of what afterward 
became the Presbyterian Church of Mirabile, was effected at the Plum 
creek school house, northwest of the village, November 26, 1853, by 
Revs. J. M. Canfield and J. B. Harbison and Elder Saml. Rannells. 
The constituent members were Hugh Cochran and wife, Wm. Stock- 
ton and wife, SAml. Rannells and wife, Mrs. Frederick and Mrs. Jane 
Marquam. The next day George Smith, John McBride, Mr. and Mrs. 
Stoffel, Malissa Jane Rannells and Sarah Morton were added to the 
membership. Saml. Rannells was the first ruling elder. In 1854 a 
small frame church building was erected in Mirabile at a cost of $325 ; 
the trustees at the time were Geo. Smith, Hugh Cochran, and John 
McCartney, and the builder was J. Q. A. Kemper." The organization 
was called Plum Creek Church until in 1855, when the name was 
changed to Mirabile. During the Civil War services were practically 
suspended, but in 186(3 the church was reorganized, and for a time 
bade fair to enjoy a permanent and prosperous existence. In 1879 
the old church building was sold to Isaac Sackman and removed (now 
used as a barn), and a fine new structure erected on its site at a cost 
of $1,600. The new church was dedicated in 1880, by Rev. Geo. A. 
McKinley. The only pastor remembered under the old organization 
is Rev. Ralph Harris. Since the reorganization in 1866, there have 
been Revs. J. P. Fox, Joseph H. France, Geo. A. McKinley, J. F. 
Clarkson, Wm. Smith, and W. T. Scott. The present membership of 
the organization is 2Q, but for some time there has been no pastor or 
stated supply, and no regular services are held. A union Sunday 
school is held in the church, with an average attendance of 40. A. W. 
MofBtt, of the Protestant Methodist organization, is superintendent. 

Protestant Methodist. — In January, 1885, a congregation of the 
Protestant Methodist church, numbering 35 members, was organized 
in Mirabile. Reofular semi-monthlv services are still held in the 
Presbyterian Church building. Rev. Andrew Johnson is the pastor. 

Catholic. — Some years since a neat little Catholic Church was 
built in Mirabile, which is still standiuir, althouich services are not 
rejirularlv held. Rev. Father Dennan, of Cameron, comes down occa- 
sionally and says mass. 


Odd Fellows. — Lyon Lodge No. 174, I. O. O. F., at Mirabile, was 
instituted by N. M. Smith, district deputy grand master. The char- 


ter is dated September 13, 1867. The first ofiicers and members 
were R. A. Renfrew, noble grand ; J. P. Reynolds, vice grand ; O. H. 
Black, secretary ; J. T. Ross, permanent secretary ; John Renfrew, 
treasurer; Thos. Harvey, E. W. Shinn, Thos. Dock, J. H. Browning 
and Thos. Clark. The lodge meets in a frame hall, built in 1869 at a 
cost of $1,500. The present membership of the lodge is small, num- 
bering about 10. J. P. Piatt, one of the members, is D. D. G. M. 

Masonic. — The oldest Masonic lodge in Caldwell county is located 
in Mirabile, but owiug to the refusal of the tyler to permit an inspec- 
tion of the records, and of the secretary to furnish information, no 
correct or complete sketch can be given — a circumstance much to be 

Good Templars. — Mirabile Lodge No. 107, I. O. G. T., was 
granted a dispensation December 4, 1884, and a charter February 11, 
1885. It was instituted by Mrs. S. A. Williams, State deputy. The 
charter members numbered 41, and the first priucipal officers were J. 
T. Ballinger, W. C. ; Flora Folker, W. V. ; F. L. Treat, secretary ; 
W. H. Alleman, P. W. C. The lodo-e now numbers about 75 mem- 
bers, and is in a highly prosperous condition. 


An institution of the village held in much esteem is the Mirabile 
Cornet Band. In the winter of 1869 what was called the Mirabile 
Silver Cornet Band, an organization with $400 of stock, was formed, 
with James Medley as leader. In about four years it '* played out," 
but enough members were got together July 4, 1876, to play at the 
Kiugston celebration. The present band was organized August 12, 
1879, with the following members : John C. Coffing, teacher; W. C. 
Coffing, leader; John H. Alleman, 1st b-flat ; J. L. Trout, 1st alto; 
Wm. Sturgiss, 2d alto ; J. W. Elliott, baritone ; J. P. Piatt, tuba ; T. 
J. Ballinger, 1st tenor; R. F. Elliott, bass drum. The instruments 
were purchased July 18, 1879, at a cost of $160. The band has a 
w:igon which was built by some of the members, and cost less than 
$100. The present members are Ulysses S. Grant, leader ; R. Elliott, 
2d e-flat. ; Hiram Trout, 1st b-llat. ; J. T. Ballinger, baritone ; J. D. 
Sackman, 1st alto; Ed. Grant, 2d alto ; Wm. Rhea, 1st tenor; James 
Elliott, tuba; J. P. Piatt, bass drum; Richard Grant, tenor drum. 
President, James Elliott ; secretary, J. P. Piatt ; treasurer, J. T. 




(Physician and Surgeon, Mirabile). 

Oakley H. Black was born in Clarke county, O., May 21, 1828, his 
parents being persons of good education and high culture. His boy- 
hood was passed in his native State, where he acquired a taste for 
studies of a scientific nature which gradually became of great interest 
to him. These, however, he laid down upon the call for volunteers in 
the Mexican War, and though but 17 years of age he accompanied the 
United States army on their career for five years, winning an enviable 
record as a brave, fearless soldier. His term of service having ex- 
pired, he traveled extensively over the western and northwestern por- 
tions of this country, and being a close observer, he is recognized to 
this day as a man of more than ordinary general information. Finally 
he became settled in Campaign county. 111., and this continued to be 
his home until Caldwell county. Mo., claimed him a citizen, in 1865. 
Two years later he located in Mirabile. At the acre of 26 voun<j Black 
had determined to studv medicine, and in this desire met with no 
opposition ; soon after a thorough course of study and subsequent 
collegiate training he commenced the practice of his profession in 
Illinois, a calling to which he has since devoted himself. His present 
patronage extends over a wide territory and in the practice of medi- 
cine he is meetins; with the favor which a thorouofh knowledire of his 
calling, together with a kind, gracious manner and unlimited acquaint- 
ance, warrant. While livins; in Illinois Dr. Black met Miss Susan 
Hyde, a young lady of Indiana birth, to whom he was married in 1854. 
After 15 years of happy married life she died in February, 186i', 
leaving 9 children, 8 of whom survive: Julia.E., Emma W., Olive M., 
Cordelia A., Sarah C, Agnes B., Minerva L., and Rosana M. In 
November, 1870, the Doctor was united in marriage with Miss Marv 
T. Rinaman, a n;itive of Ohio. Bv this union there are 3 children, 
Charles T., William A. and Mary E. 


(Farmer and Stock-raiser, Section 2, Post-office, Kidder). 

To attempt an extensive or voluminous description of the career of 
Mr. Boroff while a soldier in the Federal army, during the late war, 
would necessitate the insertion of a longer sketch than the nature of 
this work would permit. Briefly his military record is as follows : At 
the breaking out of the war he was engaged in farming, to which he 
had been reared, but in October, 1861, he enlisted in Co. H, 55th 
Ohio volunteer infautrv, with which he remained until the cessation 


of hostilities. He took part in the battles of Cedar Mountain, Second 
Bull Run, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, Chattanooga, Resaca, Peach 
Tree Creek, Siege of Atlanta, and others, amounting in all to 17 
severe engagements and 15 skirmishes. He was mustered out at 
Cleveland, O., July 20, 1865. Mr. Boroff was born in Ohio in 
September, 1843, and to that State he returned after leaving the bat- 
tle-field, again taking up the implements of farm life. Farming has 
always been his principal business, and the energetic manner in which 
he has ever taken advantase of all methods and ideas tending to the 
enhanced value of his property has had a great deal to do with obtain- 
ing the competence which he now enjoys. He became a citizen of 
Caldwell county in 1867, and here he owns 180 acres of land, devot- 
ing special attention to stock raising, which he is making a prominent 
feature of his farming industry. The estimable wife of Mr. Boroflf 
was formerly Miss Ann Hawkins, to whom he was married March 25, 
1874. The personal attractions of this lady, as well as her loveliness 
of character, have made for her many friends. 


(Farmer, Section 9, Post-office, Cameron). 

Upon the farm which Mr. Boulton now occupies is to be found a 
relic of no small historical interest, it being a building perforated to 
a considerable extent by bullets fired during the Mormon troubles in 
this community. This building will ever recall to memory the re- 
membrance of that war, with which so many residents of this locality 
are familiar. The entire life of Mr. Boulton has been passed within 
the borders of Missouri, for it was on February 7, 1857, that he was 
born in Buchanan county. However, for almost 28 years he has 
been a citizen of Caldwell county, for in the same year of his birth 
he was brought here by his prrents, Peter L. and Ann E. (Baker) 
Boulton. Henry was the tenth child in. their family. The father 
died in November, 1883, but his widow is still living with her son, the 
subject of this sketch. They were both Kentuckians by birth. 
Brought up to the life of a farmer, Mr. Henry. Boulton has since con- 
tinued that calling with care and perseverance. The estate which he 
now manages embraces a bod}'^ of land 464 acres in extent, and on 
this place he gives his attention to general farming in connection with 
the raising of stock, for which industry his farm seems to be pecu- 
liarly fitted. Mr. B. was united in marriage on the first of January, 
1882, to a young lady who was bora in Indiana, — Miss Lydia P. 
Davis. They have had two children born to them but only one daugh- 
ter is living, Nellie D. A son, Freddie, is deceased. 


(County Surveyor, Post-office, Mirabile) . 

William J. Boyd, the present efficient incumbent of the office of 
county surveyor, was born on June 15, 1840, in Coshocton county, 


O., the locality in which his youth was trained for after life. His 
only school advantaf^es were such as could be obtained in the common 
schools, but to this he added courses in Spring Mountain and Coalville 
Seminaries, and upon leaving these institutions of learning was thor- 
oughly fitted to enter into any position in life. But before his terra 
in the latter seminary had been concluded, the murmuring of war 
caused his attention to l)e drawn from his books. Casting aside all 
personal consideration, and thinking only of his country's peril, he 
enlisted in Co. I, 97th volunteer infantry, and served with it at the 
battles of Perryville, Stone River and Missionary Ridge, where he 
was severely wounded. This caused a paralysis of his right arm for 
upwards of three years, and in consequence of the injuries received he 
was honorablv discharijed from further duty Auijust 25, 1864. In 
November of that vear he returned to Ohio and remained until 1866, 
when he came to this country, settling in Mirabile township. He first 
engaged in teaching, but in the following fall was appointed deputy 
survevor of the countv. His duties were so well discharged in this 
capacity that at the election in 1868 he was elected to the position of 
surveyor, in which he continued for four years. At the expiration of 
this time he steadfastly refused to again accept this office, but finally, 
in deference to the entreaties of his friends and the general voice of 
the people, he yielded to the nomination, and received the full support 
of the county, less about 500 votes. Since that time he has been 
re-elected with scarcely any opposition. Having mastered the funda- 
mental principles of surveying, his long and extensive service in his 
present position has endowed him with an accomplished experience. 
In October, 1870, Mr. Boyd was married to Miss Elmira, daughter of 
John N. and Isabel (Duncan) Elliott. They came originally from 
Holmes county, O., settling in Rockford township, in this county, in 
1868. Mr. and Mrs. Boyd have two children : William RoUin and 
Elmira. Mr. B.'s homestead is situated about three-fourths of a mile 
from Mirabile, and is a well improved farm of 170 acres. 


(Farmer and Stock-raiser, Section 35, Post-office, Mirabile) . 

It will be seen by a perusal of this sketch of the life of one of the 
most respected citizens Caldwell county ever had — Lewis Corbit — 
that his educational advantasjes in youth were verv meauer ; and 
though perhaps deficient in general learning, his vigorous mind has so 
grasped and embraced the opportunities which have presented them- 
selves, that he is accounted among the most intelligent and learned 
men of this vicinity. Born in Adams township, Coshocton county, 
O., June 1, 1821, he was a son of Robert and Susan Corbit, nee 
Fuller, and a grandson of Jesse Corbit and James and Catherine Ful- 
ler. The father of Lewis was a native of Hancock county, Mo., and 
it was in 1804 that he became a resident of Ohio. His son was from 
the verv first tauirht evervthinir connected with farmiuir- In a lofj 
school-house he pursued his studies, his first primer being a single leaf 


pasted on a paddle. To the few months of schooling he added self- 
application to books at night and by his own fireside. Among other 
pul)lic offices to which he was elected in the State of his birth was that 
of justice of the peace, the duties of which he discharged for upwards 
of 21 years. Though a stanch Republican in his political preferences, 
the township in which he was so often elected was strongly Demo- 
cratic. Upon coming to this county Mr. Corbit selected his present 
desirable farm of 320 acres, a place the improvements of which are 
especially conspicuous for their beauty and completeness. He has 
made of this quite a stock farm. Mr. Corbit was married August 27, 
1842, to Miss Eliza, daughter of Adam and Mary (Cochran) Carp, of 
Ohio. Five of their 13 children are livino;: James, Wilson, Edward, 
George W., who was married December 23, 1884, to Miss Laura 
Smith, of Coshocton county, O., and Adam. The three oldest sons 
were killed while fighting for their country: besides these Sarah A., 
Susan, Mary E., Laura A. and Almeda are deceased. 

Edward Corbit, a worthy son of such a representative father, has 
resided u[)on his present farm since the spring of 1884. Here he 
devotes his time to tilling the soil, in connection with conducting his 
own place having the management of a part of his father's estate. 
He is now in his thirty-second year, having been born April 21, 1854, in 
Coshocton county, O. He was brought up there and also educated 
and on the 29th of September, 1881, took for his wife Miss Ellen 
Sondels, whose parents were John and Nancy (Norman) Sondels. 
The latter is now living with her daughter and her husband, in which 
she finds a pleasant home. Mr. and Mrs. Corbit have two children, 
Byron and Ada. 


(Farmer and Stock-raiser, Section 3, Post-office, Cameron, Mo.) 

It is a fact well recognized among all intelligent people that a thor- 
ough education and advanced acquaintance with books of learning are 
of orreat material benefit to a man, no matter in what channel in life 
his path may lie. The career of Mr. DeGeer furnishes a striking 
illustration of this truth. His elementary schooling was received in 
the district in Canada where he was brought up. Following this he 
was engaged for some time as a clerk or salesman in a mercantile 
establishment, and subsequently, at the age of 21, he went to Michi- 
gan. Soon after he entered as a student Hillsdale College, in which 
he remained for three years, acquiring in that well known institution 
an education of more than ordinary thoroughness. Now well qualified 
to enter into any calling, he came to this county in 1868 and devoted 
his attention to the profession of teaching until 1873, with the utmost 
satisfaction to those whom he served. But a desire for some other 
occupation caused him to turn to agricultural pursuits as his future 
labor, and in this branch of industry substantial results have followed 
him. He has a fine farm of 220 acres which he devoted almost ex- 
clusivel}^ to stock raising. Li the conduct of this estate Mr. DeGeer 
gives each detailed portion of work his person-al and close observance,^ 


and the care and method ever exercised have contributed to place him 
among the foremost farmers of this vicinity, as he is one of the most 
intelligent citizens. He is now in his fortj'-second year, having been 
born November 26, 1843, in Canada West. He was married December 
5, 1871, at which time Miss Emma J. Renfrew became his wife. She 
was a daughter of John and Hester Renfrew, nee Johnston, mention 
of whom has been made in other parts of this work. They are among 
the most highly respected residents of this county. Mr. and Mrs. 
DeGeer have four children : Cora I., Eva M., Renfrew I. and Vaughn. 
Mr. DeG. has been called upon at different times to serve the people 
of his township in diffeient capacities, and besides having been town- 
ship clerk for several years, he is now (1885) collector. 


(Farmer and Stock-raiser, Section 18, Post-oflace, Cameron). 

The father of Mr. Dudley was William C. Dudley, a native of New 
Jersey, who, after reaching manhood, was married to Miss Lydia 
Karnes, of the same State as himself. In 1854, they removed from 
their former home in Columbiana county, O., to Jefferson county, O., 
l)ut upon leaving there came to Caldwell county. Mo., in March 1854. 
Here they continued to remain, but William, who had been born in 
Columbiana county, March 24, 1842, and was therefore about twelve 
years of age when his parents settled in this county, soon went to 
Chicago, and from there returned to Ohio. His home continued to 
be in the Buckej'e State until the sound of war caused him to enter 
into the career of a soldier. W^ith a patriotism which did not stop at 
the dark outlook for the future he enlisted September 17, 1861, in 
Co. K, 3d volunteer infantry, remaining with that regiment until 
the expiration of their term of service. Then he was transferred to 
Co. F, 33d Ohio volunteer infantry, with which he served until his 
term of enlistment had expired. Mr. Dudley now returned to Ohio, 
and although having served a sufficient time in the armv to have satis- 
tied most men, he re-enlisted in Co. A, 5th Ohio volunteer cav- 
alry. In the fall of 1865, he was discharged at Columbus, O., 
having held the position of sergeant while a member of Co. A. 
After the cessation of hostilities, he again located in this county and 
has since lived here, a period now of some 20 j'ears, his entire time being 
given to the conduct of his superior farm. He owns 360 acres of 
land, the improvements of which are of a good order, and well suited 
to the proper carrying on of his specialty, stock-raising. His stock is 
composed of animals of good grade, Mr. Dudley is a married man, 
his worthy wife having formerly been Miss Jane Hockenberry, a 
native of Ohio, to whom he was united in marriage November 18, 
1866. She is a Lady of true worth and character, and well fitted to be 
the companion of such a husband. Two children conn)rise their fam- 
ily, Delia and Ora. Mr. and Mrs. Dudley are influential members of 
the Christian Church at Pleasant Grove, in which the former has been 
an elder since its organization. A gfnial, hospitable, and sincere 


Christian couple, they are held in high esteem by those who know 


(Farmer and Eaiser of High Graded Stock, Section 28, Post-office, Mirabile). 

Upon growing up Mr. Entrikin was instructed in all the details of 
farm life, but in connection with this acquired a mechanical skill to 
no ordinary degree. He was subsequently engaged in building for 
some time, but his principal occupation in later years has been that 
of farming and stock raising. His cattle are mostly animals of a high 
grade, in the handling of which he has been unusually fortunate. He 
has given considerable attention to the raising of Chester White and 
Big Bone China hogs, the crosses of these breeds resulting in a large 
boned, easily fattened grade which the farmers of this vicinity would 
do well to investigate. The stock thus secured is distinctive from all 
other classes, and Mr. Entrikin is deserving of much credit for the 
interest and efforts which he has put forth in the promotion of the 
stock industry of the county. His life has been one of unremitting 
toil, and though he commenced for himself without means, he is now 
in possession of a fine property, the result of honest industry and per- 
severance. The respect shown him is worthily bestowed. Mr. 
Entrikin was born in Columbia county, Ohio, June 27, 1835, and con- 
tinued to remain in that locality until coming to Caldwell county in 
1868. Here he owns 280 acres of choice land, besides havino; an in- 
terest in 190 acres in the vicinity. His marriage to Miss Anna M. 
King, of Pennsylvania, was consummated January 20, 1859. They 
have eight children: Ferdinand L., William H., Samuel L., Elmer 
G., Eliza E., Eli E., Charles B. and Susan A. 


(Retired Farmer, Post-office, Mirabile). 

Mr. Fort, has passed the allotted age of three score years and ten, 
but were one to judge by personal appearance and vivacity of manner 
we should consider him far younger than the majority of men of mid- 
dle age. Well preserved and of bright intellect, he is well informed 
on the general topics of the day, in which he keeps thoroughly posted. 
The family's early history is one of thrilling interest. Eldert's great- 
great-grandfather was a full blooded Frenchman : and under the Colo- 
nial Government had the name changed from Lafort to Fort, it being 
a French name. He married a Holland ladj^ and soon emigrated to 
America, and hence it is that the familv are now called descendants of 
Hollanders. Eldert's grandfather, Simeon Fort, was captured when 
a you that the sacking and burning of Schenectady, New York, by the 
Indians in 1688, and eight years after, his father, Abraham Fort, 
learning of his whereabouts, in com]iany with a friend, crossed the 
unbroken wilderness to Montreal and redeemed his son at a ransom 
of $800. The boy at this time was 18 years old, and had been adopted 
into the tribe. Mr. Fort was born April 25, 1808, in Albany county, 



New York. At the age of 17, he apprenticed himself to learn the 
trade of wairon niakino:, which he continued to follow until reachino: 
his majorit}'. He now entered the employ of the Government at 
the Watervleit Arsenal, remaining so engaged until 1840. While 
there he was one of the excursionists on the first railroad in the State, 
and claimed by many to have been the first one in the country. Among 
the latter class is Mr. Fort, whose thorough acquaintance with the 
matter has rendered his evidence of more than ordinary weight. In 
1840 he came to Coshocton county, O., and embarked in ftirming, 
and this was his chosen occupation until his retirement from active 
pursuits in March, 1884. In 1855 he located in Knoxville, la., but 
in 1866, removed to this county and improved a farm of 140 acres. 
June 4, 1829, he was married to Miss Margaret Shafer, of Albany 
county, N. Y., and this honored couple have now (1885) enjoyed 
the blessings and happiness of a union of upwards of 50 years' dura- 
tion. They have reared a worthy famil}' of nine children, eight of 
whom survive: Eleanor, wife of S. M. Bassett ; Daniel, Elizabeth, 
George, Julia Ann, wife of A. W. Bishop, mention of whom is made 
elsewhere in this work; Helena, Sarah, now Mrs. S. T. Boerstler ; 
Harriet, wife of Jacob Clute. One son, Peter, died July 20, 1840. 
Mr. Fort has had charge of the poor farm of this county for five years. 
He and his wife are connected with the Presbyterian Church. 


CFarmer and Stock -raiser, Section 27, Post-office, Mirabile). 

The early annals of the States of Massachusetts and Connecticut 
are replete with many reminiscences of the i)art which the two fam- 
ilies of which the sul)ject of this sketch is a representative took in 
their development and progress. Primarily from England, the Frosts 
became located in Massachusetts in a primitive period of the country's 
history, while the Uffords date their settlement in Connecticut from 
a time now quite remote. In 1815 the parents of the fatlier of Lyman 
Frost (Lyman Frost, Sr.), took him to New York, where he was 
brought up and married to Miss Hannah Ufford, who died April 
25, 1884. The names of his parents were Samuel and Keziah 
Frost. In 1830 Mr. Lyman Frost removed to Tioga county, 
Pa., where his son, Lyman L., was born January 8, 1848. 
From that time on for many years the character of this youth 
was modeled in such a manner that it was natural for him 
to look, perhaps unconsciously, upon farming and stock raising 
as the only calling in life with which he should identify himself. His 
educational advantages were appreciated to the fullest extent. In 
1868 the family left their home in Pennsylvania and came to Cald- 
well county, where they have since turned their attention almost ex- 
clusively to stock raising. The excellent farm upon which Mr. Frost 
resides contains 407 acres, under good improvement, and on this he 
m raising graded cattle. The success which seems to attend his efforts 
in the stock industry is well merited for no one is more thoroughly 


interested in this calling, or gives it greater attention. Mr. F. was 
united in marriage December 28, 1869, to Miss Mary Jane Allen, born 
May 23, 1846, and a daughter of William and Prudence (Newberry) 
Allen. The former was born in Dutchess county, N. Y., and was a 
man remarked for his Christian purity and benevolence and high sense 
of honor. He died at Hollidaysburg', Pa., April 28, 1884. The chil- 
dren of Mr. and Mrs. Frost are four in number : Sidney D., born April 
5, 1871 ; Isaac A., born May 28, 1873; Sarah A., born October 26, 
1875, and Alice E., born November, 28, 1877. One son, Georgie 
Garfield, born July 11, 1880, died September 27, 1881. Mr. F. is 
now holding the position of township trustee. 


(Farmer and Stock-raiser, Section 1, Post-offlce, Kidder). 

Upon reaching the age when it became necessary for him to choose 
some calling in life to which he would afterwards adhere as his chosen 
occupation, Mr. Hudson at once wisely adopted agricultural pursuits, 
and this has continued to receive his attention. As well known as he is, 
it is unnecessar}' for us to add what the results of these years of labor 
have been. In 1861, however, upon the breaking out of the war his 
farming operations were disturbed somewhat, and in August of the 
year mentioned he enlisted in Co. G, 49th Ohio volunteer infantry, serv- 
ino- with that regiment until the expiration of his term of enlistment. 
He was discharged as sergeant of his company. Owing to disability 
he was unable to veteranize. Of the many battles in which he took 
part might be noticed Shiloh, where he received a severe scalp wound. 
Stone River, Liberty Gap, Chickamauga, Resaca, Peach Tree Creek, 
besides others of less importance ; he was discharged at Chattanooga, 
in August, 1864. Soon after this Mr. Hudson returned to his home in 
Ohio and resumed the occupation of previous years, remaining in that 
State until 1867, when he became located in Caldwell county. Here 
he has secured him a fine farm of 170 acres, under good improvement, 
upon which he is raising considerable stock. Its management and 
appearance indicate the character of the owner to a noticeable extent. 
Mr. H. owes his nativity to Wyandot county, O., having been born 
there April 13, 1835. It was in that locality that he was reared and 
received his education. About twenty-one years ago, or in October, 
1864, he was married, Miss Sarah E. Boroff becoming his companion ; 
like her husband she was born in Ohio. Mr. and Mrs. Hudson are 
the parents of six children : Elvie, Luranie, Halley, Hayes, Olivia, 
Grettie. Mr. H. and wife are members of the M. E. Church. The 
former belongs to the Masonic fraternity, G. A. R. and the Good 


(Farmer and Stocli-raiser, Section 14, Post-oflace, Kingstou). 

Of Kentucky nativity Mr. Kerr, from the date of his birth, October 
28, 1838, has resided either in Kentucky or this county. His youth 


^nd early nuuihood, however, were passed in the State of his birth, 
and there he attended the schools which favored him with a good edu- 
cation. His father was James Kerr, who married after growing up 
Miss Catharine Simpson. Christopher is the youngest of four children 
now livincj who were born of this union. The others are Marv J., 
McBeath, Nancy W. Morris, and Elizabeth I. Allen, of Texas. From 
the very time of his settlement here Mr. Kerr has applied steadfastly 
to agricultural pursuits, and with what success may be inferred when 
the fact is mentioned that he is now the proprietor of one of the best im- 
proved half-sections of land in this portion of the country. Upon his 320 
acres are to be seen a lar^e number of cattle and ho^s, stock raisins: re- 
ceiviiiff a considerable share of his attention. In the various affairs of 
the county and township he exerts an influence which all feel. For two 
..erms he has held the position of township collector, discharging his 
Dflicial duties in a most satisfactory manner. Mr, Kerr's wife was 
lormerly married to a Mr. Johnson, and they had two children, Ellen 
£. and John E. Her maiden name was Sarah E. Whitmer and her 
marriage to Mr, K, occurred September 6, 1882, She was the daugh- 
ter of John and Sarah M. Whitmer who were among the earliest and 
most respected citizens of the county. She claims Caldwell county 
as the place of her birth, Mrs. Kerr is a believer in the doctrine of 
Mormonism as taught by Joseph Smith, but has no support for the infa- 
mous practice of polygamy introduced by Brigham Young. In her 
possession is an original copy of the Mormon Bible printed by Joseph 
Smith, Jr., at Palmyra, N. Y,, in 1830. 


(Farmer aud Stock-raiser, Section 36, Post-office, Mirabile). 

During Mr. Lewis' lifetime he has resided at different times in four 
States, and in each of them has his attention been devoted to the agri- 
cultural affairs of the communities in which he has made his home. 
When 12 years of age he accompanied his parents from his native 
county in Pennsylvania to Ohio, but the}' remained there only about 
five years. In 1865 he settled in Illinois and in 1873 became identi- 
fied with the progress and development of Caldwell county. His 
present homestead was purchased in 1878. This contains 120 acres 
of good land, well adapted for the purposes of stock raising. In the 
conduct of his farm he is meetini; with substantial results. Mr. Lewis 
was married in September, 1877, to Miss Ida E, Van O' Linda, whose 
birth place was in Ohio, Heaven has blessed this union with two 
children, William C. and Anna Grace. Personally Mr. L. is respected 
for his many estimal)le qualities. It should have been mentioned 
before that his father, William H, H. Lewis, was a Pennsylvanian by 
birth, as was also the mother, whose maiden name was Rachel K. 
Dooren, Their family consisted of four children, of whom only two 
are now living, one besides the subject of this sketch, Ephraim E. 
Lewis, a resident of Osage county, Kansas. Allen W. was born in 
Jefferson county. Pa., April 15, 1848, and is therefore in the thirty- 
eighth year of his Mge 



(Proprietor of Mirabile Flouring Mills, Mirabile). 

The subject of this sketch is a Kentuckiiui by birth and bringing up, 
und has inculcated in him the sterling principles of the better class of 
citizens of the Blue Grass State. He was born June 13, 1821, and 
as soon as a suitable age was reached he was placed in school, where 
the opportunities afforded were enjoyed to the best advantage. For 
upwards of 50 years he was actively and successfully occupied in 
farming in Kentucky, or until coming to Caldwell county, Missouri, 
in 1877, at which time he purchased an excellent farm on section 16, 
of this township, which is still in his possession. In February, 1885, 
he bought the Mirabile Flouring Mills, a mill which is supplied with 
three run of stone and fitted in other respects in a thorough and com- 
plete manner. The work here turned out is remarkably satisfactory, 
and the patronage which has been attracted to this place for milling 
purposes is steadily being increased. If close application and study 
of the wants of his customers will serve to make a permanent success 
of this mill, then Mr, Morris need have no fear as to the outcome of 
his venture. His endeavor is to please and keep up with other insti- 
tutions of a like luiture. March 10, 1842, he was married to Miss 
•Catherine Denney, also of Kentucky nativity, and to them four chil- 
dren have been born: James H., Mary A., wife of William Rice; 
Charles and David T. The father of Mr. M. came from Virginia to 
Kentucky at an early day, and while an orphan boy. His wife was 
formerly Miss Rachel Mounce, of Kentucky. Mr. and Mrs. John 
Morris are members of the Baptist Church. 


(Farmer and Stock-Raiser, Section 24, Post-Office, Kingston). 

In the early settlement of the State of Kentucky, among the fami- 
lies who were closely identified with its material affairs, and associated 
with its progress and development, were the Morrises. A respected 
representative of this family is found in the subject of this sketch, 
who was born on April 10, 1827, in the Blue Grass State. Like so 
many of the substantial citizens of this county at the present time he 
was initiated into the mysteries of farming from the very first, and 
this has since continued to be the calling to which his attention has 
been directed in life. In 1858 he became located in Caldwell county, 
and has here made for himself a finely improved farm of 260 acres. 
This is fitted with all necessary and convenient buildings, etc., and 
well adapted to the purposes of stock raising, which he makes a speci- 
ality. During the war this portion of the county suffered to a consid- 
erable extent from the depredations of those who claimed to be either 
Federal or Confederate soldiers, but in truth, men who made a cloak 
of their devotion to one side or the other as a pretense for robbing 
and even murdering unoffending people ; however, Mr. Morris es- 


caped without serious harm. To his wife, formerly Miss Nancy Kerr, 
he was married October 16, 1849. She is a Kentuckian by birth. 
Their family circle includes six children: James F., Charles I., 
Robert M., Catharine Isabel, Henderson E. and William A. Mr. and 
Mrs. Morris are members of the M. E. Church South. Amons: their 
acquaintances and friends the respect shown them is in full keepinp^ 
K'ith their well established reputation for hospitality, and true sincere 


CGeneral Merchant and Post-master, Mirabile'). 

The mercantile interests of this portion of Caldwell county have 
been ably represented for several years by Mr. Morris, first at the 
time of his connection with Mr. G. H. Treat, and since then he has 
carried on his own well known business house. It was in 1880 that he 
came to Mirabile and formed the partnership with Mr. Treat which 
existed for two years. In 1882 this relation was dissolved and Mr.. 
Morris opened a stock of goods which he has continued to keep up. 
General merchandising, of course, necessitates the carrying of a varied 
assortment of goods, but in his stock Mr. M. has a variety which 
cannot fail to satisfy every want of his patrons. In 1883 he was ap- 
pointed jDostmaster of the place, a position he still holds. James H. 
Morris, a Kentuckian by nativity, was born May 6, 1843, in Wayne 
county, of the Blue Grass State, Growing up there he commenced 
his mercantile career in a store at Mill Springs, conducting a business 
of no inconsiderable importance until Ai)ril 1878, when he came to 
Missouri. Immediately he became occupied in agricultural pursuits 
in this county, continued it for two years and then entered into busi- 
ness at Kidder, and soon after was compelled to suffer a severe loss 
in the destruction of his place by fire. Satisfied of the superiority of 
Mirabile as a business center over Kidder, he located here in 1880, as 
before mentioned. The business which he now enjoys has increased 
from time to time, as it is still doing. Mr. Morris is the husband of 
an estimable wife — Miss Amanda Van Hoozer, a native of Kentucky^ 
their marriage having taken place January 8, J870. They have two 
sons living, John Frank and George. One boy, Willie, is deceased. 
The Mon-is fttmih'^, as is well known, have been prominent in the 
affairs of Kentucky for many years. They were originally located in 


(Farmer and Stock-raiser, Section 15, Post-offlce, Mirabile). 

The military record of Mr. Mylar as given below would naturally 
lead one to suppose that he is descended from some gallant old fight- 
ing stock, and such is the case, for his great-grandfather, Ezariah 
Mylar, an intrepid soldier in the Revolutionary War, was one of the 
participants in the storming of Stony Point, under that eminent com- 
mander, Gen. Anthony Wayne. The grandparents of Isaac were 
Robert and Ann (Wilson ) Mylar, and his parents were Joseph and 


Sarah Mylar, iiee Taylor. The former was born in the present 
county of Clarion, Pa., March 30, 1807, went to Ohio in 1828 and re- 
mained there until comini:; to this county in 1868. His marriasje 
occurred January 6, 1831, his wife having been the daughter of Col. 
Isaac Taylor, who was himself a cousin of old "Rough and Ready." 
She died October 28, 1873. Mr. M. has had six children, four of 
whom are living. Isaac S., the second son in the family, claims 
Wayne county, O., as the place of his birth, the date of which was 
October 21, 1833. Taught farming as an occupation, he continued it 
until August 14, 18(52, when he enlisted in Co. H. 120th Ohio volun- 
teer infantry. At Snaggy Point the regiment Avas nearly annihilated, 
over 600 men laying down their lives on that battlefield, and only 
about 130 escapins:, the combat lastins: but 20 minutes. The few 
men that were left were then united with the 114th Ohio, and with 
that command Mr. Mylar served until the close of the war. He was 
discharged at Houston, Tex. Though havino; entered the service as 
private, for gallantry and meritorious service he was promoted to a 
second lieutenancy. Among the battles in which he was engaged 
were Chickasaw Heights, Arkansas Point, Siege of Vicksburg, 
Mobile, Ft. Blakely, and others of less importance. He received a 
wound at Vicksburg. Returning to his home in Ohio, crowned with 
the laurels of a noble soldier, he engaged in building principally until 
coming to this county in 1868. Shortly before this Mr. M. had been 
married to Miss Elizabeth Stevenson, July 3, 1866. She was born in 
Pennsylvania but brought up in Ohio, where she was engaged in 
teaching;. After their marriage each taus^ht school for a term in this 
county. Mr. Mylar has been township assessor and collector. His 
farm embraces 70 acres of well improved land. He and his wife have 
two children: Edward T. and Mettie Belle. 


CPost-office, Kingston), 

In a very early day in the history of this country members of the 
family from whom Mr. Orr is descended left England and took up 
their location upon this side of the Atlantic. Any one at the present 
day who is acquainted with the history of Pennsylvania is familiar in 
a measure with the Orr family, for they have inhabited a section of 
that country from the time of its earliest settlement. Mr. John Orr 
was the second child in a family of seven children. He was of Irish 
origin on his mother's side, though his father was a native of Arm- 
strong county. Pa. They resided in this latter State until 1825 
when they removed to Holmes county, O., there rearing their chil- 
dren. Young John, born in Armstrong county, September 15, 1812, 
was 12 years of age when his parents went to Ohio. He was not 
favored with many opportunities for attending school and consequently 
his educational advantages were quite limited, the greater part of his 
time being occupied in farming and handling stock. In this latter 
industry he was very extensively interested before coming to Caldwell 


county, Mo., a movement which occured in 1865. At that time he 
located where he still resides, his home place containing 220 acres of 
land well adapted for stock raising purposes as well as for general 
farming. An abundant snpply of water for stock is an important 
feature of the place. Mr. Orr also owns 440 acres in other parts of 
the county. September 1, 1836, Miss Sarah Haley, of Ohio, became 
his wife, but she died in 1854 leaving a family of seven children: 
Rebecca, widow of Isaac Walters, of Kingston township: Joseph, 
Elizabeth, died in 1878: Elennett, died in 188.4; Benjamin, James 
Haley and John S. (now dead). His second marriage was on Octo- 
ber 6, 1857, to Miss Prudence Crisswell, daughter of Jehu Crisswell, 
who was a brave soldier in the War of 1812, and who survived toja 
good old age, enjoying the respect of all who knew him. By the last 
marriage there are live children, William, Mary A., wife of George 
Houghton; Sarah, now Mrs. Robert Morris; Ida T. and Charles C. 
Doul)tless no man in tliis county is more universally respected than 
Mr. Orr. To know him is to have a high admiration for him, for he 
is possessed of those sterling characteristics which make a true man. 
Genial and hospitable in his intercourse with those around him, he has 
a host of warm friends. 


(Farmers and Raisers of Thoroughbred and High Grade Durham Cattle, Horses, etc., 

Section 27, Post-oflace, Mirabile) . 

To the stock industry of the various townships in the county must 
be given a large share of credit for the reputation which Caldwell 
county enjoys as a wealthy, progressive community. And to those 
leading men who have contributed so materiallv in the building up of 
this reputation should be extended the sincere thanks and good-will 
of the persons who have been benetitted by their course. Prominent 
in ;dl movements relating to stock the Paxton Brothers have- become 
so well known that nothing need be said bv us as to their reliabilitv 
and responsibility. On the excellent farm of these brothers, known 
as " Rural Retreat," embracing in its extent 410 acres of a superior 
quality of land, may be found an extensive herd of thoroughbred cattle 
and high graded Durhams. To the raising of horses much attention is 
also given. In fact, all of their interests in the stock line are result- 
ing only in an increase of the wealth and sul)stantial character of both 
James and Thomas Paxton. They are the sons of James D. and Marv 
E. (Ritchie) Paxton, who came from Kentucky to this county in the 
spring of 1850. The Paxtons were originall3^of Scotch-Irish descent, 
three brothers moving in 1745 from Pennsylvania to Rockbridge 
county, Va. From there a branch of the family moved to Kentucky 
in about 1800, residing there until their location in Missouri. James 
D. Paxton and wife had seven children, six of whom are living: Sal- 
lie A., wife of James M. Kemper; William R., Robert D., James R., 
Thomas and Benjamin F. Mr. P. died Dcceml)er 23, 1863, his birth 
having occurred Fel)ruary 27, 1806 ; his wife, who was born October 


8, 1815, died August 16, 1878. Besides the property mentioned the 
Messrs. Paxton own 190 acres of choice hind in the vicinity. James 
R. Paxton is an influential member of the M. E. Church South, in 
which he holds the position of clerk. A more extended genealogy of 
the branch of the Paxton family to which the subjects of this sketch 
belong has been given in a former publication by the publishers of 
this work, — the " History of Clay and Platte Counties, Mo.," pp. 961- 
964, to which we would refer our readers. 


(Farmer and Stock-raiser, Section 12, Post-office, Kingston). 

Mr. Peddicord is one of the most extensive land owners in Caldwell 
county, having an estate which comprises 765 acres. This land is of 
an excellent quality and besides being devoted to general farming, is 
admirably adapted for the purposes of a model stock farm. To the 
feeding of stock quite a large interest is given and he aunually has 
upon his place cattle which are being fattened for market. His 
improvements also are above the ordinary and are worthy of mention. 
Probably no man in the county has traveled more extensively or is 
better posted on matters of general information than Mr. Peddicord. 
In his travels he has visited many portions of the West and Southwest, 
and is thoroughly conversant with the geography of this portion of 
our country. He, too, is numbered among the men of Kentucky 
nativity who are so closely connected with the farming interests of this 
county. Born in Clark county, of that State, Februarj'- 5, 1834, he 
remained there until 1856, when he accompanied his parents to Pettis 
•county, Mo. His father, Nathan Peddicord, was a native of Maryland, 
and his wife, formerly Nancy Dawson, was a Virginian by birth. 
They had a family often children, of whom Thomas was the eighth. 
Leaving Pettis county in March, 1858, he at once identified himself 
with the future welfare and prosperity of Caldwell county, which has 
continued to be his home, a period now of some 27 years. Mr. 
Peddicord's wife was also born in Kentucky, — Miss Caroline Jones, 
whom he married on the 4th of August, 1861. Thej'^ have five 
children: Mertie, Minnie, Gertie, Willie and Johnnie. 


(Mirabile) . 

For several years past Mr. Piatt has been a resident of this place 
engaged as a salesman in the mercantile establishment until lately 
conducted by Mr. Geo. H. Treat, frequently mentioned elsewhere in 
this work. Previous to entering upon his present position he had been 
occupied for 16 years in teaching school, a profession in which he 
displayed a talent of no mean order, proving himself to be possessed 
of thorough, substantial learning which he did not fail to impart to 
those under him. Mr. Phitt's career as a soldier is deserving of men- 
tion. At the age of 17 he left the farm on which he had grown up 


and offered himself :is a volunteer in Capt. Johnson's com[)aiiy, of the 
Missouri Home Guard. In this command he had his left knee injured 
while on drill, and after being honorably discharged he returned to 
his old home in Ohio, but subsequently came again to Missouri in 
1863. Then he enlisted in Co, H, -iith Missouri volunteer infantry, 
servino; in that command until the close of the war. Durin": his term 
in the army he was a participant in numerous engagements, among 
others those of Nashville, Franklin and Mobile. Leavinor the field of 
battle, Mr. Piatt now came home, and for some time following trav- 
eled south, becoming well informed on matters pertainiijg to the 
communities through which he passed. It was after this that he 
commenced teaching as stated above. Mr. P. is now a little past the 
age of 41 years, having been born June 28, 1844, in Coshocton 
county, O. He was partly educated in that locality and in 1857 
came to this county, where he supplemented his primary instruction 
with attendance at the schools here. As is well known these advant- 
ages were appreciated. April 4, 1867, he was married to Miss Mag- 
gie L. Zener, whose birthplace was in Jefferson county, Ind., and to 
them three children have been born, Eflie, Sadie and Thomas. Mr. 
and Mrs. Piatt are members of the Protestant Methodist Church. 
The former, from the time of his connection with Mr. Treat, has 
borne himself in a manner which has redounded not less to his own 
credit than to the profit of the establishment. Of extensive acquaint- 
ance gained l)y long residence in the vicinity, and his own personal 
popularity, he is recognized as a man ever ready to aid or encourage 
any enterprises having the improvement of the commonwealth at 
large in view. The announcement of the death of Mr. Treat on the 
30th of January, 1886, of disease of the brain, was the occasion of 
universal sorrow. Reference is made to this occurrence in another 
portion of this volume. 


(Farmer and Stock- raiser, Section IG, Post-Office, Cameron). 

John Renfrew, a respected resident of this county for over 25 
years, and a man of extensive and popular acquaintance, was l)orn in 
Richland county, O., Ji'uuary 16, 1824. In eiirly life his time was 
divided between working upon the home farm and attending the com- 
mon schools of the period, where he pursued the studies which he 
could learn with great assiduity. Upon reaching the age of 22 he left the 
(dd home and went to Iowa, where he remained until 1854, his loca- 
tion having been in Benton county of that State. Returning to Ohio 
in 1854, he resided there until coming to this county in 1860, and 
since that time his career has been so intimately interwoven with the 
development and growth of the community as to give him an almost 
unlimited familiarity with its residents and their habits and customs. 
He is a laro-e land holder, owniuir an estate of 340 acres, which he de- 
votes almost exclusivelv to the raisinij of stock. For over 35 vears 
the worthy companion of Mr. Renfrew has been permitted to share 
with him the joys and sorrows which have tempered his walk in life. 


She was formerly Miss Hester J. Johnson, and their marriage occurred 
in Coshocton county, O., November 2, 1848. Four of their chil- 
dren are living: James P., a sketch of whose life appears herewith; 
Emily J., wife of James W. DeGeer ; Mary E., now Mrs. L. W. De- 
Geer, and Hessie Lou. Mr. R. in former years held the position of 
registering officer for quite a period. 

James Philander Renfrew, referred to above, and whose present 
homestead is on section 17, of this township, is closely associated with 
tiie agricultural affairs of Caldwell county. He came here with his 
parents, John and Hester J. (Johnson) Renfrew, in 1860, and has 
made his home in this vicinity ever since that time. He accompanied 
the family on their various moves, as mentioned previously, though 
but five years of age when they went to Richland county, O., from 
Benton county, la., where he had been born August 31, 1849. 
During his residence in the county he has been engaged in agricultural 
pursuits, and with substantial results. He was married August 31, 
1871, to Miss Julia Ellen, daughter of Dr. BlacL, of Mirabile, who 
became a citizen of Caldwell county in 1867. Their three children are 
Rufus O., John A. and Lillian Emma. Mr. Renfrew is a man of 
recognized ability in this community, and has served his township in 
various capacities. In 1872 he was appointed registrar, besides which 
has held the position of assessor, etc. He and his estimable wife are 
esteemed and genial members of society. 


(Farmer and Stock-raiser, Feeder and Dealer, Section 13, Post-office, Kingston) . 

Among those in this township who are, and for some time past have 
been, giving their attention to the stock business as a principal part of 
their farming interests, there is no man more prominently associated 
with that industry than Mr. Rhea. When it became necessary for 
him to start out in life for himself, he very naturally and wisely chose 
the occupation to which he had ])een reared, and from that time to the 
present his success has been such as only a thorough acquantance with 
his calling and years of experience might lead him to achieve. About 
five miles west of Kingston is situated his pleasant homestead and ex- 
cellent farm of 560 acres, the improvements of which are by no means 
of an inferior order. Well adapted to the stock business, Mr. 
Rhea has endeavored to carry on quite extensively the feeding and ship- 
ping of stock at his place; and as intimated, he is recognized as a 
leader in this line hereabouts. It was in 1876 that he located in Cald- 
well county from Illinois, his native State, so that his residence here 
covers a period less than ten years. His birth occurred in Sangamon 
county, of the Prairie State, December 11, 1831, and there he was 
brought up and educated, following agricultural pursuits as an avoca- 
tion. Mr. Rhea was married February 12, 1857, to Miss Bettie 
McCausey, a native of New York, and a most estimable lady. The 
names of their three children are: Charles, William and Emma, one, 
Marv, being deceased. Mr. R. is a member of the Masonic Order. 



Ill all worthy movements of ii nature calculated to benefit the commun- 
ity at iarofe he is found amonff the leaders. 


(Farmer, Post-offlce, Mirabile). 

The present landed estate of Mr. Sackman extends over 270 acres, 
comprising a choice farm on which he has resided for many years. 
The improvements are all of a sul)stantial character. His knowledge 
of this county and acquaintance with its residents date from a very 
early period of her history. When only eleven years old he was 
brought by his parents from his native home in Richland county, O., 
to Caldwell county, Mo., and here he has grown up, identifying him- 
self with all matters tending to the advancement of the community in 
which he has so louir made his home. As has been intimated, he was 
born in Richland county, September 28, 1828, and on the 29th of 
August, 1852, was married to Miss Sarah E. Bozarth, a Missourian by 
birth, and an early settler to the county. A family of seven children 
born to this worthy couple are now living: John F., Martin D., 
Parmelia E., wife of W. W. Clevenger, a sketch of whose life is given 
in another portion of this work : Isaac W., Cora Y., now Mrs. David 
A. Henderson ; Homer B. and Ella J. Mr. and Mrs. Sackman are 
connected with the Christian Church. 


(Farmer and Stock-raiser, Section 2, Post-offlce, Cameron) . 

Joseph H. Stoner, one of the most highly respected and deservedly 
popular citizens in Mirabile township, was born October 27, 1842, and 
is a native of Tiffin Citv, O. AVhen about 18 years of age he bciiau 
the occupation of marble cutting, but after the bursting of the cloud 
which so long hovered over and about the people of the two sections, 
enveloping them in civil strife, he shouldered his musket in defence 
of his country and enlisted in the three months' service in April, 
1861. In the following September he volunteei'ed as a three years' 
soldier, and at the expiration of that term of service he veteranized 
in 1864, continuing in active duty until the close of the war. His 
first enlistment was made into Co. C, 15th Ohio volunteer infantry, 
then the 40th Ohio volunteer infantry, in Co. F, and in that regiment 
also when it veteranized. While in the service he was made hospital 
steward. Among the engagements in which he took such an active 
part were the battles of Shiloh, Stone River, Chicamauga, Kenesaw 
Mountain, Resaca, and Atlanta, in all 26 regular encounters, besides 
numerous skirmishes. At Shiloh he received a severe wound. His 
discharge was dated at Victoria, Tex., in December, 1865, Re- 
turning now to Ohio, Mr. Stoner remained there following his former 
calling until 18()6, when he came to Missouri and located in a com- 
munity devoted almost exclusively to farming. In 1868 he settled 

I ' 1 • 

where he at present resides, purchasing a homestead which contains 


300 acres of a quality of land unexcelled by any in this vicinity. The 
improvements upon the place are complete and neat in all respects. 
Stock-raising, in conjunction with his farming operations, he is 
making a specialty. In all his transactions Mr. Stoner is of unques- 
tioned integrity. Industrious, honest, and not afraid of honorable 
work, he is the possessor of many warm friends. 


(Dealer iu General Merchandise, Mirabile) . 

In including in this work the sketches of prominent business men 
of Caldwell county, none are more deserving of recognition than that 
of George H. Treat, a man who for 19 consecutive years, has carried 
on an extensive mercantile establishment at Mirabile. He has been 
engaged in trade for a longer continuous period than any other man 
in the county, having come here in 1866, at which time the business 
which has since been maintained with such remarkable success was 
inaugurated. Since 1883 he has conducted it alone, but previous to 
that time he had been in partnership with James H. Morris and others. 
The confidence and respect which have ever been shown Mr. Treat 
are almost unlimited. His personal popularity is due doubtless to his 
genial courteous manner and considerate attention to the wants of his 
customers, though in social life he is no less a favorite. His stock of 
general merchandise is one of surprising extent, and the patronage 
Avhich he enjoys is not confined entirely to this locality but reaches 
over a large section of the country. Upon examination we find that 
the family of which our subject is a representative came originally 
from England, settling in this country in an early day. George was 
born in the town of Trenton, Oneida county, N. Y., a short distance 
from Holland Patent, in 1827, February 13. Owing to the death of 
his mother when quite young, a home was found for him with 
Josiah Owens, in a place called Steuben. Here he remained until 
disability caused by exposure and rheumatism, led him to embark in 
the art of photography. This he followed until 1851, and in that 
year turned his attention to merchandising, first clerking for a Mr. 
Watkins of Prospect. From 1852, and for three years thereafter he 
made his home in Martinsburg, but in 1855 he took up his residence 
in Fond du Lac, Wis. His career from that time on has been as 
follows: He remained in various parts of Wisconsin until 1858, then 
returned to Holland Patent, going thence to Prospect, and in 1860 
commenced the mercantile business again at Holland Patent. In 
1864, he once more sought a home in Wisconsin, and was interested in 
agricultural pursuits until 1865. Then up to 1866 he lived in New 
York, but in the year mentioned first came to Missouri. Upon a 
thorough and careful observation he chose his present location as the 
scene of his future home, and in a business point of view, at least, the 
fondest anticipations which he then harbored have been more than 
realized. Mr. Treat was married June 27, 1866, to Miss Josephine E. 
Treat, a lady of rare personal appearance, highly accomplished and in 


every respect worthy of her husl)aiKl. She was a native of Adrian, 
Mich., and a daughter of David and Sarah (Davis) Treat, also of 
Michijjan. One of their children is livinor, Harrv H. One daughter, 
a twin sister to Fred, is deceased. Fred L. died Januar}' 22, 1886, in 
his eighteenth year, of congestion of the brain, after a short illness of 
less than a week. 

[Since the above was written, we have heard of the death of Mr. 
Treat, an occurrence which cast over the community that sorrow which 
is only felt when a good man dies, when a useful man of society is 
taken away. January 30, 1868, a little after the death of his son, he, 
too, was called to that world from which no one has ever returned. — 


(Farmer and Stock-raiser, Section 11, Post-office, Kingston). 

The career of Mr. Whitmer is one which has been passed without 
any especial departure from the pursuit of farming; and as far as his 
acquaintance with this county is concerned, perhaps no one is more 
familiar with it, for it is his birthplace. Born here on the 26th of 
May, 1844, he was educated at the common schools of this vicinity, 
and from his very birth has been closely associated with the county's 
growth and identified with its interests. His parents were John and 
Sarah M. Whitmer, nee Jackson, both from Ohio, in which State Mrs. 
W. was born and brought up, though her husband was a native of 
New York. After their marriage in Ohio they came to this county in 
1833, being among the very first families to locate in the community. 
This continued to be their home for many years and during the time 
of their residence, the agricultural affairs of Caldwell county were 
worthily represented by Mr. Whitmer and his noble companion. 
The father died in 1878, the mother in 1872. The son, Jacob Whit- 
mer, now occupies the farm which they had improved. On the south- 
west corner of this place there can be seen at this writing (1886) the 
excavation and some of the rock intended for the old Mormon Temple, 
to be known as Far West. This estate embraces 216 acres of choice 
land, with superior improvements. The dwelling is a tasteful one, 
surrounded with flowers and beautifully arranged lawn, plainly 
indicating the home of enterprise and culture. Perhaps this is not 
to be wondered at when we consider Mr. Whitmer' s natural charac- 
teristics. He is of German origin, his grandfather, John Whitmer, 
having come to America with his parents at an early day in the settle- 
ment of the Mauch Chunk Valley. Representatives of the family 
have since settled in various places. Mr. W. was married April 27, 
1871, to Miss Celia Tatarshall, who was born in HornelUville, N. Y., 
but accompanied her parents to this county in 1868. One son, Harry, 
has been born of this union. 




General Description — Origin of the Name of Poor Tom Creek — Coal — The Hamilton 
Coal Company's Works — Early Settlement — First Land Entries — Organization — 
The City of Hamilton — General Historical Sketch — The " Firsts " — Miscel- 
laneous — Incorporations — Churches — Secret Orders — District Fair Associa. 
tion — Biographical. 

I^milton township comprises Congressional township 57, range 28. 
No more beautiful tract of land six miles square can be found in the 
State. The surface is of the same general character as the other town- 
ships of the county, but the northern and central portions are excep- 
tionally fine and fertile, and were originally prairie. 

Mill creek in the western portion, and Tom creek in the eastern, 
both flowing south into Shoal, are the principal streams. 

Tom (or Poor Tom) creek was named from the following circum- 
stances. At a very early day a party of bee-hunters, or honey- 
hunters, from Ray county, were up in this township, and on this 
little stream found a number of fine bee trees. A young man, a son 
of one of the hunters, was with the party, who camped one night on 
the stream. The young man had eaten very heartily of the delicious 
honey taken that day, and during the night was attacked with a 
species of colic, or " honey-founder," as the hunters called it. His 
groans and contortions alarmed his fond father, who sat by him until 
morning, exclaiming at every groan " Poor Tom ! Poor Tom ! " 

The roarings of the young man and the exclamations of his fond 
parent greatly disturbed and annoyed the other hunters, who believed 
the case not a serious one, and occasionally one of them would mutter, 
*' to the devil with his ' poor Tom ! ' why don't he give him a drink 
of turkey oil, and then make him stop his noise? " The next morn- 
ing " Tom " had recovered, and as the men were breaking camp one 
of them inquired the name of the stream, and when informed that it 
had never been named he said, "Well, let us call it ^ Poor Tom' 
creek," and the stream has borne that name ever since. 

There is an abundance of timber and stone in the southern part of 
the township, and good brick clay on every section. One feature of 
Hamilton township, which is also characteristic of Gomer (if not of 
other townships), is the fine, well kept roads. These run along almost 



every section line, and the supervisors and citizens made a point of 
•seeing to their keeping. 


The great bed of coal which it is believed underlies the greater por- 
tion of Caldwell county is especially prominent in Hamilton township. 
The existence of the valuable mineral here was long ago asserted by 
geologists in accordance with certain well known facts, but recent in- 
vestigation and developments have settled the question — if it ever was 
a question — beyond controversy. 

In the spring of 1882 the Hamilton Coal Company was organized 
with a view of prospecting for coal in this township. Of this company 
N. C. Gibson was the first president, and from him 320 acres of land 
were leased. In the fall of 1883 the company was chartered, with a 
capital of $14,000, which, in the spring of 1884, was increased to 
$30,000. The president of the company under the first charter was 
J. F. Colby. 

In the spring of 1883 the company began sinking a shaft on the 
s. V2 sw. V4 of section 26, and in November following struck a 26- 
inch vein of coal at a depth of 306 feet from the surface. In August, 
1884, the company put up buildings and machinery at the shaft for 
the purpose of working the mine to its best advantage, and since that 
time the mine has produced from 1,200 to 2,000 bushels of coal daily. 
In the spring of 1885 a switch railroad was built from the Hannibal & 
St. Joseph Railroad, half a mile west of the Hamilton depot, to the 
mine, two miles distant. The railroad company owns the iron, and the 
coal company the rest of the track. 

The coal is of superior quality. It burns brilliantly to a white ash 
leaving no '♦ clinkers," and has large heat and gas-producing power. 
Careful analysis show that for all practical purposes it is very valuable, 
and experience demonstrates that it gives entire satisfaction to con- 

The company owns the coal in the following tracts : — 

Description. Purchased From. Acres 

a. ^ 8W. sec. 26 N. C. Gibson 80 

s. ^ sw. sec. 23 N. B. Bell 80 

n. ^sw.sec.23 J.W.Harper 80 

8. ^ se. sec. 22 E. S. Low 80 

ne. \ sec. 23 J. W. Harper 160 

w. ^ ne. I nw. | sec, 23 J. W. Harper 20 

n. I se. sec. 22 J. W. Harper 80 

nw. I sec. 22 Eli Townsend 160 

Total number of acres 740 

There are about fifty employes in the company's service, who board 


in a building erected by the company. The present officers of the 
company are: Frank Clark, president; Dan. Booth, secretary; J. N. 
Morton, treasurer; J. W. Harper, superintendent. Following is a 
section of the main shaft ; — 





blue limestone. 




soft limestone. 


shale, with 4 or 5 inch rock seams 



black slate. 


sandy shale. 




spotted hard flinty rock. 


sandy shale. 




gravel . 


soapstone shale. 


full sandstone. 


coarse sandstone. 


flint seams. 


" Kimball" soft paint material. 


soapstone shale. 


hard limestone. 


" Kimball " soft paint material. 


hard flint. 


fine-grained sandstone. 





black slate. 




fire clay. 


gravel . 


fine sandstone. 

A mile east of Hamilton, near the railroad, a boring has been made 
and it is said coal in largely paying quantities has been found at a 
depth of 360 feet. A shaft is now being sunk, and at least apparent 
preparations are being made to develop the mine extensively. The 
owners are, however, ver}'^ " close-mouthed," and it is said to be ex- 
tremely difficult, if not impossible, to learn anything of their real in- 
tentions, or much concerning the real character of their property. 


Perhaps the first settler in what is now Hamilton township was 
Nathaniel Marsh, a Yankee, who located three miles northwest of 
Hamilton (on section 4 ) near the Daviess county line, in the spring 



or summer of 1837. It is both affirmed and denied tliat Marsh was 
originally a Mormon, with a strong probability that he was not. 

It is certain, however, that during the Mormon occupation of the 
county a few settlements were made in this township by the Mormons. 
There were two or three cabins on Mill creek in 1838, and in the fall 
of 1837 there were two cabins and clearings on Poor Tom, where the 
Hamilton and Kingston road crosses the stream — one on each side of 
the stream. The land was entered by Roswell Stevens and John 
Harvey, but it is not certain that they made the settlement. Stevens 
was a wealthy Mormon, who entered several tracts of land in various 
portions of the county for the benefit of his more indigent brethren. 

Following were the land entries made in this township prior to, the 
year 1840 : — 

jVame. Description. Date. 

John H. Morehead . . . . n.i ne. sec. 1 Sept. 23, 1839 

.... Oct. 16, 1837 

.... Sept. 30, 1837 

.... Sept. 21, 1837 

.... Nov. 3, 1837 

.... Nov. 16, 1837 

.... Julv 20, 1837 

.... Sep't. 21,1837 

.... Nov. 25, 1837 

.... Nov. 25, 1837 

Roswell Stevens e. t nw. sec. 34, e. ^ nw. sec. 36 . . June 24, 1837 

.... Nov. 22, 1837 

.... Aug. 16, 1838 

.... Dec. 13, 1839 


Nathaniel Marsh w. ^ nw. sec. 4 

Philo Dibble w. ^ sw. sec. 8 

Isaac Harablin e. ^ sw. sec. 8 . 

Jaraes Plunter ne. sw. sec. 17 . 

Oliver Freeman se. nw. sec. 20 . 

E. S. Stevens sw. sw. sec. 26 . 

Wm. Frye w. i sw. sec. 31 

Caleb W. Lyons sw. nw. sec. 32 

John Lyons se. nw. sec. 32 

John Harvey ne. sw. sec. 35 

Ransom A. Beecher .... se. sw. sec. 35 . 
Chas. Patton w. ^ ne. sec. 35 


As stated in the sketch of Kingston township the first organization 
of the municipal township of Hamilton was in November, 1867, when 
it ran from the countv line on the north to Shoal creek on the south, 
but, its present boundaries were defined in the general township 
reorganization in May, 1870. Of course it was named for the city 
of Hamilton. 

Following have been the municipal officers of the township since 
the last organization in 1881 : 

1881 — Trustee, Jacob F. Naugle ; clerk, L. M. Love; collector, 
S. A. Mooney ; justices of the peace, S. M. Young, H. W. Mark- 
ham; constable, B. F. Pickell. 

1883 — Trustee, J. F. Naugle; clerk, Thos. Laidlaw ; collector, 
Wm. Wagonseller ; justices of the peace, H. W. Murkham, J. W. 
Knapp; constable, B. F. Pickell. 

1885 — Trustee, D. G. McDonald; clerk, Moses Nevitt ; collec- 
tor, Wm. Wagonseller; justices of the peace, J. W. Knapp, L. D. 
Van Volkenburgh ; constable, Wm. Altman. 



Up to the fall of 1854 the site of the present city of Hamilton was 
unbroken prairie, covered in the warm seasons with tall, waving 
grass and other wild verdure, luxuriant pasture for the wild deer, and 
rarely traversed save by hunters and sportsmen. The nearest house 
was Nathaniel Marsh's three miles to the northwest. The land be- 
longed to the United States. 

In the early fjill of 1854 after the line'of the projected Hannibal & 
St. Joseph Railroad had been surveyed and located where or near 
where it now is, certain gentlemen formed a " town company," for 
the purpose of locating and building a town or towns on the line of 
the road in this and other counties. It was at first contemplated to 
build a town some miles east of where Hamilton now is, near Nettle- 
ton, and it was expected to purchase the land of its owners. 

But in the fall of 1854, Mr. Albert G. Davis, then a resident of 
Mirabile, concluded that a certain tract of land in this quarter had 
never been entered, and was still owned by the Government. He de- 
termined to investigate the matter, knowing that land could be en- 
tered much cheaper than purchased from private owners. The town 
company had already entered the land on both sides of the suspected 
non-entered tract, which, it was generally believed, belonged to the 
railroad company. So, one evening, Mr. Davis set out from home 
and about 9 o'clock the same night he succeeded in finding the section 
corner between sections 1 and 2, township 57, range 28. Having 
with him a rope and some stakes, he set up the latter and stretched 
the former in a line with Polaris, or the north star, using the 
"pointers" to aid him, in a manner understood by surveyors. 
Stretching taut his, rope and making it fast, he repaired to the house 
of Mr. Marsh and spent the remainder of the night. 

The next morning Mr. Davis returned to his rope and stakes, and 
keeping a course due south at first, for three miles, finally surveyed 
section 13 and found, true enough, that the southwest quarter was un- 
entered. He immediately sent his nephew, Tilton Davis, to the land 
office at Plattsburg, and had the tract entered in the name of Edward 
M. Samuel, of Liberty, the president of the town company. Not 
long afterward the company decided to locate the town here. 

Ill the spring of 1855, 40 acres (w. V2 se. and e. V2 sw. sw. 
section 13) was laid off into lots and blocks. The land was held by 
Mr. Davis as trustee of the town company, having been deeded to 
him by Mr Samuel. Eighty acres more outside of the original plat 


were also held by Mr. Davis as trustee. From the best information 
now attainable, the Hamilton Town Company was composed of Ed- 
ward M. Samuel, Greenup Bird, John Berry, Michael Arthur, Simp- 
son McGaughey and Stephen Ritchey, of Liberty ; John Ardingerand 
Ephraim B. Ewing, of Richmond ; Albert G. Davis, of Hamilton ; 
Chas. J. Hughes, of Kingston; Thos. T. Frame, of Gallatin and M. 
Jeff. Thompson, of St. Joseph, and John Buri«ows, of Mirabile. 

It was first intended to name the town Prairie City, but the 
christening falling upon Mr. Davis, he named it HayniUon, partly, as 
he says, in honor of Alexander Hamilton, and partly for Joseph 
Hamilton, a brilliant lawver of olden time, and likewise a gallant sol- 
dier who was killed under Gen. Harrison, at the battle of the Thames, 
in Canada, October 5, 1813, during the late war with Great Britain. 

The first sale of lots was in October, 1855. There was a grand 
time ! The sale had been largely advertised, and a big crowd was in 
attendance. The town company had provided a free dinner and 
plenty of free whisky. A majority of the buyers were soon under 
the influence, felt rich and bid lively. Judge Parrott, of De Kalb 
county, was the auctioneer, and he was a good one. John Berry, of 
Libertv, boujjht the first lot. A larije number of lots were sold at an 
average price of $33. The site was then nearly all covered with high 
grass. Only one house was in the place. But the old road — what 
had formerly been known as the " pioneer trail " — between Kingston 
and Gallatin, passed through the place and the locality had come to 
be well known. The second lot sale was in June, 1856. 

Upon laying out the town the streets were named for the proprie- 
tors, or some of them, as Davis, Ardinger, Hughes, Frame, Burrows, 
Ewing, and Ritchey (running north and south), names they still bear. 
Davis is the principal street running north and south. The first three 
streets north of the railroad runninii: east and west were named Bird, 
Arthur, and Samuel. The street along which the railroad runs is 
named McGaughey; the first south is Berry. 

The first house in Hamilton was built by Albert G. Davis, in the 
summer of 1855. It is still standing, and is a two-story frame, situ- 
ated on lot 2, block 21, of the original town — on the east side of 
Davis street, near the corner of the second block from the railroad. 
The pine lumber of which this house is composed was purchased in 
St. Louis, shipped up the Missouri river to Camden, Ray county, and 
hauled thence to Hamilton by ox teams. The lumber cost, delivered, 
$70 per thousand feet. This house was standing when the first lot sale 
came ofl', Init was unoccupied until April, 1856, wIumi Mr. Davis 




moved his family into it, and this family was the first in the place. 
For a longr time this buildinor was known as the " lone house," and 
was a notable object, standing solitary and alone in the midst of a 
wide expanse of prairie, with scarcely a tree in view. It was used by 
Mr. Davis as a hotel for some time and was called the *' Hamilton 

The second house was also built by Mr. Davis, in the spring of 
1857. It was a log building, and stood on the southwest corner of 
block 28. It was rented by Mr. Davis to Henry Holmes, a German, 
a brickmaker, who lived in it with his fiimily, and who, Mr. Davis 
divers, made the best brick ever made in Hamilton. 

In the spring or summer of 1857, Mr. Davis built the first store 
house in Hamilton. It was a frame, and its location was on the south- 
west corner of block 27. Mr. Davis took on a debt a stock of general 
merchandise which had belonged to John S. Houghton, of Kingston, 
and exposed it for sale in this building. His (Mr. Davis') brother- 
in-law, John H. McClintock, had charge of the store. 

In the fall of 1885, David Buster built a small "box" saloon or 
" grocery," as it was then called, on the southwest corner of block 29. 
In the following spring, he built a dwelling-house, and moved his 
family to the town. Buster was an old settler of the county, and 
located on Shoal creek bottom, northeast of Kingston in about 1840. 
Presley M. Thomas came to Hamilton in about 1858. The second 
merchant was R. F. Owens, of Gallatin, and his store stood a little 
north of the depot ; the building is yet standing. Mr. Owens did not 
remove his family to Hamilton. 

The railroad was completed through Hamilton February 14, 1859, 
iind the first engine came in from the West the very next day. The 
railroad company made a bet with the contractors that they would 
not have the track ready for the engine by St. Valentine's day, and 
the contractors rushed things. Ties were laid on frozen lumps of 
dirt, and the track was cobbled up in every way but a substantial one 
so as to win the wager, which was ten gallons of whisky. The com- 
pany won, and 75 railroaders partook of the wager. The proceedings 
may be imagined ! As originally surveyed the road was intended to 
run one block north of where it was finally located and now runs, and 
this is the reason why the first buildings were located where they 

The first depot was built in the fall of 1859, some months after the 
road came. Albert G. Davis was the first railroad and express agent. 
Prior to the building of the depot he stored the freight in a sort of 


^en near the track, but often he was forced to pile it on the ground 
and hire a guard to Avatch it, until the owners came and took it away» 
The first depot now forms a portion of the western part of the present. 
For a few years after the first settlement of Hamilton, in September 
or October of each year one could go out a mile or so to the heads of 
the hollows and ravines, and find plenty of deer in the tall grass. 
Oftentimes three or more deer were killed daily by the citizens, and 
venison was a staple article of diet among them. But after a time the 
locomotive whistles and the steady incoming tide of immigration drove 
the deer away. Upon the outbreak of the war there were perhaps 25' 
houses and families in the place, and farm houses stood near the town 
on all sides. 


The first post-oflSce at Hamilton was established in 1858. Albert 
G. Davis was postmaster and Wm. P. Steele was his deputy. The 
office was kept in Davis' store. 

Religious services were held in the depot building, before the war, 
and Rev. Eli Penny, Old School Baptist, and Rev. Fine, of the Chris- 
tian church, were the first ministers. Father Hogan (now Bishop), of 
the Catholic Church, visited the place in about 1859, but it cannot be 
learned whether or not he held services at that time. 

The first school of any sort was taught at the residence of Mr. Davis 
before the war by Miss Mary Gartland. She taught the children of 
Mr. Davis, Mr. Buster, and perhaps of one or two other families. 
The first school house, used as such, was a small log building, which 
Mr. Davis moved up to the place from his farm. Two or three terms 
were taught in this building, the average attendance being about 15. 
The second building used as a school house stood on the corner of 
block 30, south and west of the present M. E. Church. 

The first physician was a Dr. Kavanaugh, who was a young man, 
unmarried, and boarded with Mr. Davis. He remained in the place 
but a few months. 

The first resident attorney was Marcus A. Low; the second, Junius 
A. HoUiday. 

The first child born in Hamilton was Joseph Davis, a son of A. G. 
Davis, and the date of his birth is June 13, 1857. The second child 
born in the place was a son of William Williams, a stage driver on the 
Quincy and St. Joseph stage line. Mr. Williams' child was born in 
Davis' Hotel. 

The first death is believed to have been that of a child of James 
Nichols, in 1859. The next occurred the same year, and was that of 


Mr. Davis' negro slsive woman, ** Polly," a faithful and trusted 
servant. The first adult white person that died was a poor Magdalen, 
called Parthenia, who died in 1861. 


During: the Civil War one house was built and one was burned in 
Hamilton, so that the town only held its own during the four years 
from 1861 to 1865. The town was loyal by a large majority, only a 
few '* rebel sympathizers " being in the place, and these were made to 
take the oath of loyalty and allegiance to the Gamble government in 
the fall of 1861. The first Federal troops regularly stationed here 
were a company of the 50th Illinois and some of James' battalion of 
Home Guards. These came in the fall of 1861, and thereafter until 
the close of the war the town was seldom without troops. 

In the fall of 1865 a public school house, costing $1,480, was built, 
and the town began to improve and increase slowly. In 1867-68-69 
it built up very rapidly, and the population increased to several hun- 
dred. The M. E. Church building, the first in the place, was erected 
in 1868 at a cost of $3,700; size of the building 34x60. Its bell, 
weighing 650 pounds, cost $130. The Methodist Protestant Church, 
size 30x45, was finished in 1871, and cost about $3,000. It was occu- 
pied by the Presbyterians half of the time at first. Rev. J. Kennedy 
was the Presbyterian pastor in 1870, and Rev. A. Burr ministered to 
the Protestant Methodist. September 14, 1870, the Protestant Meth- 
odist Conference was held at Hamilton. 

In 1859 Samuel Hill, who owned 40 acres of land southeast of the 
oriofinal town, laid off the tract into lots and called it Hillsboro. 
Afterwards it was called Hill's Addition. In 1867 the Hannibal & St. 
Joseph Railroad Company laid off an addition west of, but adjoining, 
the original town, called the Railroad Addition. In 1868 Samuel's 
Addition was laid out, and the following year Miller's Addition, east 
of a portion of the original town, was platted. All these additions 
have been incorporated into and now form a part of the city of Hamil- 
ton. Miller's Addition was incorporated last, — April 16, 1877, — 
comprising the southeast quarter of the southeast quarter of section 
13, north of the railroad. 

After the depression caused by the panic of 1873 had been lifted, the 
progress of the town of Hamilton was rapid and Substantial. In time 
thefirst small one-story frame business houses gave way to splendid and 
imposing brick blocks, and large and complete stocks of merchandise 
of all kinds were brought in. Every branch of business has been well 


represented. The merchants and business men have uniformly been 
gentlemen of intelligence, enterprise and integrity. They have always 
stood by the town and its interests. Every enterprise for the public 
weal has always been warmly welcomed and substantially encouraged. 
If a railroad was projected anywhere in this quarter, Hamilton, as one 
man, reached out for it. If a church or school house was to be built, 
it was but little trouble to do it. The two newspapers in the place, 
the Neivs-Grapliic and the Hamiltonian, are ever on the watch for 
opportunity to say something or do something for the town, and how- 
ever widely they may difler as to party politics, they are of one party 
and one opinion when the interests of the town are to be considered. 

The merchants and business men, too, are gentlemen of integrity 
and high character, and their reputation in this regard has become 
proverbial. No scandals of defalcation, embezzlement, or breaches 
of faith have ever existed among them, and no complaints of short 
weights, scant measures, and extortionate prices at their hands are 
heard. The financial and commercial standing of the business men 
are first class. Though not millionaires, they are " solid." Nearly 
every man's paper is as good as gold, and his word is as good as his 

Two popular banking houses with ample capital ; two enterprising 
handsomely printed, and really ably conducted newspapers ; two 
splendid hotels whose bills of fare and accommodation are unsur- 
passed in the interior of the State ; a magnificent $15,000 school house, 
numerous church buildings, a commodious, well-arranged public hall ; 
beside steam flour mills, grain elevators, machine shops, splendid 
stores and shops — these are among the institutions that make Ham- 
ilton the busy, enterprising, substantial town that she is — not for- 
getting by any means, her first-class railroad, the Hannibal & St. 
Joseph, which gives her easy and speedy connection with the outside 
world. The present population is not far from 1,800. 


Hamilton was first incorporated by the county court, as a town, 
August 3, 1868, on petition of M. A. Low and others. The bounda- 
ries of the town were declared to be as follows : — 

Commencing at the northeast corner of the southwest quarter of 
section No. 13, in toM'nship 57, range 28 ; ruiming thence south to the 
center of section No. 24, in said township and range; thence west to 
the southwest corner of the southeast quarter of the northwest quarter 
of said last named section ; thence south to the southeast corner of 
the southwest quarter of the southwest quarter of said last named sec- 


tion ; thence west to the southwest corner of said hist named section ; 
thence north to the northwest corner of said hist named section ; 
thence west to the southwest corner of section No. 14, in said township 
and rano^e ; thence north to the northwest corner of the south- 
west quarter of said section 14; thence east to the northeast 
corner of the southwest quarter of said section 13, the phice of begin- 
ning. And that the common in said town is bounded as follows, to 
wit ; On the north by School Street, on the east by Hughes Street, on 
on the south by Park Street, and on the west by Frame Street. 

The first board of trustees was composed of Geo. S. Lamson, 
Anthony Rohrbough, F. P. Low, J. N. Morton, and Wm. Partin. 
The first chairman of the board was F. P. Low, and the secretary was 
Marcus A. Low. 

The town was governed under this incorporation by a board of trus- 
tees until October 5, 1880, when, by a vote of 112 to 21, it was organ- 
ized under the laws of the State as a city of the fourth class, which it 
now is. The mayors under the recent incorporation have been J. F. 
Naugle, to April, 1881; B. M. Dilley, from April, 1881, to Decem- 
ber, 1882; Crosby Johnson, from December, 1882, to May, 1885; 
and S. M, Young, from Ma}^ 1885, to the present. The city clerks 
have been B. M. Dilley, E. D. Eearden, E. G. Dildine, and L. M. 
Love. The city's affairs have been admirably managed, and at pres- 
ent the corporation is entirely out of debt and has a considerable sum 
in its treasury. 


M. E. Church. — The first organization of this church dates from the 
year 1867, and the following year the buildimr, a frame, was erected 
at a cost, including the bell, of near by $4,000. The pastors have 
beon Revs. J. G. Thompson, H. S. Beardsley, H. Chadeayan, W. G. 
Fowler, A. M. Brown, L. V. Ismond, J. W. Bovee, Isaac Hill, Wm. 
Hanley, W. F. Clayton, W. H. Welton, Thos. Wolcott, A. H. Pow- 
ell and D. H. Johns. Two notable events in the history of the church 
are the revival meetings in 1878, when 127 new names were placed on 
the church rolls, and the rebuilding of the parsonage in 1884, which 
was accomplished at a cost of $675. At present the church numbers 
155 members, the Sabbath-school 100 scholars, both in effective work- 
ing condition. The latter is superintended by R. G. Dildine. 

Christian Church. — In the fall of 1865, Elder Samuel Rice organ- 
ized a conorreo-ation of the Christian Church at Hamilton, with but 17 
members. Services were held somewhat irregularly until 1873, when 
the organization failing to be self-supporting, they were abandoned. 
In 1873, Elder James Whitt came to Hamilton to make his home, and 


soon after his arrival he interested himself in oriUherins: toorether the 
faithful members of the Christian organization, and services were held 
in private houses until in July, 1876, when a reorganization was 
effected with 35 members. In 1878, a frame church was erected 
which cost about $800. Although the organization has never had a 
regular pastor, the following elders have ministered to it, viz. : Revs. 
James Whitt, P. R. Claypoole, S. P. Johnson, W. S. Trader, John 
F. Jordan and L. A. Engle. The present membership is 85. 

Baptist Church. — The first Baptist Church of Hamilton was organ- 
ized in 1868. Rev. B. Whiteley, W. P. Withers, I. C. Griffing, E. 
H. Green, James Highland, Frances Whiteley and Nancy Bustee were 
the original members. The church building, a frame, was built in 
1877, at a cost of $2,000. The pastors have been Revs. B. White- 
ley, W. H. Dolby, F. J. Leavitt, J. E. Petty, T. S. M. Kenney, and 
W. G. Thomas. Present membership, 139. The Sabbath-school has 
80 scholars and is superintended by Dr. P. N. Norton. 

Congregational Church. — The history of the first Congregational 
Church of Hamilton may thus be summarized : It was organized Sep- 
tember 25, 1868 ; original members, Rev. Wm. Wilmott, Clara E. 
Wilmott, Nancy M. Perkins, Leonidas Keck, Sarah E. Keck, Mar- 
garet M. Courter, Benj. Livermore, Mary Livermore, Ebenezer 
Foster, John B. Tattershall, Mrs. Gee and Mrs. Barnes; the church 
house, a frame, was built in 1870, at a cost of $2,200, and dedicated 
May 8, of that year, the dedicatory sermon being preached by Rev. 
E. B. Turner, then the State superintendent of mission churches ; 
pastors, Revs. Wm. Wilmott, G. G. Perkins, Thos. T. Wicks, B. P. 
West, L. E. Danks, and R. J. Matthews ; present membership, 33. 
The Sabbath-school has 45 members, its being superintendent Rev. R. 
J. Matthews. 

Episcopal. — Trinity Protestant Episcopal Church of Hamilton had at 
one time 14 communicants, but this number has been reduced by deaths 
and removals to three or four. Some of the first members were Mrs. 
Geo. Reddie, Mrs. Brosius, and Miss Alma Clark. The church build- 
ing was erected in 1870, and consecrated April 28, 1871, by Rt. Rev. 
Bishop Robertson. It is a frame and cost, including the site, about 
$1,400. Rev. J. H. Waterman and Rev. Moore have been the pastors 
who have served the church. 

Presbyterian. — The first Presbyterian Church of Hamilton was 
organized in April, 1867, the constituent members being William and 
Lucinda Gil)son, George and Mary Wilson, Wm. G. and Lucinda 
Stewart, Andrew and Elizabeth King, S. P. AVilson, Saml. Quick, 



Mis8 Mary McAdoo, and Jane Collins. The pastors have been Revs. 
J. P. Fox, Joel Kennedy, Wm. M. Reed, T. C. Armstrong, J. C. 
Young, and H. W. Rogers. Present membership, 76 ; number of 
scholars in the Sabbath-school, 113; superintendent, W. T. Lindley. 
The church building is a frame. 


Royal Arch Chapter. — Hamilton Chapter No. 45, A. F. and A. 
M., was chartered October 8, 1868. The original members were Wm. 
Wilmot, high priest ; W. Griffin, king, W. P. Withers, scribe ; John 
Courter, W. W. Orr, J. S. Orr, J. L. Filson, J. J. Squire, H. J. Post, 
and John B. Sherman. The present membership is 55. 

Masonic Lodge. — At one time there were three Masonic bodies in 
Hamilton, viz. : Hamilton Lodge No. 224, Hamilton Chapter No. 45, 
and Kadosh Commandery No. 21, beside Eastern Star Lodge No. 122. 
The commandery, however, has been removed to Cameron. Hamilton 
Lodge No. 224 was instituted by Grand Master John D. Vincil. The 
dispensation was issued June 25, 1867, and the charter October 14th 
following. The charter members were Willis Griffin, master; Wm. 
Partin and Wm. G. Stewart, wardens; Geo. S. Lamson, treasurer; 
Otis B. Richardson, secretary ; S. G. Anderson, chaplain, Howard F. 
Baker and A. J. Bessmer, deacons ; T. P. Ward and Albert G. Davis, 
stewards; and F. W. Burt, H. H. Houghton, J. M. Kemper, Marcus 
A. Low, Cortland M, Morrow, B. F. Van Buren, Geo. S. Wilson. 
The present master is Joseph W. Harper and the secretary is A. R. 
Torrey. The lodge meets in a good hall and has a membership of 65. 

Odd Fellows. — Eden Lodge No. 190,1. O. O. F., was chartered 
May 28, 1868, the charter members being James McAdoo, noble 
grand ; W. W. Giles, vice grand ; J. H. Nunn, secretary ; Wm. Echel- 
berry, treasurer ; A. Kindig, Isaac R. Esteb, and a few others. The 
present membership is 90, and there is no better lodge in the State 
than this. It meets in a hall of its own, which cost nearly $2,500. 
The present noble grand is J. A. Austin ; the vice grand, F. M. Mas- 
ters ; the secretary, C. H. Lampton, and th*^ treasurer, T. H. Hare. 

Hamilton Encampment No. 77, was organized May 24, 1874. 


This association, which is such a prominent factor in the enterprise 
of Hamilton, was organized November 18, 1882, at a meeting held in 
Anderson's hall. The first board of directors was composed of Chas. 
McCrary, of Daviess county; E. P. Tiffin, of Ray, J. N. Rozzell, of 


Breckinridge township, Caldwell county ; Irji Houghton :inil E. H. 
Craig, of Fairview ; Joab Houghton, of Kingston; T. D. George, of 
Lincoln ; James Cowgill, J. S. Orr, J. W. Harper, R. D. Paxton, 
Joseph Anderson, and J. F. Spratt, of Hamilton. 

The first executive officers were J. S. Orr, president ; J. W. 
Harper, vice-president; A. C. Menefee, secretary; J. F. Spratt, 

Ten days after the organization of the association, it purchased 70 
acres of land for grounds, for $3,000 ; but afterwards sold 30 acres 
to George Thompson, and March 1, 1883, bought 40 acres more 
(sw. nw'. sec. 13-57-28) for $1,710. 

The first charter of the association was issued April 27, 1883, and 
under it the capital stock was $7,225. A dividend of ten per cent 
was declared on the first year. August 18, 1884, the charter was 
amended and the stock declared increased, under the law, to $10,000. 

The first fair of the association was held August 28, 29, 30, and 
31, 1883. The receipts were $2,740.68, and the premiums paid 
amounted to $1,548.30. The receipts from all sources the first year 
of the existence of the association were $9,9U0.36, and the expendi- 
tures $9,331.92, leaving a balance in the treasury at the end of the 
first year of $624.44. 

At present the association is in excellent condition financially. It 
owes no man a cent, and has money in its treasury. It has recently 
expended $700 in the improvement of its driving track, and its build- 
ings are valued at $3,000. 

The officers for 1884 were J. W. Harper, president; J, S. Orr, vice- 
president; R. B. Houston, treasurer; the first three named composed 
the executive committee. The directors were C. L. McCrary, J. W. 
Harper, J. S. Orr, J. F. Spratt, A. C. Menefee, R. D. Paxton, R. G. 
Whitman, J. N. Rozzell, J. A. Crane, James Cowgill, T. D. George, 
E. P. Tiffin, Jos. Anderson. 

The officers for 1885 were R. G. Whitman, president; Jos. Ander- 
son, vice-president; J. F. Spratt, treasurer; A. C. Menefee, secre- 
tary. Directors — J. S. Orr, Ira Houghton, Jos. Anderson, Geo. 
Gurley, Jno. F. Spratt, R. D. Paxton, Chas. McCrary, J. N. Rozzell, 
C. S. Crane, T. D. George, W. G. Merryman, Geo. F. Rogers, R. 
G. Whitman. 

The officers for 1886 are Joseph Anderson, president ; James Cowgill, 
vice-president; J. F. Spratt, treasurer; A. C. Menefee, secretary. 




(Farmer, Section 7, Post-office, Kidder) . 

Though now in his sixty-ninth year, Mr. Allen is well preserved 
in mind and body, active to a remarkable degree, and as energetic 
and industrious as many men at 40. His entire life has been one 
of activity and perseverance and not without the substantial 
rewards which must necessarily follow such close application. 
His fine farm embraces 360 acres of land, on which is one of 
the best orchards to be found in the county. This land is 
being cultivated to advantage. Mr. A. was born in Surry, N. H., 
October 6, 1816. His father, also Abel Allen, had in his family four 
sons and three daughters, of whom two sons and two daughters are 
still living:. Youns; Abel worked on the home farm until he reached his 
majority, receiving in the meantime as liberal an education as could 
be obtained at that early day. March 27, 1842, he was married to 
Miss Lucinda S. Mackintosh, of Canton, Mass., a granddaughter of 
Roger Sherman. She died March 2, 1850, leaving four children : 
Abel, Jr., Theodore P., Delana A., and Lucinda S., all living save 
the last named, who died at the age of 27 years. In 1853 Mr. Allen 
came from New Hampshire to Columbia county. Wis., where he was 
engaged in farming until 1868, then settling in Caldwell county, this 
State. December 24, 1851, he was again married. Miss Harriet Rob- 
bins, of Acton, Mass., becoming his wife. The fruits of this second 
marriage are two boys, George W., who died in infancy, and Moses 
G. Mr. Allen was clerk of the town of Leeds, Columbia county, 
Wis., for eiojht vears during his residence there. He is a man of 
liberal views and his wife is a lady of culture and refinement. They 
are respected by all. 


(Dealer in Stock, Hamilton). 

It is a fact to be deprecated that there are those people in every 
community who do not appreciate the influence exerted by the public 
school system of the present day, expressing the opinion that be- 
cause they have gotten through life well enough their children need 
not waste time in endeavoring to obtain something which will not 
prove of practical benefit. At the same time another class must not 
be lost sight of, those who, by their aid and encouragement, do much 
to build up and promote excellence in study in these schools. Such a 
man is William Altman, who, though in possession of a good farm and 
comfortable competence, has removed into Hamilton for the ex- 
press purpose of permitting his children to attain to such knowledge 


as comes within the limit and scope of the city school. Mr. Altman 
was born in Holmes county, O., September 5, 1847, his father being 
Elijah Altman, a Pennsylvanian by birth. His worthy companion was 
formerly Miss Mary Beck, of Ohio nativit3\ Leaving the State of his 
birth when 12 3'ears old, William moved to St. Joseph county, Ind., 
where he was brought up as a farmer's boy. His home continuecl to 
be in that lociditv until he came to Hamilton, Caldwell county. Mo., 
in 1869. Here he owns a farm of 240 acres, land unexcelled for fer- 
tility and adaptation to stock interests. In his stock l)usiness Mr. 
Altman displays a thorough acquaintance with his animals, and he is 
reputed a man cautious and safe in all transactions. His present pos- 
sessions have been gained entirely through his own unaided efforts. 
In 1871 he was married to Miss Anna Jones, who came originally from 
Pennsylvania, and to them two daughters have been born, Rosabelle 
and Mattie J. It is needless to say that these girls fully appreciate 
the advantages which they now enjoy. Mr. A. is a member of the 
I. O. O. F. 


(Carpenter and Contractor, Hamilton). 

In this county and the country surrounding it are many fine build- 
ings, models of architectural skill and beauty, such as only a thorough 
master of his trade could expect to erect. None, however, show to 
better advantage, or are finer specimens of mechanical ability, than 
the Hamilton school building, a structure built l)y Mr. Atherton. 
Besides this he has constructed many others of less importance. His 
chosen calling he learned in Boston, whither he had sone from his 
native home in Maine for the especial purpose. A New Englander by 
birth and bringing up, he was born in Waterford, Oxford count}'. Me., 
March 25, 1820. William was the eldest of ten children born to 
Crombie and Mar}'^ (Wheeler) Atherton, his parents also having been 
natives of the Pine-tree State. After fully preparing himself for car- 
pentering and contracting, William left Boston in 1857 and went to 
St. Paul, Minn., which continued to be his residence for four yeai's. 
Returning eastward, he settled in Pennsylvania, Veiumgo county, and 
remained there until coming to Caldwell county. Mo., in September, 
1866, — nearly 20 years ago. Since then he has been prominently 
interested in the building prosperity of the county, and the personal 
pride which he has always manifested in his work has doulitless been 
a great cause of his popuhu'ity as a contractor. Mr. Atherton was 
married in 1865 to Miss Elizabeth B. Seeley, of Wayne county, N. Y. 
Francis M., May I. and Edith are the names of their three children. 
In his religious belief Mr. A. is a Universalist. He is connected with 
the I. O. G. T. 



Prominent among the citizens of Hamilton, as well as of Ca Idwell 
count}', Mo., stands the name of Austin — a prominence arising from 


personal worth as well as from distinguished family connection and 
honorable ancestry. Jacob Austin was a native of New York State 
and always made it his home ; he was a farmer by occupation, and a 
man whose ideas of farming were of the most advanced type. His 
wife's maiden name was Theresa Allen, also of New York nativity, 
and a woman well worthy to have been the companion of such a hus- 
band. Among the children born to them was the subject of this 
sketch, a son whose early impressions were at once directed towards 
the channels of agricultural pursuits. His birth occurred in Oneida 
county, N. Y., January 9, 1825, and until 1865 Mr. Austin remained 
among the scenes of his childhood. In that year he came to Missouri 
and selected a farm site in New York township, this county, where 
he purchased 700 acres of land. Here he continued to give his atten- 
tion to farming and stock raising for 12 years. In 1869 his superior 
intelligence and fine abilities became recognized by the numerous 
friends whom he had gathered around him in his new home and he 
was elected county judge, a position the duties of which he dis- 
charged for four years, and in such a manner as to give assurance to 
honorable people that they had the right man in the right place. 
When eflbrts were put forth to start the Hamilton Savings Bank he 
took active part in its organization and was subsequently made its 
president, his recognized financial judp""^-^*"^ in matters of business 
rendering him a most suitable o^' ... in that capacity. The entire 
life of Judge Austin has been one upon which he can look back with 
pride and satisfaction, for it has been attended with the substantial 
success which only comes of close application and energetic effort to 
works chosen. At this time he owns 30 acres of land adjoining 
Hamilton, on which he has erected a commodious and attractive 
dwelling and other necessary and convenient buildings. It is a fact 
worthy of mention that upon first coming here his course in the erec- 
tion of such substantial improvements was severely criticised by the 
very persons who have since adopted his ideas in regard to home 

comforts and surroundings. Judae Austin excels in one thing if in 

no other — obtaining the best prices for the produce, etc., that he 

may sell. He is a plain, unassuming farmer, but of sound, practi- 
cal judgment, and highly respected by every one. December 25, 
1853, he was married to Miss Irene Graves, an estimable lady, who 
was born in Jefferson county, N. Y. They have had three children : 
Fred, now at Osborn ; Ella, the wife of Joseph Anderson, Esq., a 
leading citizen of Hamilton ; and Albert. The judge is a member of 
thel. O. O. F. 


(^Farmer, Section 7, Post-office, Hamilton). 

The intelligence of any community is greatly augmented by the 
advanced educational facilities which it sustains ; and it is a well 
known fact that to a limited few is due the credit of keeping up and 
supporting an educational interest in a town or county. Caldwell 
county is fortunate in numbering among her citizens one who has 


given much attention to the advantages afforded for the youth of her 
various districts to attend school. He comes from a state recoiriiized 
for her intellectual worth — New York — having been born in Madi- 
son county, September 23, 1838. Of four children born to his parents, 
Moses and Ruth (Miles) Baldwin, he was the youngest, and much of 
the responsibility of the duties of the home farm were placed upon 
him. His father was a native of Massachusetts, and as his adopted 
calling in life followed the plow. Upon his place William was reared 
to manhood, great pains being taken with his early training; his 
education was obtained in the common schools. The outbreak of the 
late Civil "War caused him to enter the Federal army and for three years 
he was a meml^er of Co. G, 157th New York infantry ; with 
that command he participated in the battles of Gettysburg, Chancel- 
lorsville, bombardment of Fort Sumter on Morris Island, and others. 
Subsequently he returned to New York and made his home there 
until January 1, 1870, when he came to this county. His farm em- 
braces over 92 acres of land and is conducted in a manner character- 
istic of most Eastern farmers, its improvements being neat and 
convenient. Mr. Baldwin was married in May, 1865, to a lady 
originally from the same county as himself — Miss Ophelia Watson. 
She died, however, in September, 1869, leaving one son, William W. 
In 1870 Miss Etta P. Alden became Mr. B.'s second wife, and to 
them three children have been given, EttaF., Minnie D., and Charles 
C. Mr. Baldwin is a member of the G. A. R. 


(Farmer and Stock-raiser, Section 16, Post-office, Hamilton). 

It is a recoo-uized fact that among those who have made their home 
in this county the men of foreign birth have contributed their full 
share to the development and prosperity of a community known as 
one of the best in this portion of the State. And it is also apparent 
that those of English nativity have occupied no inferior position in all 
matters tending to the improvement and continued progress of Cald- 
well county. Mr. Bennett is a man who has come up in the affairs of 
life solely through his own individual efforts. Born in England, 
March 14, 1831, he passed his youth and early manhood there and in 
1855 emigrated to the United States, where he commenced to carve 
out a career which has been of great credit to him. Landing at New 
York, he soon settled in Adams county. 111., living there for eight 
years, and afterwards became located in Hancock county, of the same 
State. Some five years later, or in 1871, he removed to Caldwell 
county. Mo., where he has since been engaged actively and indus- 
triously in farming and stock raising. He owns 160 acres of excellent 
land, with good improvements, and is managing it in a careful, 
thorough manner. The stock interest is receiving a considerable part 
of his attention. Mr. Bennett's wife is also of English ancestry and 
birth. Her maiden name was Betsey A. Gibson, to whom he was 
married in 1856. They have a f;imily of 11 children : Harriet, 


wife of Hiram Smith; James, Elizabeth, wife of William Howard; 
Mary A,, now Mrs. L. Eckelbery ; William, John H., Minnie, Sadie, 
Effie, Nancy, .Jane and Mertie. One son, Frederick Thomas, was 
poisoned at the age of 9 by eating berries. Mr. Bennett is truly one 
of the well respected men in this township, and by his quiet, unpre- 
tentious course has made many friends, and at the same time been 
very successful. 


(Cashier of the Hamilton Savings Bank, Hamilton) . 

Though now only in his forty- fifth year, Mr. Bpoth is recognized as 
one of the substantial citizens of Hamilton. He has become possessed 
of a comfortable competence, and his career in later years has been a 
repetition of the history of his earlier life — one of energy, persever- 
ance and close adherence to the chosen channels of business life. Un- 
til long after reachins; manhood Mr. Booth was enjjaged in following 
agricultural pursuits, the calling to which he had very naturally been 
reared by his father, John Booth, a man well known in the commu- 
nity where he resided and one recognized for his success as a farmer. 
He was a Virginian by birth and in early life married Miss Elizabeth 
Radcliif, who became the mother of Daniel. He was the fifth child' 
ill a family of six children, his birth occurring in Vinton county, O., 
where his father had permanently located, May 25, 1841. This con- 
tinued to be his home for many years, his time being passed without 
any events of special importance until 1872. His education was an 
ordinary one, such as the common schools afforded, but his oppor- 
tunities were appreciated to the best advantage. In the year just 
mentioned Mr. Booth decided to come AVest with his wife, whom he 
had recently married, and upon reaching this county settled here on 
a farm. Before leaving Vinton county, however, he had been selected 
by the citizens of the county as a person well fitted for the position of 
sheriff. For four years he discharged the duties of, this office \Tith 
marked efficiency and with credit. In 1881, becoming possessed of a 
desire to enter more actively into business life, he removed to Hamil- 
ton and was subsequently largely instrumental in establishing the bank 
with which he is now connected as cashier. Its president is Crosby 
Johnson, a well known and influential resident of this place, and the 
capital stock of the bank amounts to $50,000. Good dividends are 
annually paid on the stock represented. Besides his portion in this 
institution Mr. B. is considerably interested in merchandising, being 
connected with two of the large mercantile establishments of Hamilton. 
As a business man he is regarded as safe, reliable and prudent, and his 
success is largely due to the caution which he has ever exercised in his 
transactions. It was in October, 1871, that his marriage to Miss 
Helen Pugh occurred. She was the daughter of E. B. and Cassandra 
Pugh. Mr. and Mrs. Booth have a family of two children : Lizzie and 
Bertha. In his political preferences Mr. B. is Democratic. 




(Farmer, Post-office, Hamilton) . 

In endeavoring to trace the ancestry of Mr. Bowman we find that 
as lar back as can be gone he is of Swiss origin — that is to say his 
great-grandfather, Driiry Bowman, was himself of Swiss descent. His 
son was born in England, and was the husband of a lady of German 
birth. To them was born Vincent Bowman, the father of Alston. 
Vincent Bowman's birthplace was in Amherst, Va.,and after reaching 
manhood he married, Miss Jane McLean becomins: his wife. She was 
a native of Westmoreland county. Pa., and a daughter of Charles and 
Elizabeth McLean, nee West, who after their marriage continued to 
make their home in Westmoreland county for many years. The 
father of Charles McLean came originally from Ireland, and survived 
to a remarkable old age, dying when about 100 years old. Alston 
Bowman, the eldest of his parents' family of nine children, was born 
June 18, 1818, in Nicholas county, Ky. In that State he passed his 
time in attendance at the primitive schools of the period and at such 
work as he could accomplish upon the home farm until 12 or 14 years 
old, when he accompanied his parents to Brown county, O. This 
continued to be their home for about five years, the next settlement 
being made in Marshall county. 111. For 31 years Mr. Alston Bow- 
man lived in that county, following the life of a farmer. His career 
during that time was one unmarked by other than ordinary events, 
but at the same time, not without substantial results. In 1865 he 
came to Caldwell county, Mo., and almost immediately engaged in 
the lumber business at Hamilton, conducting a successful trade for 
quite a while. But disposing of his interests in this business he again 
turned his attention to agricultural pursuits, and to this he has since 
devoted himself. Though residing in town he has in his possession 
360 acres of good land which is now being cultivated. Mr. Bowman 
has passed the allotted age of three score years and ten, but time has 
dealt gently with him, and he bids fair to see many more summers. 
He and his worthy wife are among the truly respected residents of this 
place. Mrs. Bowman was formerly Miss Johanna Story, a native of 
Fleming county, Ky. The names of their four children are Ambrose 
M., Albert L., Emily M., and Charles M. 


(Dealer in Books, Stationery, Toys, Confectionery, etc., Hamilton). 

The success which has attended the career of this young business 
man is something remarkable, and the position to which he h^s risen 
since commencing for himself is one which a person might feel satisfied 
to enjoy after many years of business life. Upon establishing his 
house Mr. BorofF had but $300, but this small amount was invested to 
good advantage and has brought many returns. So prosperous has 
he been, and such ability has he displayed, that in 1885 he was en- 


abled to erect a new brick building, 44 x 80 feet in dimensions, the 
lower floor of which is devoted to two attractive store rooms. And 
on the floor above he has supplied a long felt want in the opening of a 
skating rink, the floor of which is of hard maple, and as all lovers of 
the sport know the best material to be found for skating purposes. 
Mr. Boroff was born at Dayton, O., March 3, 1858, his parents also 
being natives of the Buckeye State — Henry and Margaret Boroff", nee 
Downer. The former was a mechanic by occupation. Of their family 
of five children Charles was the youngest. He was brought up in 
Ohio as a farmer's boy, but upon coming to this county in 1878 he 
engaged in the book business, which he has since conducted, and 
with the substantial results already referred to. Personally Mr. 
Boroff is held in even higher esteem, if such a thing is possible, 
than in business circles, and all concede that he merits his success. 


(Hamilton) . 

To omit at least an outline of the life of Dr. Brown's father, George 
Brown, would be an error greatly regretted, for although he was not 
identified with the interests of Caldwell county for as long a period as 
many, yet the memory he left and, above all, the worthy family of 
children which survive him, renders it most desirable that his name be 
favorably mentioned. George Brown was born May 4, 1822, in Vin- 
ton county, O. In growing up he was taught the rudiments of farm 
life, a calling to which he ever adhered, and with results far from 
beinof unsuccessful. In 1847 he married Miss Jane Wilkinson, of the 
same county as himself, and they continued to remain there until re- 
moving to Caldwell county, Mo., in 1873. Mr. Brown departed this 
life January 13, 1880, leaving a family of a wife and five children to 
mourn the loss of one who had been to them a loving husband, father 
and counsellor. Their names are Tinsley, Lyman D., Howard J., 
Riley W. and Emma J. One son, Irvin, died July 25, 1874, when 
22 years old. At the present time the three brothers of Dr. Brown 
are engaged in the conduct of a shoe store in this place. Tinsley 
Brown first saw the light of day December 23, 1849, in Vinton 
county, O., in the same house in which his father was born. His edu- 
cation was carefully watched over by his father and in addition to the 
primary instruction received in the common schools of his native 
place he obtained a course of study in the Normal School at Bloom- 
ington, 111. It may have been this insight into advanced books of 
learning which caused him to adopt the profession of medicine as his 
calling in life. Howbeit, he read under the supervision of Drs. R. 
Ressegrews and Mitchell and subsequently was admitted as a student 
into the Missouri Medical College in 1874. After graduating in 1876 
he began practicing in Caldwell county, continued it one year and then 
went to Kansas, where he remained eight months. In order to better 
qualify himself and attain to a more thorough knowledge in his pro- 
fession. Dr. Brown attended lectures in New York during the winters 


of 1880-81, and since that time has been in his present location. His 
qualifications as a physician are well known, in fact too much so to 
need any words of praise from us. He is connected with the Cald- 
well County Medical Association, Grand River and Missouri Medical 
Associations, and the American Medical Association. May 18, 1881, 
the Doctor was united in marriage to Miss Hettie I. Martin, of Ham- 
ilton, Mo., who was born in Van Buren county, la., June 15, 1858. 
She died November 1, 1883, leaving two children, Merle and Hettie I. 
The latter died January 5, 1884. 


(Of the firm of Cash, Cowgill & Co., Dealers in Dry Goods, Clothing, Boots, Shoes, 

Hats, Caps, etc., Hamilton). 

Robert S. Cash, the second of four sons in the family of Alburn W. 
and Eliza A. (Robinson) Cash, was born in Christian county, Ky., 
August 10, 1851. His father's l)irth occurred April 18, 1814, in 
Amherst county, Va., from which locality he subsequently removed 
to Warren county, Ky., and later on to Logan county, of the same 
State, where he attended to a large practice acquired by incessant 
labor in the medical profession. His wife was a native of Christian 
county, Ky. The names of the brothers of Robert S. were James F., 
Dudley F. and Oscar O. Robert directed all his energies to farm 
work in the county of his birth until 17 years old, when, May 1, 18f)9, he 
removed to Caldwell connty. Mo., his journeying here being somewhat 
different from the manner in which he might make the trip at the 
present day. Now it was that he began the career which has been 
one of special note in recent years. Eager and willing to do for him- 
self, he commenced working as a farm hand for Mr. Thos. D. George, 
and while in his employ, with indomitable energy and industry, 
attended school during the winter seasons, subsequently entering as a 
student the Kirksville Normal School. Mr. Cash worked for Mr. 
George some five years, then entering into partnership with him in 
the stock ])usiness, which was continued for two and a half years. 
The dry goods business next received his attention, and at Breckin- 
ridge he opened out a store with Mr. J. D. Thompson, May 8, 1878, 
the firm i)eing known as Thompson & Cash. After a period of about 
two years and eight months its style was changed to Russell, Cash & 
Trosper, and a year later it became Cash, Trosper & Co. In 1882 
Mr. Cash came to Hamilton and at this time the present establishment 
of Cash, Cowgill & Co. was formed, a house without a superior in the 
commercial circle of this or adjacent counties. These gentlemen are 
both men of strict business capacity, tiioroughly posted in everything 
that goes to make up a representative business establishment. Their 
stock embradls the latest and finest goods contained in the various 
lines carried, including dry goods, clothing, carpets, boots, shoes, 
hats, caps, etc., and these are placed at a price within the reach of all. 
Surely in the perusal of such a life history will be found encouragement 
for all, and especially for young men. With only his individual merits^ 


by moral and commercial rectitude, by prompt attention to business, 
he has already — at the age of 34 years — attained to honorable dis- 
tinction as a merchant and an untarnished name in commercial circles. 
Thus soon has he carved success on his youthful banner. Mr. Cash 
belongs to the Baptist Church. He was married October 3, 1882, to 
Miss Pattie E. Vaughan, whose natal place was Estill county, Ky., 
born in 1859. Her parents were James W. and Mary E. Vaughan. 
They have one son, who bears his father's name. Mr. C. is a mem- 
ber of the A. F. and A. M. His wife is connected with the Christian 


(Farmer and Stock-raiser, Section 31, Post-office, Hamilton). 

Considering that Mr. Catron is still a young man, and that he began 
for himself with but little means, his career has been a more than 
ordinarily successful one. At the age of 36, he is now quite a prop- 
erty holder in this county, all his possessions having been accumulated 
by persevering and incessant industry. He owes his nativity to Cald- 
well county, N. C, where he was born January 20, 1849, being one 
of 10 children which blessed the union of John and Elizabeth (Dula) 
Catron. The father was a Virginian by birth. The mother was born 
in Caldwell county, N. C. The names of the other members of the 
family were Virginia, Mary, now Mrs. Pfost; Thomas, Corrana, now 
Mrs. Turner ; James, Sophia, now Mrs. Bliss ; Laura, Fice, and one, 
John, deceased. In 1866 the parents became located in Clay county, 
Mo., from which they removed to this C(ninty two years later — in 
1868. The home farm embraces 250 acres, cultivated in a manner 
which only comes of thorough knowledge of farm life and a deep ex- 
perience in matters pertaining to agriculture. Mr. Catron, Sr., died 
in 1875 but the mother is still living, an estimable lady and respected 
by all who know her. W. F., as the eldest son in the family, has full 
charge of the fiirm. He is unmarried. Of the raising of fine horses 
he is making a specialty and he has some excellent animals on his place. 


(Proprietor of the Hamilton Flouring Mills, Hamilton). 

Mr. Clark is conceded to be one of the leading spirits of Caldwell 
county. His father, Henrv Clark, was a native of Rhode Island, and 
by occupation a miller. The history of this man in the capacity of 
milling, as well as other branches of business, shows him to be pos- 
sessed of great energy and business tact, qualities which have de- 
scended to his son to a remarkable degree, added to which is the fact 
that his industry, prompt attention to business and shrewd, legitimate 
transactions in the affairs of the world, have secured him a situation 
that other and more experienced men have failed to attain. Henry 
Clark was married after reaching manhood to Miss Aurilla Eldredge, 
of Connecticut birth, and of the family of children which she bore 
three are living, Frank, Elmer E. and Wilbur J. The former accom- 


panied his parents to Missouri In 1870. He was born in Vernon, Tol- 
land county, Conn., October 22, 1852, and from a very early period in 
his existence devoted himself to milling, an occupation the minutest 
details of which he thorouo;hlv understands. Since 1874 he has 
carried on business for himself. When his father first came to Cald- 
well county he purchased the Hamilton Mills, then owned by Mr. 
Austin. These mills had been erected and fitted by John Sigman, 
Esq., who sold to Mr. Austin, and the latter, as stated, to Mr. Clark. 
In 1874, Frank Clark bought the interest of his father in the mill, and 
has since conducted the well known Hamilton Mills with signal 
success. On September 28, 1878, a fire destroyed this propeity, but 
in six months after Mr. Clark, not to be discouraged l)y this unfort- 
unate mishap, had them soon rel)uilt and in running order. In 1882 it 
became a full roller mill, and at this time has a ca[)acity of turning 
out 125 barrels of flour per day, the quality of which is well and fav- 
orably known, being surpassed by none in Northwest Missouri. It 
meets with a ready sale, the demand more than equaling the supply. 
In addition to this interest he deals extensively in grain. Mr. Clark 
is one of the organizers of the Hamilton Coal Company, of which he 
is now President. He was married October 22, 1874, to Miss 
Nettie L. Eldredge, who was born in Connecticut. Mr. C. is a 
Knight Templar in the Masonic order. No man has been more pros- 
perous in the accumulation of wealth than Mr. Clark, and he certainly 
has as much energy as any one in the county. A good miller, an 
excellent financier and salesman, he is ever readv to aid to the utmost 
any movement which he thinks will tend to benefit Hamilton. 


(Farmer aud Dealer in and Breeder of Poland-China Hogs and Sliort-IIorn Cattle, 

Section 15, Post-office, Hamilton). 

Every life has a history of its own ; and although in appearance it 
may seem to possess little to distinguish it from others, yet there are 
marks and characteristics which give a distinct individuality. A 
marked activity has been noticeable in the career of Mr. Clem. He 
was the son of Noah and Magdaline Clem, nee Ridenour, the former a 
native of Virginia, and was himself born in Allen county, Ind., De- 
cember 2, 18ll. The seventh child and second son of eleven living 
children, he was brought up to a farm experience, following it in 
connection with the raising of stock in the State of his birth until 
coming to Caldwell county, Mo., in October, 18G5. From that time 
to the present his life has been one of energy, close application and 
steadv adherence to his chosen calling. His farm consists of 403 acres 
of excellent land, well suited to the successful conduct of a stock 
business. A person would have to go a long way before finding a 
herd of cattle superior to the twenty-five head of thoroughbred Short- 
horns which he owns. These eml)raco representatives from the well 
known families of Goodness, Daisies, Rultys, Lady Elizabeth, Mistress 
Mott and others, all of which are registered when over one year old. 


In the breeding of Poland-China hogs much care is given to secure 
only the best breed to be obtained. These animals are also registered 
in the American Poland-China Record. At the head of the Short- 
horns is a Bracelet, Bracelet Duke IV (61,820), sired by Vice 
Count Oxford VII (49,489). Mr. Clem's judgment in matters per- 
taining to stock is everywhere recognized for its true worth. Of thor- 
ough-o-oino: habits, his success is natural. He belongs to the A. O. U. 
W., in which he is a Select Knight. Mr. C.'s wife was formerlv Miss 
Minerva J. Grove, to whom he was married October 26, 1869. She 
was born in April, 1850, in Caldwell county, and is the mother of 
six children: Nora E., Nathan M., Robert E., Noah R., Edith 
and Ira. 


(Of the firm of J. F. Colby & Co., Lumber Dealers, Hamilton). 

A native of Springfield, Sullivan county, N. H., Mr. Colby was 
born February 18, 1823. To one acquainted with him it might be 
readily supposed that he was brought up in New England, for there 
is something about a person from that portion of the country which is 
at once known wherever observed. In 1832, or when about 9 years 
old, he accompanied his parents to Connecticut, and from that State 
to Rhode Island, where young Colby remained until attaining to man- 
hood. At the age of 18 he commenced to learn the mercantile and 
manufacturing business, in one or the other of which he has since been 
engaged. In 1868 he came to Missouri and settled in this county, 
soon embarking in the lumber business, which he carried on for some 
time alone. But at this writing his son, William F. Colby, a young 
man of recognized business capacity, is associated with him. Their 
stock is large and complete in all lines and their yard is one of the best 
appointed on the line of the Hannibal & St Joseph Railroad. They 
command an extensive trade from a long distance in every direction, 
and in addition to their lumber interests carry full assortments of 
building material, hair, lime, plaster, cement, as well as doors, sash, 
blinds, mouldings, etc., selected to give the best satisfaction to their 
patrons. Mr. Colby was largely interested in the organization of the 
Hamilton Coal Company, and in view of his labors in this direction 
was made president of the company. He has been three times mar- 
ried, his first wife, formerly Miss Adaline Foskett, of Charlton, Mass., 
having died in 1862. William F. Folby was the issue of this union. 
His second marriage was to Miss Caroline Johnson, of Rhode Island 
nativity, whose death occurred in 1868. In 1870 Mr. C. was mar- 
ried to Miss Mary Newton, who was born in Bolivar, Allegany 
county, N. Y. Three children have blessed this union: Alice, Eliza- 
beth and Emma. 

William F. Colby owes his nativity to Rhode Island, where he was 
born January 23, 1856. He came with his father to Missouri in the 
year above mentioned, and has since been with him in the business 
which they are now so successfully conducting. His marriage to Miss 
Libbie Van Winkle was consummated June 24, 1884. She was born 
in Ohio. 



(Fruit-grower and Nurseryman, Section 4, Post- ollice, Hamilton). 

To successfully conduct any business it is very evident that one 
must not only keep thoi-oughly posted as to advances made in different 
callings, but it is necessary that additions to the qualities and varieties 
of various articles should be made. This is as true in fruit-growins: 
and the nursery business as in any other occupation, and it is with 
pardonable pride that Mr. Cole can point to the progress made in his 
pursuits since his location here. He owns 100 acres of" land a part of 
which is devoted to the nursery business and the raising of fruit and 
vegetables, in the latter of which he is unexcelled. His nursery em- 
braces stock of all varieties adopted to this section and soil, and there 
is a constant increase of new varieties. Mr. Cole was born in Por- 
tage county, O., April 14, 1827, and was the son of Jedadiah and 
Elizabeth Cole, 7iee Noah, the latter a native of Pennsylvania. The 
father Avas a Canadian-Frenchman by nativity, his occupation being 
that of a farmer and carpenter. William was reared upon a farm and 
in 1849 went to Georgia, in company with a cousin of Mrs. Garfield. 
He remained in that State for 20 years, at first engaged in grafting 
fruit trees, but subsequently he turned his attention to the revival of 
the Revolutionary War claims and real estate transactions. Ten years 
were devoted to minins: and to the mercantile business. Since 1869 
Mr. Cole has been a resident of Caldwell county, and he has become 
well known to the people of this community. His success is steady 
and sure. November 15, 1853, his marriage to Miss Nancy N. Park 
was consummated. She was born in Hall county, Ga., and reared in 
Atlanta, her father being Henry Park, Esq. Their family consists 
of six children : Asenith, wife of E. H. Hill ; Eva C, now Mrs. M. V. 
Bray ; William, Perrino, Leticia and Alice. 


(Hamilton) . 

From the biography of every man there may be gleaned some les- 
sons of genuine worth ; for here we discover the secret of his suc- 
cess or failure. In the history of James Cowgill, one of Caldwell 
county's active and progressive citizens, we find much to commend. 
He was born in Henry county, Ind., April 2, 1848, and was the son 
of William and Rhoda (Phillips') Cowgill, of Kentucky and V^'irginia 
nativity respectively. The former was a close applicant to the pur- 
suits of agriculture, and the son in growing on towards manhood was 
taught farming as an occupation. This does not mean simply that he 
learned how to attend to routine duties, but in everything connected 
with the successful conduct of a successful homestead thoroughly 
familiarized himself. The approach and subsequent continuance of 
civil war caused him to lay aside the implements of peace in order to 
take up the weapons of warfare, and in 1864 he became a member of 


the 9th Indiana infantry. Included in the list of battles in which he 
took part might be mentioned two of special importance, Franklin and 
Nashville, besides others of less severity. Upon being mustered out 
at the close of the war, Mr. Cowgill returned home, continuing to re- 
main there until 1^868, when he was induced to come to Caldwell 
county, Mo. He at once identified himself with the more advanced 
farming and stock raising interests of this community, a position 
which he has continued to occupy since that time, and to what extent 
ma}' be inferred when the fact is mentioned that he now owns a landed 
estate of 1,140 acres in Lincoln township. For several years past he 
has given particular attention to the stock business, with the same 
success which has characterized his labors in other directions. In 
1883, in company with Mr. Robert S. Cash, he engaged in merchan- 
dising at Hamilton, a relation which has since been sustained. An 
exhaustive account of the business conducted by this well known estab- 
lishment has been given in the biography of the career of Mr. Cash, 
preceding this, and in this connection let it be remarked that all that has 
been said there relating to the business capacity and popularily of Mr. 
Cash is equally applicable to Mr. Cowgill. In 1882 he was elected 
a member of the county court of Caldwell county, and as a judge his 
course was so marked with diligence, fidelity, fearlessness and integ- 
rity as to make him a great favorite with the bar. In his intercourse 
with the world he is outspoken and frank, discountenancing anything 
of a deceitful nature, unostentatious in manner, but the soul of honor. 
His public-spiritedness has been manifested on more than one occa- 
sion. September 22, 1867, Judge Cowgill took to wife Miss Permelia 
E. Myers, a native of this county. Her father was John Myers, 
Esq., an eflicient and popular ex-sheriff of the county, who was ruth- 
lessly murdered during the war. The Judge and wife have three 
children : Leah Effie, Jessie May and Cora F. Politically he is iden- 
tified with the Democratic party. 


(Farmer aud Stock-raiser, Section 1, Post-office, Hamilton). 

One of the largest landholders in Caldwell county and a young 
man not yet 30 years of age, Mr. Cox has attained to a position in 
the community which one is apt to think belongs only to those older 
in years and experience. But the success which has thus far attended 
his course through life is deservedly bestowed, and none regret the 
circumstances which have tended to bring him forth among the repre- 
sentative men of Caldwell county. Mr. Cox is a worthy son of the 
county, having been born here November 10, 1856. His father was 
numbered with the pioneers of this locality, a man intimately associ- 
ated with the farming and milling interests of the county in the primi- 
tive davs of her growth. James Cox was a Virginian by birth, while 
his wife, whose maiden name was Sallie Brown, came originally from 
Kentucky. Two children of their family are now living. John D. Cox, 
while growing up, passed 10 years with his uncle, Dennis Cox, at Kings- 


ton, iind there acquired the practical knowledge of farming which 
proved to be the foundation of those habits of sterling, industrious farm 
life which have formed a part of his subsequent career. He owns in 
all over DOO acres of land, beautifully adapted to the various purposes 
for which it is used. His improvements upon the home place are 
above the average, and in every particular just suited to the many 
needs of a characteristic homestead. Mr. Cox is a married man, Miss 
Jennie Ford having become his wife January 5, 1879. An interest- 
ing family of two daughters have blessed this union, Nancy and 
Sallie. Mr. Cox gives considerable attention to the stock business. 


(Fanner and Stock-raiser, Section 2, Post-office, Hamilton), 

Mr. Cramblit, a popular and successful agriculturist of this town- 
ship, is a native of Guernsey county, O., where he was born January 
23, 1833. His father was Andrew Cramblit, who, after reaching man- 
hood, took to wife Miss Susan Hawley ; they were both born in Ohio, 
and as enterprising and progressive farmers of that advanced agricul- 
tural community instilled into their son those principles which have 
so marked his career in life. When young he was taken to Muskingum 
county to live with his grandparents, and from that time on for 
many years he either farmed or gave his attention to milling. In 
1881 he left the State of his birth and took up his residence in Mis- 
souri, settling in Caldwell county, on the place which he now occu- 
pies. This embraces a landed estate of 200 acres, upon which are 
substantial improvements and all necessary buildings for the success- 
ful conduct of a good farm. Mr. C. is a married man, his wife having 
formerly been Miss Julia A. Honnold, of Muskingum county, 0.,and 
a daughter of James Honnold, Esq. Her mother's maiden name was 
Elizabeth Roof. Their marriage was consummated in 1849 and to 
them six children have been born : Lida, wife of Rufus Jones ; John 
J., Andrew P., Willie E., Minnie M. and James W. Mr. Cramblit 
is a member of the Methodist Church and also belongs to the A. F. 
and A. M. He was a member of the Federal army during the late war, 
having enlisted August 20, 1862, in the 114th Ohio volunteer infantry 
regiment. He took part in the battles of Chickasaw Bayou, Arkan- 
sas Post, Port Gibson, Champion's Hill, Big Black River Bridge, and 
the sieges of Vicksburg and Blakely, Ala, 


(Retired, Hamilton). 

Perhaps there is no man living in Caldwell county who is as well 
acquainted with its history as Albert G. Davis. Certainly there is no 
man better posted in its affairs from the first, and ever since his settle- 
ment here his one aim seems to have been an individual desire to do 
everything in such a manner that this vicinity would be Ijenetited, 
He it was who laid out the town of Haniilton, and subsequently he 


had charge of the sale of the town lots. For many years he did an 
extensive real estate business, becoming well known in that capacity, 
and he was also interested in merchandising, many of the present resi- 
dents of the county remembering him as one of the early merchants 
here. Hamilton is especially indebted to him for the part he took in 
her growth and improvement, for in devious ways he gave to the out- 
side world a knowledge of the superior advantages afforded to all 
classes in this community. Mr. Davis is now living on his farm of 80 
acres adjoining Hamilton — one of the respected, highly esteemed 
citizens of the county. He is a native of Missouri, having been born 
in Howard county, March 12, 1820. His father was Augustus C. 
Davis, a Virginian by birth, and one of the numl)er who followed 
Daniel Boone's trail to Missouri, his first settlement being made in 
Franklin township, Howard county, where he devoted his after life 
to farming. He was a son of Leonard Davis, the latter a son of Louis 
Cave Davis, who was one of seven sons that emigrated to the United 
States from England. Five of these were killed durinor the first and 
second wars with Great Britain. Augustus Davis departed this life 
in Howard county. Mo., in June, 1837. His wife, whose maiden 
name was Elizabeth ColsonHoUaday, a daughter of Ben Holladay, of 
Kentucky, and on her maternal side a Hami)ton, died in 1855. She 
had borne her husband nine children : Martin H., Augustus Cave, 
Thomas C, Owen S., Sylvester H., Pleasant I., Albert C, Tolbert 
J. and Wade Hampton. It was but natural that Albert G. Davis 
should be taught the rudiments of farm labor in growing up, an occu- 
pation to which he gave his attention afterwards for many years. 
His first visit, if such it could be called, to Caldwell county, was as a 
soldier in the Mormon War, under Gen. John B. Clark, of Howard 
county; but in 1838 he returned home. On April 18, 1846, he again 
came to this county, and has continued to live here, closely identified 
with all its interest. His wife was formerly Miss Julia A. Penney, a 
daughter of Rev. Eli Penney. She was born in Anderson county, Ky. 
To them three children have been born, Mary F., Albert G. and 
Joseph H. It was in 1855 that Mr. Davis turned his attention from 
farming to other pursuits in life, and his career from that time on has 
been noted. His acquaintance extends over a vast territory. 



Harrison L. Deam, a man of no little prominence throughout the 
entire State of Missouri, and now a respected resident of Hamilton, 
owes his nativity to Trov, O., where his birth occurred December 29, 
1837. He was one of six children born to Abra